banner
A dictionary of Mwotlap (Banks Is., Vanuatu)
This dictionary has no finderlist yet. To look up French or English words, open this link (entire dictionary on one page)
or this Pdf version of the dictionary, and search for a string of text [Ctrl+F/Cmd+F].
 

Mtp–Fr–Eng

Mtp–Eng–Fr

Mtp–Fr

Tea–Eng–Fr

Tea–Eng

mwotlap dictionary
Index
a1A
a1B
a2
a-3
a nu-su
a so
aa
A
B
ag
ageA
ageB
Agō
agōh
ak
ak goy
ak magaysēn
ak monog
ak m̄adeg
ak sewsew
ak togyon̄
ak valakas
akē
akmēhtegA
akmēhtegB
akteg
akvisileg
aleA
aleB
alge
alkēt
Alkon
alveg
ami
Amnō
amo
amta~
amtēl
Amwōyig
amyō
am̄ag
am̄eA
am̄eB
Am̄otA
Am̄otB
Am̄sēn
anen
anēyēh
anoy
an̄ēh
an̄qōn̄A
an̄qōn̄B
an̄qōn̄ nēwē
Apnōlap
apol
apwo~
Aqke
aqyig
Asol
at
at kal
at kēlē
at lō
at taqlun̄
at tēqēl
at yak
ate
atgiy
atmētēl
atmi
atmōyō
aveA
aveB
ayme
Ayō
ba1
ba2
ba so
ba wele wo
ba wun?
baēy
baēy lō
bagbaglo
bago
bahA
bahB
bahC
bahD
bah … (en)
bahneA
bahneB
bak
bak yon̄ vagal
baklap
bakolol
bakōs
bal1
bal2
b[a]lakm̄ēt
b[a]las
balbe~
balse~
bastō
batA
batB
baw
be-
bebe
bebes
beg
b[e]he1
Bekyepnō
bel1A
bel1B
bel2
b[e]le2
b[e]le~1
b[e]lebiyA
b[e]lebiyB
b[e]lekatA
b[e]lekatB
bem1
bem2
bem didi
bep
b[e]te
betolol
bey
b{ē}hay
b{ē}lag
1
2
bēl
bēl mem
b[ē]nē~
b[ē]nēmnē~
bēnwar
bēw
bēyih
bia
bigtōw
bin1
bin2
bit
biybiy
b[i]yin̄A
b[i]yin̄B
bo
boelA
boelB
boelC
boelD
bomdete
bomkēn
boy
boyboy
b[o]yoy
boyoy mamah
bōbō
bōg
bōlA
bōlB
bōlōk
bōōt
bōs
bōt
bōtbōt
b[ō]wōy
bōy
bōybōy
bug
b[u]gu~
bul
bulsal
bulsal vogon
bum
bun
bus1
bus2
bus3
busgeg
buste
d[a]hal
damA
damB
dam na-mtehal
dawdaw
day1
day2
d[a]yag
dayday
del
delan̄
deldel
d[e]m̄e
denA
denB
den̄A
den̄B
d[e]n̄eg
den̄hel
den… tiple
d[e]ye~
d{ē}lo~
dēlan̄
dēln̄e~
dēlse~
dēm
dēm liwoA
dēm liwoB
dēm lok
dēm meh
dēm ne-qet
dēm veteg
dēmapA
dēmapB
dēmapC
dēmdēmA
dēmdēmB
dēmdēm hethet
dēn̄1
dēn̄2
dēvet
dēwA
dēwB
d[ē]yē
diAB
didi1
didi2A
didi2B
didin
d[i]lit
din̄
diy1
diy2
dol
dot
doydoy
doydoy goy
1
dōlm̄ele
dōyō
duw1
duw2
egoy
eh
el1
el2
el3
empi
en1
en2
en goy
en hiy
en tō
ep
es
et1
et2
et-3
et liwo
et su
et vēglal
et yak
et yak
ete
etet
etet hethet
etgoy
etgoy liwo
et-misin te
etsas
et-yeh
et-… qete
et-… si te
et-… te
ey2
ē-
ēagōh
ēanen
ēg
ēgēn
ēglalA
ēglalB
ēgōh
ēhA
ēhB
ēhC
ēh lok
ēkal
ēlegA
ēlegB
ēleg goy
ēm̄
ēnen
ēnōk
ēntēl
ēqas
ēqay
ētan
ēteA
ēteB
ētog
ēvet
ēvēp
ēwe~
ēwēA
ēwēB
ēy1
ēy2
ēy-lawlaw
ga1
ga2
ga~2
ga-3
g[a]ban
gadōhō
gagah
gah1
gal1A
gal1B
gal1C
gal1D
gal1E
gal2
gal3
g[a]laA
g[a]laB
galeg
galeg galsi
galgal m̄aya
galgal m̄aya
galingoyA
galingoyB
galsi
gam
gamat
gamatqey
gamlala
gamteg
g[a]nah
ganwon
gap
gap1
gapluwyeg
gapwut
gapyuy
gaqiy
gasel
ga-sēsē
gatakōn̄kōn̄
gatam
gatayA
gatayB
gatgatA
gatgatB
gatgoy
gatqap
gatqēh
gavag
gavan̄
ga-vey
gavilvil
gawol
ga-wow
ga-wuh
gay1
gay2
gay qul goy
g[a]yaq
gayeh
gayētyēt
gayga
gaygay1A
gaygay1B
gaygay2
gayme~
gaymōm
gayte
ge1
ge2
-ge3
geay
geg
geh
g[e]mel
gen1
gen2
gen heylō
gengenA
gengenB
gengenC
gengen vasgēt
gentel
g[e]sew
get1
geyA
geyB
gey hay
g[e]yehA
g[e]yehB
gēl
gēlqaqaA
gēlqaqaB
gēmteg
gēn1
gēn2
gēpne~
gēt1
gēt2
gēt3
g[ē]tē
g[ē]vēg
g[ē]vēg gan tamat
gēy
gēybak
gēymet
-gi
gil
g[i]li~
gin
gin m̄aya
gingin m̄aya
gismamatA
gismamatB
gismamatC
git
gityak
gog
gog
goh
golgol
gomA
gomB
gon1
gon2A
gon2B
gon3
gon goy
gongonA
gongonB
gonteg
gop
goy1
goy2A
goy2B
goy tiwag
goy vētgi
goygoy
g[o]yogyo-
goytig
goytig goy
goyveg
g[ō]bōn
gōgōp
gōh
g[ō]hōw
g[ō]hōwB
g[ō]hōwC
gōm
g[ō]nōm
gōskē
gōyi~
g[ō]yōw
gum
ha
hag1
hag2
hag goy
hag hiy
hag yoy
hag yoy
hagtin̄ goy
hah
hahaA
hahaB
hal1
hal2
hal goy
hal yak
hal yak
h[a]lat
han
han̄
hap2
hap2B
hatig
hatig hag
hawhaw
hay1
hay2
hay3
hay4
hayhay vagal
haytēyēhA
haytēyēhB
haytēyēhC
haytēyēh so
hayveg
he1
he~2
he~3
he hiy
hel
hel bēlag
heleg
helm̄ēt
hepA
hepB
het
hetB
hew1
hew2
hey1
hey2
hey3
hey lō
heyaw
h[e]ye~
h[e]ye-tmat
heylōA
heylōB
heylō hiy
h{ē}lol
h{i}nag

hēgal
h[ē]gēlA
h[ē]gēlB
h[ē]gēl goy
h[ē]gēy
hēlat
h[ē]lēpA
h[ē]lēpB
hēlge
hēmen
hēn
hēnhēn
h[ē]n̄ēn
hēwA
hēwB
hēw goy
hēy
hēywēA
hēywēB
hēywēC
hēywēD
higap
h[i]gi~
higoy
hil
hin̄yeg
hip2
hit
hithit-ep
hiy1A
hiy1B
hiy1C
hiy2
h[i]yi~
h[i]yip
hiyle
hogA
hogB
hoghog goy
hoholeA
hoholeB
hohole legelge
hohole m̄aya
hohōw
hole
hole boyboy
hole goy
hole lō
hole m̄aya
hole siseg
h[o]lo~
h[o]yoA
h[o]yoB
h[o]yoC
1
2A
2B
hōm̄
hōn
hōw
i1
i-2
i-3
igeA
igeB
ige bē-vēnangēn
igni~
ili
ili~
ililA
ililB
il-qōn̄
imamA
imamB
in1
in2
in lō
inin
inm̄eg
inti~
ip1
ip2
iplu~
Iqet
itan
itatA
itatB
itbu~
ithi~
itme~
itōk
itōk vēlēs
ivē~
iyē
iyē geh
-k
kakaA
kakaB
kakaC
kakal
kakamoy
kalA
kalB
kal bat
kal bat
kal lō
kal lō
kalō
kamtēl
kamyō
kasis
kaskas
kay
keh
kemem
ketketA
ketketB
key
keybē
k[e]yen
keykeybeye
k{ē}lan
1
2
3
kēkēn
kēkse~
k[ē]le~A
k[ē]le~B
kēlē
Kēlkēlm̄ōlō
kēmtēl
kēy1
k[ē]yē~
kēytēl
ki
kil1
kis
kofi
kokm̄eg
kokoym̄eg
kom̄a
kon̄
koy
kōlōn̄teg
kōmyō
kōyō
kuap
kumay
kuy
kuy na-mtig
kuykuy vilih
kuykuy-et
kuyqal
lag1
lag2
lahA
lahB
laklak
lal1
lal2
lal matnon
lalm̄eg
laln̄e
lam̄
lam̄heg
lan̄1
lan̄2
lan̄3
lan̄lan̄
lan̄lō
lan̄vēn
laptōA
laptōB
laptōC
laskoy
lat1
lat2
law
lawlawA
lawlawB
lawlawC
le1
le2
le-3
legA
legB
legC
lege
leh1
leh2A
leh2B
leh3A
leh3B
leh3C
leh3D
leh4
Lehalirōp
lel
leleh1A
leleh1B
leleh2
leln̄oln̄o-mtap
le-ln̄oln̄o-mtap
lelo
le-lo
lemA
lemB
lemtap
le-mtap qōn̄qōn̄
le-mtap qōn̄qōn̄
lemyayawoy
lemyēpyep
l[e]m̄eh
le-ngo sil
len̄1
len̄2
l[e]n̄e~
lepA
lepB
lep bat
lep hiy
lep kal
lep lok
lep lō
lep m̄ōl
lep na-mtehal
lep na-mtehal
lep nē-dēmdēm
lep qōtō
lep tēqēl
lep vasgēt
lep vasgēt
lep yak
lep yak
leplep m̄ey
les1
les2
letkelo
le-tno etet vōvōyō
l{ē}wo~
l{i}woA
l{i}woB
l{i}woC
l{i}wo goy
1
2
lēg
l[ē]gē
lē-kēkse~
lēlēge
lēlwomyen
lēlwomyen til
lēm̄lēm̄ nēbē
lēn̄
lēn̄asA
lēn̄asB
lēn̄teg
lēs1
lēs2
lēs na-tmat
lēt1
lēt2
lēt3
lētes
lē-vētne qōn̄
lēw1
lēw2
lēw3
lēw4
lēwomyen
lik
lin̄
lo1
lo~2
lok1A
lok1B
lok2
lok3
lok goy
lok seA
lok seB
lokveg
lol-2
lolmeyen
loloh
lolos
lolqōn̄
lom
loyoy
1
2
lōlhiy
lōlō
lōmgep
lōn̄vegA
lōn̄vegB
lōp
l[ō]qōvēn
lōs
lōslōs
lōwlō
l[u]kun
luw
luw goy
luwyegA
luwyegB
ma~
madap
m[a]day
mag
m[a]gaysēnA
m[a]gaysēnB
m[a]gaysēnC
m[a]gaysēnD
magmaghē et
magtō1
magtō2
magvan
mah
m[a]hay
mahet
mahē
mahē qōn̄
mahgē~
makōh
mal2
m[a]la
m[a]laklak
m[a]lala
m[a]law
maley
malēlē
malēn̄
malhey
mali~
mali m̄agas
mali n̄ey
mali n̄eyda
mali n̄eydi
malig
malmal
malmali bēlag
malnoqoA
malnoqoB
malqon
malsas
maltē
maltow
malun̄
maluw
mal… tō
mamakē
mamasēg
mamot
-mamtēl
-mamyō
man1
man2
manig
manman
man̄an
Man̄go2
man̄go1
map
mas
matA
matB
matC
mat
mat m̄ōl
m[a]ta
matag
m[a]tam̄eA
m[a]tam̄eB
m[a]tam̄eC
m[a]tapA
m[a]tapB
matbē
matmat
matmayge
matmēl
matvēvē
matwēt
matyak
mawē
mawlō~
may1
may2
m[a]ya
m[a]yam
mayanag bē-vētan
mayap
maygayA
maygayB
mayham
maymay
mayok
mE-3
me1
me2
mehA
mehB
m[e]leh
melmel
memA
memB
-mem
memehA
memehB
memehC
memehD
men1
men1
men2
men qōn
men tagde
men te-le-lam
men titikey
men wēwlal
men wōvēl
men yan̄yan̄qōn
m[e]ne~
menteq
met1
met2
met3
m[e]te1
m[e]te~2
m[e]te-3
m[e]tehal
metehal
m[e]telo
m[e]temte~
metemten
m[e]tetē~
m[e]tevu~
m[e]tewotA
m[e]tewotB
m[e]tewōl
mey1
mey2
mey3
mey ave
mey vitwag
m[e]yenA
m[e]yenB
m[e]yen̄1
m[e]yen̄2A
m[e]yen̄2B
m[e]yeyen
mE-… tō
m[ē]lē
m[ē]lēgA
m[ē]lēgB
m[ē]lēglēg
m[ē]lēglēgB
m[ē]lēt
mēlmēlgepnō
mēn
m[ē]nayA
m[ē]nayB
m[ē]nayC
mēne~
m[ē]nēg
mēs
m[ē]tēgtap
m[ē]tēgteg
m[ē]tēgtegB
-mētēl
m[ē]tot
m[ē]yēmyēn̄
m[ē]yēp
m[ē]yēpyep
m[ē]yēpyēp
mi1
-mi2
m[i]lin̄
minista
mino
m[i]sinA
m[i]sinB
m[i]tig
m[i]tiy
m[i]tiy goy
mitiy taq
mitiy tiwag
m[i]vinvin
m[i]yo~
m[o]koko
mokyes
momya
momyiyA
momyiyB
m[o]nogA
m[o]nogB
m[o]tow2
m[o]wotwot
m[o]woy1A
m[o]woy1B
m[o]woy2
moyu~
m[ō]dō
mōkhe~
mōkhegA
mōkhegB
mōkheg goy
mōkhegwēl
mōkmōk-qo
mōmō
mōmōg
mōrsurqōn̄
m[ō]tō
mōy1
mōy2A
mōy2B
mōy2C
-mōyō
m[ō]yōmyōs
m[ō]yōs
m[ō]yōsB
m[ō]yōsC
mōyvililA
mōyvililB
mu~A
mu~B
m[u]lumlum
mun
m[u]tuw
m[u]wumwuA
m[u]wumwuB
m[u]wumwuteg
m[u]yuw
m̄adeg
m̄[a]gaga
m̄[a]gas
m̄agde
m̄ah
m̄[a]ha
m̄ak
m̄[a]lak
m̄alkuyvet
m̄alm̄al
m̄am̄le
m̄at
m̄[a]tak
m̄ay
m̄[a]yaA
m̄[a]yaB
m̄[a]yaC
m̄[a]yayay
m̄e
m̄[e]key
m̄el1
m̄eldēl
m̄[e]le
m̄[e]le gan Qet
m̄ey1
m̄ey2
m̄ey3
m̄[e]ye
m̄[e]ye-sēmA
m̄[e]ye-sēmB
m̄ēl
m̄[ē]lēgleg
m̄ēt1A
m̄ēt1B
m̄ēt2
m̄ētm̄ēt
m̄[ē]yē
M̄ēyig
m̄[i]lig
m̄[i]si
m̄[i]yiyi
m̄olm̄olA
m̄olm̄olB
m̄olm̄olC
m̄on
m̄on goy
M̄otlapA
M̄otlapB
M̄otlapC
m̄oto
m̄oyas
m̄ōlA
m̄ōlB
m̄ōlegA
m̄ōlegB
m̄ōlegC
m̄ōlhiy
m̄[ō]lō
m̄ōlwoy
-n
nA-
na-Pnōlap
na-bago bēlag
na-bago gamgam
na-bago heyhey
na-bago keleklen
na-bago maltē
na-bago mitimtiy
na-bago n̄itn̄it
na-bago qagqag
na-bago qētqoqo
na-bago qoyqoy
na-bago tog
na-bago tuytuy
na-bago vōkvōk
na-bago womtan wenwen
na-bago woswos
na-bago wōwō
na-bago yutyut
na-baklap
na-baknin
na-bakqo
na-balbal tele
na-balbe gētē
na-balbe gētē tekelgi
na-balbe tilig
na-balbe tilig
na-baw lawlaw
na-baw yotlēs
na-baw yo-tlēs
na-duw mēlēglēg
na-duw n̄oyn̄oy
na-duw wōn̄ēlmet
na-gal ne (N)
na-gamat din̄din̄
na-gamat wenwen
na-gasel munmun
na-gasel munmun
na-gasel su
na-gayga non Ham
na-gaygay wōn̄ēlmet
nage
n-age bo-totgal
n-age leplep hohole
n-age leplep yoy
n-age te-
n-age vakvak
n-age voyopyot (qētēnge)
na-gop qagqag
na-gōgōp mēlēmlēg
nagōm su mōy!
na-gtē teteh
na-gtē tē-hēyēt
na-gyogyo ganah
na-gyogyo hōm̄
na-gyogyo-duw
na-han̄ wōbēyih
na-han̄ yogyēn
na-han̄-m̄ēt
na-hap del
na-hlat me
na-hlat te-le-naw
na-kaka t-am̄ag
na-kyen lawlaw
na-lan̄ tanō
na-ln̄e dēmap
na-ln̄e yon̄teg
na-ln̄e yon̄teg
na-lo tighiy
na-mag busbus
na-mag non na-m̄ay
na-mag qeyet
na-mali dō
na-malmali ey
na-malmali ēm̄
na-malmali mōmōg
na-mayham t-ale
na-mlas qo
namnan
na-mte vit
na-mte-ēm̄
na-mte-ge law
na-mte-hal
na-mtehal ne wōl
na-mte-len̄
na-mte-mnēg
na-mtemte yek
na-mte-m̄lō
na-mte-tē~
na-mte-tmat
na-mte-vu~
na-mwōy mēs
na-mwōy mēs
na-mya bē
na-mya bēlag
na-mya dahal
na-mya hōyē
na-mya lawlaw
na-mya mot
na-mya nigiy
na-mya qo
na-mya yoqet
na-m̄lig heyhey
nan
na-nay akak-ēm̄
na-nay bē-tog
na-nay meyen̄
na-nay qōnqōn
na-nay togtil
na-nay togtil
na-nay wuswōm̄el
nanm̄e
na-nyag togle
na-nye tele
na-nye tele
na-n̄ye qēt-ok
na-n̄ye tete
na-n̄yen̄ye mēs
na-psis-gon
na-ptel men
na-ptel Samo
na-ptel wōwō
na-qtēg bēnē ~
na-qyo bē
na-sansan-sis
na-sas namalsas
na-sas qētwawah
na-sas visis-yap-m̄ēt
na-skey wōn̄ēlmet
na-sn̄ēt lawlaw
na-tataqnet susu
na-tkol tē-vēthiyle
na-tle siysiyveg qētēnge
na-tlēs m̄alm̄al
na-tno haghag
na-tno liwo
na-tno mitiy
na-tno muwumwu
na-tno n̄itn̄it
na-tno n̄itn̄it
na-tno plēn
na-tno ququleg
na-tno siseg
na-tno tamge
na-tno tigtig
na-Tno Tog qōn̄
na-tno vēyhe
na-tno waha
na-tqal lawlaw
na-tqal qētmaymay
na-tqal vet
na-tval-ēm̄
na-tval-le
na-tweh dedel
na-tweh dēn̄ēy
na-tweh hephep
na-tweh mitig
na-tweh qōnqōn
na-tweh tēnge non Legtis
na-tyah-gon
na-tyeh bem
na-va tele
na-va yayah
na-vag bēlag
na-vag yēdēp
na-vay ninih
nawA
nawB
nawC
nay1
nay2
-ndō
nE-
-negi
n-eh liwo
n-eh qētqētlen̄
n-eh qētqētlen̄
n-eh stirin̄ban
ne-het so
ne-le ēwē
ne-le higoy
ne-le vētleg
ne-leleh lawlaw
nem2
ne-men gapgap
ne-men wēwlal tē-vēthiyle
ne-met yak
ne-met-sis
ne-mgaysēn!
nen
n-et liwo
ne-Vet Men Tagde
n-ep yayah
ne-ses matwon
ne-ses tē-hēyēt
net
n-et be-phah
n-et bo-towtow-eh
n-et b-ōlōl
n-et hewhew
n-et tēytēy tēnge
n-et vitwag
nethap
netnet
ne-vel wēl
ne-vet susu
ne-vet wiyiwyiy ga
ne-vey lawlaw
ne-vey naglon m̄am̄al
ne-vey qeyet
ne-vey wōwō
n-ey lam
n-ey lawlaw
n-ey wōn̄ēlmet
ne-yek bē
nē-bē maymay
nē-bē qōnqōn
nē-bē sewsew
nē-bē sewsew
nē-dēln̄e gōhōw
n-ēg lawlaw
n-ēg met
n-ēg m̄al
n-ēg te-Ben̄yeteh
nē-gēt n̄oyn̄oy
nē-hēn mōkō
nē-hgē-n vētēl
nē-hgē-n vēvet
nēk
n-ēleg gal
nē-lwo gayme~
nē-lwo gayme ~
nē-mēn map
nē-mēn m̄ah
nē-mēs vōlōplōl
n-ēm̄ gom
n-ēm̄ kap
n-ēm̄ kuk
n-ēm̄ qos
n-ēm̄ su
n-ēm̄ wēlwēl
n-ēm̄ wēlwēl
n-ēm̄ yon̄
n-ēm̄ yoqyoq
n-ēm̄ yot
nē-m̄ēt won
nē-qēt-gogoh
nē-qēthōn gal
nē-sēm ti-mi-gēn
nēte
n-ēte-vēy
nē-tētēleg-hay
nētge
nētm̄ey
nē-vētan qagqag
n-ēwe lolmeyen
-ngēn
ni-
ni-git vey
nihA
nihB
n-in gon
n-in lap
n-in wey
n-in yig
nintigi
ni-n̄i mitig
ni-n̄i motow
ni-n̄i m̄el
ni-n̄i wōh
ni-til adan
ni-tiy bele
ni-tiy kē
ni-tli betolol
nitog
ni-vin-gogoh
ni-vinvin n̄eye~
no1
no~2
n[o]go~
nogolgē
no-hohole non Iqet
no-hohole non Iqet
no-hohole vēyvēy
nok
no-koy sēyēsyē
no-momyiy gom
non ige qagqag
no-qo na-gōm
no-qolqol qagqag
no-soso-gal
no-sosowolō ne ēm̄
no-towtow eh
nowmat
no-yogalēp ne m̄e
no-yom̄-gengen
no-yom̄-yukyuk
no-yosaltam̄ey
nōk
nōnōk
nō-Qōn̄ Lēn
nō-Qōn̄ Liwo
nō-qōn̄ mete
nō-Qōn̄ M̄ōl-kal
nō-wōl ni-hn̄ēn won
nō-wōl ni-tqetqe-qo
nō-wōl ni-tqetqe-qo lok
nō-wōl togyow
nō-wōl wehey
nō-wōl wonwon
nō-wōl (na-)gayte-gi
nō-wōm̄ēl sekeske
nō-wōy gengen
Nōybaybay
-ntēl
nu-duw t-Avap
nu-n̄yun̄yu qo
nu-qug qētmaymay
nu-qul liwo
nu-qul motow
nu-qul n̄ey
nu-qul n̄ey
nu-qul n̄ē
nu-suk na-ma-n bōlōk
nu-tutu tuytuy
nu-vu het
nuy
n̄an
n̄aymeyen
n̄ey
n̄eyda
n̄eydi
n̄[e]ye1
n̄[e]ye~2
n̄[e]yeg
n̄[e]yen̄ye~
n̄eyn̄ey
n̄ē
n̄ēhA
n̄ēhB
n̄ēhlaw
n̄ēlmet
n̄ēy
n̄[ē]yēh1
n̄[ē]yēh1B
n̄[ē]yēh2
n̄i
n̄[i]li~
n̄it
n̄oyhey
n̄oyn̄oy
n̄[u]yun̄yu~
oel
ok
ol
ololA
ololB
ololC
on
op
ow
oytitin
oyveg
ō1A
ō1B
ō2
ōē goy
ōk
ōl1A
ōl1B
ōl taw
ōl vayēg
ōl vēyvēy
ōlōl
ōy
ōyēh
ōyheg
ōynem
q[a]gal
q[a]gay
qagqag
qalA
qalB
qalC
qalD
qal goy
qal mat
qaqaA
qaqaB
qaqay
qaqaye~
qas
qasbōl
q[a]tag
qay
q[a]yan̄
qe
qe1
qe so
qele
qele ave
qele gēn
qele kē
q[e]len̄A
q[e]len̄B
qen
q[e]neg
qentala
q[e]se~
qet1
qet2
qete
qey1
qey2A
qey2B
qey2C
q[e]yet
q[ē]lēgA
q[ē]lēgB
q[ē]lēgC
qēlge~
qēqēl
qēsdi
qēt1A
qēt1B
qēt-2
qēt-3
qētah
qētbuhu~
q[ē]tēgA
q[ē]tēgB
q[ē]tēgC
q[ē]tēgD
qētēgok
qētēnge
q[ē]tēqtēg
qēt-hay
qēthēlēn̄A
qēthēlēn̄B
qēthi~
qēt-hiyi~
qēt-lam̄lam̄-n̄ey
qēt-lap
qētlaw
qētlen̄
qēt-maymay
qēt-meh
qēt-men
qētqētmuhu
qētqoqo
qētsew
qēt-yayah-sēm
q[ē]yēn̄i
q[ē]yēt
q[i]gi~
q[i]ti~
qiyig1A
qiyig1B
-qiyig2
qo
qog
qok lō
qol
qolqol
qon
qonqon
qoqo
qotmet
qoy1A
qoy1B
qoy2
qoy bēl
qoy mem
qoyo1
q[o]yo~2
qoyo … tō
q[o]yoh
qoyqoyA
qoyqoyB
qoywon
qōnA
qōnB
qōnqōnA
qōnqōnB
qōn̄A
qōn̄B
qōn̄C
qōn̄ goy
Qōn̄ Liviyō
qōn̄ liviyō
qōn̄ mete
qōn̄ tēvēlēm
qōn̄ vētēl
qōn̄ vēvet
qōn̄ vitwag
qōn̄ vōyō
qōn̄lēt
qōn̄qōn̄
qōn̄qōn̄lo
qōn̄wotwot
qōqō
qōs
qōs2
qōtō
qōy
qōysē
qu~
qug
qulA
qulB
qul goy
qul tiwag
quln̄iA
quln̄iB
qulqulA
qulqulB
qulqulC
qulqul leh
quq
quqay
ququlegA
ququlegB
raes
rapA
rapB
redio
s[a]gay
sagyet
saklō
sal
sal goy
salak-1
s[a]lak2
salak-yō
saltam̄ey
saltam̄ey lawlaw
saltam̄ey qagqag
salwolwol
sam
samsam
s[a]m̄alA
s[a]n̄an
saq
sas1
sas2
sas3
se1
se2
se3A
se3B
se lō
se m̄ēt
se yak
s[e]key
s[e]leslen̄
s[e]n̄ey
ses
sewA
sewB
sewC
sey1A
sey1B
sey2
sey3A
sey3B
seyap
s[e]yew
seylō
sēg
so nethap
s{i}lat
s{i}latēmē
s{i}men
sēm1
sēmsēmteg wōm̄ēl
sēmteg
s[ē]n̄ēt2
sēsē
sēsēywum
sēysal
si
s[i]di~
s[i]gig
sil1
sil2A
sil2B
sil3
sili
siok
sis1
sis2
sis3
sis4A
sis4B
sis den
sis mete~
sis mete qo
siseg
sisegB
sisegC
sisegD
sisgoy
sisivi
sisiyA
sisiyB
sisqet
sisqet (a)gōh
s[i]yip
so1
so2A
so2B
so2C
so2D
so2E
so tateh
so (ni-)
sok
sokB
soldun̄
s[o]lotegA
s[o]lotegB
solyak
son̄wul
soso
sosol
sosol
sosowolō
sotel
sowo
soy
s{i}to
s[ō]bōy
sōl
sōlsōlA
sōlsōlB
sōn̄teg
sōsōn̄teg
sōwlē
sōwō1
s[ō]wō~2
sōyteg
strin̄
su1
su2
suk
s[u]kul
sumsum
susuA
susuB
susuy
suvay-
suw
suwA
suwB
suw met
suwsuwA
suwsuwB
s[u]wuy
suwyeg
t[a]hathap
t-ak vēh
takle in gon
taktak
talōw
tam1
tam2
tam luwyeg
t[a]malte
t[a]mat
t[a]mat-tēq
t[a]mat-woh
t[a]mayge
tamtam
t-am̄ag
t[a]m̄an
tam̄yeg
tan̄
tan̄ goy
tan̄ goy nogolgē
tan̄del
tan̄tan̄ hephep
taple
tapsey
taptap
taqA
taqB
taq bat
taq goy
taq hiy
t[a]qal2
taqat
taqēs
taqlēn̄lēn̄
taqlun̄A
taqlun̄B
taqn̄ē~
taqtaq
t[a]rak
tasgoyok
tatagA
tatagB
tatag goy
tatag na-myōs
tatal
tatal tēy
tatapsey
tataqnet
tateh
tateh qete
taval-A
taval-B
taval-C
taval he~
taval lam
taval mayam
taval meyen
taval qōn̄
taval qōn̄
tavalgi… tavalgi
t[a]wal
tawhi~
Tawlil
tay1
tay2
tay yak
t[a]yahA
t[a]yahB
t[a]yahC
tayak
t[a]yaymōt
taybē~
tE-3
tE-4
te1
te2
te-le-naw
te-M̄sēn
te-Pnōlap
t[e]bey
tege
t[e]gey
t[e]geygey
teghaA
teghaB
teh
tekel
t[e]le
telen̄len̄
t[e]nepnōA
t[e]nepnōB
t[e]no~
t[e]n̄e~
t[e]n̄etn̄e duw
teq
teqe
t[e]qe~
t[e]qetqe~
t[e]qetqe-qo
t[e]qey
tes
tetetwol
t[e]veg
t[e]velgi
t[e]weh
t[e]wen
tey3
t[e]yeh1
te-Yō
tE-… qiyig
tE-… tō
t{ē}na
t{ē}nas
t{ē}ne~
t{ē}yag
1
tē~2
t[ē]bē
t[ē]bēbē
tēgētgē
tēgvōnō
tēhēl
tēl
tēleg
t[ē]lēh
t[ē]lēs
Tēlmitig
tēnetne qōn̄
tēnge
tēnge liwo
tēnge met
tēn̄ten̄
tēqA
tēqB
t[ē]qē
t[ē]qēlA
t[ē]qēlB
t[ē]qēlhe~
t[ē]qēy
tēqtēq qeyet
tēsol
tēt
tēte~
tētē1
tētē2
tētēnge qon
tēvēlēm
tēvēlyō
t[ē]wē
t[ē]wēhin̄
t[ē]wēhqalat
t[ē]wētis
tēy
tēyB
tēy goy
tēy maymay
tēy na-tmat
tēy qōtō
tēymat
tēymatB
tēytēy tele
tēytēy-bē
tēytēyheg t-Anm̄ēt
tēytēy-ō
ti1
ti2
tig1
tig1B
tig2
tig goy
tig hiy
tig lō
tig m̄agA
tig m̄agB
tig na-mtehal
tigtig-day
tigtig-hal
tigyeg
til1A
til1B
til2
til3
til4
til5
til6
t[i]li~
t[i]lig
ti-mi-gēn
tin1
tinignig
tin̄
tiok
tiqyo
t[i]sis
tit
tit mem
titaA
titaB
titamas
titeg
titi
tititol
t[i]vig
tiwagA
tiwagB
tiwag mē
tiwag mi
tiy1A
tiy1B
tiy2
tiyge
tiytiy
tiy… yeh
tog1A
tog1B
tog2
tog3
tog4
tog mi na-tqa-n
tog qōn̄
t[o]gotgoA
t[o]gotgoB
togtil
togtō
togyon̄
tokel
t[o]kol
tokosm̄eg
tol
tomag
tomtak
ton̄ton̄
tot
tot gal
tot lat
tot woy
tot yak
tot yuw
totgalA
totgalB
tot-matap
toto
totogyegA
totogyegB
totot
t[o]wolA
t[o]wolB
t[o]wotwos
t[o]woyigA
t[o]woyigB
towtow
toy
toyak
t[o]yo
1
2A
2B
3
4
tōap
tōh
t[ō]qō
tōqōn̄
t[ō]qōtqōs
t[ō]qōyon̄
tōti~A
tōti~B
tōti qēthiyi~
tōtō
tōw
tōy
t[ō]yōp
t[u]kuk
t[u]qul
tusu
tutu
tuw
tuw bōt
t[u]wuh
tuytuy
ukēg
va
vaēh
vag1
vag-2
vaga1
v[a]gal
v[a]gapgal
vagvag-tiwag
vahA
vahB
vahC
v[a]hah
vahn̄ēt
vahyeg
vakA
vakB
v[a]kasteg
vakasteg lok
vakse~
val
v[a]lag
valag hiy
v[a]lakasA
v[a]lakasB
valeh
valhiqōqō
valme
vam
van1A
van1B
van hiy
van me
vanvan
vaot
vapA
vapB
vap bat
vap goy
vap m̄ēt
vap t-am̄ag
vasawyeg
vasem
vasem lō
vasgēt
vasuwyon̄
vasuwyon̄B
vatagA
vatagB
vatagC
v[a]tah
vatgoA
vatgoB
vatgoC
vatiqaw
vatiqaw hiy
vatneA
vatneB
vatqepA
vatqepB
vava
vay1A
vay1B
vay2
vay3
vay ne-qet
vayēg
ve
vegA
vegB
vegC
veg so
vege
veg… taple
vek
vel2
vel-1
vel qōn̄
v[e]le~
velqōn̄A
velqōn̄B
v[e]ne
vet1
vet2
vet3
v[e]tegA
v[e]tegB
v[e]tel
vey1
vey2
vey3
v[e]yet
1
vē-2
v[ē]dēl
v[ē]gēlA
v[ē]gēlB
vēgih
vēglalA
vēglalB
vēh
vēh2
vēhbeg
vēhgeA
vēhgeB
vēhgi
vēhiyA
vēhiyB
vēl1A
vēl1B
vēl2
vēl sey
vēl tiwag
vēl yak
vēl yakyak
vēlēgē
vēlēlēy
vēlēs1A
vēlēs1B
vēlēs1C
v[ē]lēs2
vēlēs wē vēlēs
vēli
vēlvēl2
vēlwoyA
vēlwoyB
vēlwoyC
vēne~
vēn̄1
vēn̄2A
vēn̄2B
vēn̄ goy
vēn̄vēn̄
vēp
vēsn̄ēt
vētan
vētgiA
vētgiB
vētleg
vētlin̄
vētne~A
vētne~B
vētne mahē
vētōy
vētqap
vēvēgA
vēvēgB
vēvēh
vēwē
vēy1
vēy-2
v[ē]yē
v[ē]yēyag
vēyhe
vēyleh
vēyn̄ihA
vēyn̄ihB
vēyn̄it
vēysas
vēytititA
vēytititB
vēy-valeh
vēyvēy
v[i]din
viho
v[i]ligA
v[i]ligB
v[i]ligC
v[i]lih
vin
vingey
vinhe
v[i]ni~
vinlah
vis
v[i]si~
v[i]sipteg
v[i]sisA
v[i]sisB
vit
vitwagA
vitwagB
vitwag se
v[o]do
vohog
v[o]nog
v[o]n̄on
vot
v[o]tog
v[o]yoh
v[o]yot
v[o]yoy
v[ō]lōl
v[ō]lōl goy
v[ō]lōplōl
vōlvōl
v[ō]nō
vōy2
vōyō
vōyōnegi
vu
v[u]luA
v[u]luB
v[u]lu goy
Vuyes
wakA
wakB
wakōl
waksē
w[a]laglē
w[a]lakA
w[a]lakB
w[a]lawlē
walēg
wan̄
w[a]tag
waw
wawsē
w[e]hey
wel
welan
wele
wentiy
w[e]seg
w[e]yeh
w{ē}lem
w{ē}ti~

wēh
w[ē]hēyA
w[ē]hēyB
wēl
wēl
wēl na-lqōvēn
wēl na-tmat
w[ē]lēwlēs
wēlwēl tagde
wēmlagA
wēmlagB
Wēmut
Wētamat
w[ē]tē
wēy
wēydēs
w[ē]yēt
wēywēy
wik
w[i]nignig
w[i]n̄i~
wis
wistaban
w[i]yis
w[i]yiwyiy1
w[i]yiwyiy2
wo
woden̄den̄
woh1
woh2
woh lō
wolap
wolat
wolkokon̄ay
wolwolA
wolwolB
wom lewlew
womlōw
womtelo
womtigtig
womwōywōy
wom̄akm̄ak
wom̄elm̄el
won1A
won1B
won2A
won2B
won2C
wonatnat
won-eh
wonn̄eg
wonwon1
wonwon2A
wonwon2B
wonyeg
won̄ey
won̄oln̄ol
Wopnō
wopyak
wosA
wosB
wos na-lgē
wosdi
wos-lēgē
wot1
wot2
wot3
wot4
wot lō
wotdon̄don̄
wothap
wotva
wotwotm̄ag
wotwotm̄ag goy
wow1
wow2
wow yak hag
woy1
woy2
woy3
woyoy
w{u}met
1
2
wō-3
wōgtag
wōh
wōhōwye
wōit
wōkōl
wōl1
wōl2
wōl3A
wōl3B
wōlan̄
wōlēlē
wōlōmgep
wōmn̄as
wōm̄ēl
wōnuy mitig
wōqA
wōqB
wōqōl
wōsēm
wōswōs
wōtēq
wō-tēt
wōtiltil
wōtwōtA
wōtwōtB
wōw
wōwō
wōy1
wōy2
wōy3
wōyō
wu
wuhA
wuhB
wuh mat
wun
wut1
wut2
wut kal
wuy2
wuywuy bēlag
-y
ya-
yakA
yakB
yakC
yan̄
yan̄yan̄
yap1
yap2
yapn̄ēh
yapyap
yatkelA
yatkelB
yatkel qōn̄
yavegA
yavegB
yay1
ye1
ye2
ye yak
Yebek
Yebek weyewyeh
yeg
yeghuquy
yeh1A
yeh1B
yeh2
yek
yemA
yemB
y[e]m̄e
yen̄
y[e]n̄e
y[e]n̄es
yes2
yewyew
yeyey
1
yēdēp
yēg
yēnet
yēn̄
yēpyep
yētyēt
y[ē]wē
yēyē
yim
yipA
yipB
yipyip
yo~1
yo-2
yobem
yobē
yogalēp
yogam̄taqlap
yoge
yogehmyaw
yohē
yoluk
yo-mlele
yomlēs
yomn̄as
yo-mtētēl
yom̄-
yom̄lak
yom̄oyas
yom̄taqgaga
yon̄1
yon̄2A
yon̄2B
-yon̄2A
-yon̄2B
yon̄ vavaleh
yon̄ vavaleh
yon̄-eh
y[o]n̄o1
y[o]n̄o~2
yon̄tegA
yon̄tegB
yon̄teg vēglal
yoq
yoq goy
yo-qēyqēy
yosaltam̄ey
yosvegA
yosvegB
yot
yotelel
yo-teptep
yova
yovel
yow1
yow2
yow hag
yow taq
yow taq goy
yow veteg
yoweg
yoweg goy
yowow
yoy1
yoy2
yoyo~
yoyon̄A
yoyon̄B
yoywē
1
2
-yō3
yōel
yōpdēge
yōōy
yōs
yōs tō
yōs yoyon̄
yōstiwagA
yōstiwagB
yōtyōt
yōvōg
yōwismat
-ytēl
yum
y[u]wu
-(m)
(ni-)… tō
a1   [a] sub.

(1) ⦗between two clauses⦘ subordinator binding the truth values of two clauses: (P1) such that (P2), (P1) while (P2)….

Kimi me-lep nē-sēm a et-vēhge te no.
You took the money without asking me. [lit. … and you didn't ask me]

(2) ⦗between subject and verb⦘ as (P), while (P).

a ni-hig qal van e, na-hō ni-hōhō.
As soon as her finger touched it, smoke came out of it.

(3) ⦗depending on a noun⦘ relativiser, introducing a relative clause.

Syn: mey a

Syn: mey

n-eh a kēy laklak aē en
the song on which they are dancing

(4) ⦗between two NPs⦘ that is, I mean. Synt. In principle, the noun phrase that follows a may be understood as a predicate, in which case a should be analysed as a subordinator (“X, which is N”).

a so ‘c'est-à-dire’

Ēgnōn Jon, a Anē en.
John's wife, (I mean) Annie.

Na-magtō vitwag a bōbō nonon nō-lōmgep en, a ēplōn na-mya en, kē wo “Eeey!”
An old lady, (who was) the grandmother of the boy – (I mean) of the eel’s friend – suddenly said “Heey!”

(5) ⦗Pred.1 a Pred.1⦘ intensifier construction: lit. ‘(large) that is (large)’, i.e. ‘very (large)’.

Kēy nō-tōy vel qōn̄: na-wawah a na-wawah.

(6) ⦗cleft construction⦘ focus marker, preceding the background clause in a cleft construction, e.g. Pred in “it was X (the one) who Pred”. Synt. Such sentences are complex: the sentence-initial element forms the main clause, and a introduces a subordinate (relative) clause. The latter is typically marked as definite with deictic en.

a1   ptc. focus marker, introducing the focal or foreground phrase in a sentence.

Ros a ete magtō agōh.
Rose is this lady.
a2   ptc. optional focus particle introducing a locative phrase (spatial or temporal). Often lengthened [aːː] and/or repeated between each constituent within the locative phrase.

Nē-vētbē vōyō en tō {a antan} {a le-lo siok en}.
There are two bamboo bottles down there, inside the boat.

Kēy tig tō a apwo a– na-mya bē liwo en!
They were actually standing on the giant eel!

Ne-leg {a lō-qōn̄ tēvēlēm an̄qōn̄ en}.
⟨predicate locative⟩ The wedding [will take place] on Friday night.
a-3   pf. vestigial prefix found accreted on many place names and locatives, whether spatial or temporal.

Apnōlap
Vanua Lava

Agō
Gaua

Aqke
Qakea island

Aya
Rah island

Aplōw
Valuwa, Volow

alge
above, in the sky

antan
below, on the ground

ale
on the shore

am̄ag
in front, before

atgiy
behind, afterwards

anoy
yesterday

aqyig
earlier today
a nu-su  expr. (do V) in small quantities, not for long, a little. Restrictive for verbs.

su [1]

Syn: tusu

Nok mitiy ēwē a nu-su.
I'll just sleep for a little while. [lit. sleep that is small]

Nēk in ēwē a nu-su!
Just take a sip [lit. drink just what's small].
a so  conj. as such....

so [2D]

a so

aa  [] intj. <Disc> discourse particle.

Ēgnōn Jon, a Anē en aa ?
John's wife, Annie, you see?

Nēk van veteg N̄eye Mētēgtap ; van nen, van hag me Gilgeg Naqyēn̄ en aa ? Bas anen !

N-et vitwag a– mi gēn gōh en aa, kē n-ēh laptō!

Ba ne-leg a lō-qōn̄ tēvēlēm an̄qōn̄ en, aa? Tō la-yavēg, kōmyō m̄ōl lok me hiy no, aa?
  [aˈɪ] loc. there; by or with or on… it. Anaphoric adverb with non-human reference, used for oblique syntactic functions.

(1) there. Locative anaphoric (see preposition le-).

No mal van te muk aē.
I've already been there.

na-tamge a kōyō hag tō aē en
⟨relative clause⟩ the mat they're both sitting on [lit. the mat that they are sitting on it]

(2) with it. Instrumental anaphoric (see preposition mi). Note. Mwotlap has no verb ‘use’, and employs structures with instead: Nu-qul gōh, nok so suwsuw aē. I'm going to use that lamp for my shower [ax:lit. I'll take my shower {fs:with it]}.

Nēk so akteg aē?
What do you want to do with it?

No-wotva, am̄ag, kēy ha na-naw aē.
A long time ago, calabashes were used to draw water from the sea. [lit. Calabashes, before, they would draw salt water with them]

nē-qētēnge a kēy mu-wuh tō no aē en
⟨relative clause⟩ the stick with which they hit me [lit. stick that they hit me with it]

n-eh a kēy laklak aē en
the song on which they are dancing [song they're dancing with it]

(3) because of it, for this reason. Causal anaphoric (see preposition be-).

No m-ak sisgoy nu-qul, tō imam mo-boel aē.
I dropped the lamp, which made my father angry [lit. and dad got angry for that].

Na-ga ni-wuh nēk en, tō ni-qti-ge ni-m̄ōlm̄ōl aē.
When the kava makes you drunk, your head swims [because of that].

(4) about it, to it. Used for various oblique adverbial phrases. If the oblique complement includes a noun phrase, the prepositions that correspond to this usage of are be-2 or le-3.

Nitog dēmdēm van aē.
Don't think too much about it.

Tita mal higoy kōmyō aē.
Mum had already forbidden that to you.

N-eh mal tenenen van aē.
The song is well adapted {to it} (to the music).

Yē ma-vatne nēk aē?
Who taught you that [lit. about that]?
  préd. be there; exist, there is. Etym. Corresponds to the use of the anaphoric adverb in predicate position. This constitutes an invariant predicate, which cannot be inflected for TAM (excepted with Complete aspect mal and Preterite ).

Ant: tateh ‘être absent; il n'y a pas’

(1) ⦗definite subject⦘ be there, be present in a certain place.

Tan̄a so tita mino aē!
Thank goodness my mother was there!

Kemem tit-se vēh te a so nēk aē.
We're not allowed to sing in your presence [lit. while you're there].

(2) ⦗indefinite subject⦘ there is. Positive existential predicate.

Ne-nem aē Apnōlap.
There are mosquitoes in Vanua Lava.

Na-lavēt liwo aē le-pnō.
There's a big fair in the village.

N-et aē hay en?
Is there someone in there?

No-yoy na-mu vitwag aē.
There are news for you.

(3) (hence) ⦗possessive phrase as subject⦘ lit. “Y's X exists” : Y has X. Translates the verb “have”.

Inti-k aē.
I've got children.

Ēgnō-n mal aē.
Yes, she's already got a husband [lit. Her husband exists already].

Nē-bē na-ma-y aē?
Do they have any water to drink? [lit. Their water exists?]

Mino aē tō, ba mal qelen̄.
⟨TAM-marked⟩ I had one, but I lost it.

(4) (esp) ⦗alienable N + aē mi + s.b.⦘ lit. “X exists with Y” : Y has X. Translates the verb “have”, for either a temporary possession (‘have s.th. with o.s.’) or a permanent property.

Nē-sēm aē mi kē.
[Money is with him] He has money. (He is rich)

[ Mota <°aía.  aiathere’. ]

ag  (n-ag) [naɣ] noun. <Bot> k.o. vine. Pueraria sp..

[ POc *Rakavine, creeper’. ]

age   (n-age) [naɣɛ] noun.

(1) thing, thingummy, whatsit: concrete, specific object (opp. na-hap, indefinite item).

na-ln̄e age nen
the noise of this thing

Kēy ne-mlēmlēg qe so n-age gēn.
They're black like this thingummy here (micro).

N-age nen te-myin̄ vēh te nēk.
This object (jewel) is of no use to you.

(2) forms periphrases of certain instruments, especially modern ones.

n-age kaykay
[shooting object] assegai, arrow (periphrase for na-qtag)

(3) animal.

Kē so et van qele kē : n-age vitwag tig tō metehal nen.
He looked up: there was an animal [lit. a thing] standing in the middle of the path.

Wun n-age gōs kē a ni-wsewseg n-et en!
So it's this animal [this thing] that was wreaking havoc among the men!

(4) abstract item, activity, idea.

Syn: dēmdēm

n-age te-

Ino no m-etsas van a n-age a kēy gagaleg van la-halgoy en.
I saw everything that goes on [lit. things they do] in secret societies.

Ba n-age vitwag ēwē so nok so vap van hiy nēk.
There's just one thing I'd like to say.
age   intransitive verb. do what, do whatever.

akteg ‘faire quoi (vb. interrogatif)’

Nēk wo m-age bah, nēk van gengen.
When you've finished 'doing' (doing what you're doing), you'll go and eat.

Nēk so m-age, nitog vavasem na-halgoy en.
Whatever happens [lit. you can 'do', but ...], don't give away our secret.

[ Cfi-ge. ]

Agō  [aɣʊ] -. <Géo> north-eastern district of the island of Gaua (opp. Alkon, the south-western district).

[  <°ˌa-ɣaˈua. ]

agōh  [aɣʊh] dx. this, here.

Kē agōh!

Ithik so ni-leg lō-wōl agōh.

Na-han William agōh.
ak  [ak] transitive verb. do, make.

higher register: galeg

(1) make, build ‹s.th›.

ak n-ēm̄
build a house

ak ni-hintōy
make a broom

ak ni-siok
make a canoe

ak n-ep
make a fire

(2) do, create, give rise to, implement.

ak na-laklak
devote oneself to dancing

ak nō-sōq
implement the initiating ceremony

N-ih namuk kē ni-ak na-may, kē ni-ak ne-mes.
My (magic) bow can create either famine or abundance.

Dō ak qele ave?
What are we going to do?

Kēy tit-ak se vēhte na-hap.
They couldn't do otherwise.

(3) make ‹friends+› (with s.o., hiy); treat s.o. like ‹so and so›.

No m-ak ipluk hiy kē.
I made a friend [lit. I made him my friend].

(4) present a specific stage in growth, produce ‹s.th›.

Ne-vey mal ak na-tawhēn.
Hibiscus has already flowered [made its flowers].

Na-mtig m-ak n-ēwan a na-m̄adeg.
The coconut tree has produced a lot of fruit.

(5) happen to ‹s.o.›.

Na-hap m-ak nēk?
What's the matter [lit. what's doing you]?

E ! Na-hapqiyig m-ak tamayge kē !
Eh! Something's happening to the old man!

(6) affect ‹s.o.›, to be affected by: forms phrases referring to physical or mental sensations, illnesses.

Syn: galeg

Syn: qal

No-momyiy m-ak no.
I feel cold.

Na-mahē-sew m-ak no.
I feel hot.

Na-maygay n-ak no a n-ak no!
I'm dying of hunger [lit. hunger makes me, makes me]!

Na-matheg bē et-ak te nēk?
Aren't you thirsty [lit. wanting water doesn't make you]?

Na-matmayge et-ak qete no.
I'm not sleepy yet [lit. sleep doesn't yet make me].

Na-m̄ya ni-ak kē a hiywē!
He began to laugh his head off [lit. laughing really made him].

(7) make out, pretend; make sure that.

Gēn ak so kēy tog yon̄yon̄teg.
Let's make sure they don't hear.

Nok van soksok hap me, tō ak tō vētmahē ni-qōn̄, mahē ni-myen.
I'll look for something to create night and day [lit. make out it's nighttime, it's daylight].

(8) neutral causative structure: make ‹s.o.› V2.

ak madamdaw
[make soft] soften s.th

ak magaysēn*
make s.o. sad, hurt s.o.

ak wē
[make s.o. feel good] be good to s.o., thank s.o.

ak hethet
[make bad] spoil, harm

ak sisgoy
drop, let s.th drop

ak ten̄ten̄
make s.o. cry

ak togyon̄
shut s.o. up

ak boel
[make s.o. angry] get angry

ak monog
[make s.th cooked] cook s.th

ak metewot
[make s.o. hurt] hurt s.o.

ak neneh
[make delicious] sweeten
ak goy  [ak ɣɔj] transitive verb.

(1) put a ban on (person, thing, place), declare it one's property.

Syn: tōqō

ak goy na-mtig
mark coconut trees as one's property

(2)

Syn: hoghog goy

ak goy na-lqōvēn
to become engaged with a woman, reserve her
ak magaysēn  transitive verb. hurt ‹s.o.›, sadden, embarrass, harm ‹s.o.›.

Kēy mu-su ak magaysēn no.
They did me wrong nonetheless.

Bulsal mino, tog ak magaysēn no!
Hey, my friend, don't hurt me!

Tog ak magaysēn nēk!
Don't go out of your way (for me).
ak monog  transitive verb. cook ‹s.th›.

m[o]nog [B]

qan̄yis ‘cuire à l'étouffée’

ak m̄adeg  transitive verb. look foolish in public; act shamefully.

m̄adeg

Tshuy! Ak m̄adeg nēk!
Hey! You should be ashamed (of what you just said)!

Kē m-ak m̄adeg kē a hēywē.
He really made a fool of himself.
ak sewsew  ~ galeg sewsew  transitive verb. (fig) ⦗resultative compound⦘ lit. “make hot” : warm up <s.o.> with one's words; cheer up, encourage, comfort.

sew [C]

No-hohole nōnōm m-ak sewsew no.
Your words have comforted me.
ak togyon̄  transitive verb. get someone to be quiet, impose silence upon ‹s.o› ; esp. calm down ‹a child› who is crying.

Etgoy nētm̄ey en, ak togyon̄ kē !
Look after the baby, get him to be quiet (make him stop crying).
ak valakas  transitive verb.

v[a]lakas [A]

Syn: hēgēl

akē  [akɪ] ptc. Presents the utterance as a revelation, or as an unexpected response to a questioning present in the context: hence'in fact', 'as a matter of fact', 'actually', 'to be honest'....

wele wo

Gēn a etet higap gēn a le-pnō agōh, akē no-qo kuykuy vitwag aē tege kē!
(We wonder why) people disappear from our village: in fact there's a giant pig round here!

Nok soksok e intik gēn! Akē nēk me-lep tō kē?
I was just looking for my baby! Actually was it you who took it?

Qele ave? – Ooh ! Akē ne-men. Ne-men liwo.
So, what was it? – Actually it's a bird. An enormous bird.

Akē na-wyēt!
Wow! In fact it was an octopus!

Akē ino!
As a matter of fact it was me!
akmēhteg   [akmɪhtɛɣ] intransitive verb. get or be angry, cross.

lower register: boel

Ige m̄alm̄al me gōh kēy n-akmēhteg towoyig.
The girls here get angry very easily.
akmēhteg   transitive verb. be angry with, have a grudge against ‹s.o› take umbrage at, be offended by ‹s.o›.

Nitog akmēhteg no!
Don't hold it against me!

akteg  [aktɛɣ] -.

(1) verb or interrogative adjective: what for? how?.

Nēk akteg?
[what'ya doing?] What are you doing?

Nēk so akteg?
[what'ya going to do?] What do you want to do?

Kēy van me gōh so akteg?
What are here for?

Na-mtek n-akteg qiyig?
[my eyes are doing what?] What's up with my eyes?

Am̄ag, kēy leplep se na-tamge so heyhey la-taybey, si akteg se?
Mats used to be used as clothing, for example [ax.lit. ... to dress, or whatever?]

Kē ne-kleklen, si n-akteg?
[it's colourful, or what's it like?] It's 'colourful', so to speak.

(2) what's happening? what's up?.

No-yoy het! – M-akteg?
Bad news! – What's going on?

Nēk so vasem lō qēt van so na-hap ni-akakteg geh.
You must tell me everything that's going on.

[ Cfak. ]

akvisileg  [akβisilɛɣ] transitive verb. exclude <s.o.> from (den) a group activity, ban, ostracise.

Kimi tog akvisileg no, nok so dam kimi!
Don't leave me on my own, I want to join you!

Gēn tog akvisileg kē den ni-siseg nongēn.
Let's not exclude her from our game.
ale   [alɛ] loc. by the sea, on the coast, view from inland.

Ant: hēyēt

vēthiyle ‘sur la plage’

le-naw ‘à la mer’

aslil ‘vers la côte, vue depuis la mer’

Nok so van yow ale.
I'm going down to the coast.

Kē mi-gityak lō n̄a ale ōk.
He ran down to the beach.

Talōw le-mtap, kem del qēt ale.
Tomorrow morning we'll all go to the coast.
ale   (n-ale) noun. the coast, the seashore (as a spatial reference).

le [2]

[ PNCV *lausea, shore’. POc *laur. ]

alge  [alɣɛ] loc.

(1) up, above. Static locative adverb, designating a place situated "on top" in a given context.

Ant: antan

hag ‘vers le haut’

apwo~ ‘au-dessus’

No-qon kē no-togtog a la-bak alge.
This dove lived on top of a banyan.

Na-pnō nonon alge a Wulsi Mitimtiy en.
His house is up there, on the Wulsi Mitimtiy mountain.

(2) in the sky, in the air.

tōk ‘ciel’

Kōyō damti antan, ne-men ni-gapgap alge.
And while they ran after it on the ground, the bird suddenly flew into the air.

na-baklap gapgap alge
plane [lit. boat that flies in the sky)

Iqet ni-lep na-mavin en, ba kē ni-tep hag alge en.
Using an obsidian, Iqet began to tear the celestial vault.

[ Cf<°á-lakáu. Mota l[e]ge. PNCV lagauto pass, cross over’.  *lakaucross over’. ]

alkēt  (n-alkēt) [nalkɪt] noun. <Zool> sea crocodile. Crocodylus porosus. ◈ A voracious crocodile has been seen for the past few decades on the neighbouring island of Vanua Lava (Apnōlap).

ve

[ Angl. alligator. ]

Alkon  [alkɔn] -. <Géo>

(1) ssouth-western district of the island of Gaua opp. Agō, the north-eastern district).

(2) the island of Gaua as a whole, the largest of the Banks islands.

ige t-Alkon
people from Gaua

[  <°ˌa-laˈgona. ]

alveg  [alβɛɣ] transitive verb. beckon, wave to s.o., palm down; esp. beckon s.o. to come closer.

Alalveg no mi na-han̄kesip qagqag
(You) greet me with your white handkerchief

[ Mota alovag. PNCV *ʔalo-vi. POc *qalo(p). ]

ami  [ami] ~ atmi ~   pp. plural jussive pronoun: 'you' + injunction.

kimi

Ami van me!
Come here!

Atmi togtogyon̄, yēhē!
Quiet, boys!
Amnō  [amnʊ] -. <Ethn> the World of the Dead, Hell, in the ancient world.

Syn: Wōsōy

N-et so ni-mat en, tō na-taqn̄en ni-saq le-qyan̄, ba na-talan kē ni-van Amnō.
When someone dies, the body rots in the tomb, but the soul joins the World of the Dead.

Kē me-qlen̄, kē ma-van Amnō, tō kē van qelen̄ le-myam agōh, ba n-et tit etsas vēste kē.
He disappeared into the World of the Dead; he then roamed about the world, but remained invisible to the eyes of man.

Van Amnō !
Go to Hell !

[ Mota <°ˌa-baˈnoi. PNCV Panoi.  *banoivolcano, volcanic ash’. ]

amo  (°n-amo) [namɔ] noun. meteor, shooting star.

Syn: ni-vit vanvan

[ Mota m̄ao. ]

amta~  [amta] pp. 3sg: amtan 3pl: amtay declarative pronoun in the third person: 'he/her', as person speaking.

Amtan wo “Itōk.”
"Ok", he declared.
amtēl  [amtɪl] ~ atmētēl ~   pp. trial imperative pronoun: 'you three' + injunction.

Amtēl mitiy qōtō!
(You three) rest a while.
Amwōyig  [amwʊjiɣ] -. <Géo>

(1) place in the centre of the island of Mwotlap.

(2) designates the island of Paama, in southern Vanuatu.

ige t-Amwōyig
people from Paama

[  <°ˌa-baˈɣura-ˈriɣi. ]

amyō  [amjʊ] ~ atmōyō ~   pp. dual imperative pronoun: 'you two' + injunction.

kōmyō

Sōwlē, atmōyō yem!
Go on (you two), climb up!
am̄ag  [aŋ​͡mʷaɣ] loc.

Ant: atgiy

(1) before, in or at the front.

m̄ag

Kōyō van hay me, John am̄ag, ba imam atgiy.
Both of them set out, John in front, and his father behind.

(2) first, before the others.

no-totgal mey am̄ag en
the first photo

No am̄ag!
Me first!

Nok suwyeg nō-bōl, et tog so iyē te-lep am̄ag.
I'll throw the ball, let's see who'll be first to catch it.

(3) beforehand, before.

ni-vidio mey am̄ag
the previous film

am̄ag den nēk so van me
before you came

Am̄ag den kē ni-mat, nēk so van et kē.
Before she dies, you must go and see her.

(4) formerly, in olden times, long ago.

Kē m-empi tō am̄ag.
He was a deputy a long time ago.

Am̄ag, ige et-matmat te.
In the olden times, men didn't die.

Am̄ag kēy totot lēt mi na-lke.
Long ago, we carved wood with a stone axe.

Tog tog me am̄ag…
Once upon a time...

[ Mota a-m̄oa. PNCV *muʔabefore, in front, first’. POc *muqa. ]

am̄e   (n-am̄e) [naŋ​͡mʷɛ] n.dép. in front or before.

(1) first (in time).

Syn: totogyeg

Kē n-am̄e et a kē ma-vay kal lō-wōl.
He was the first man to walk on the moon.

(2) main, central, typical, fundamental.

Syn: tiy

Mey nōk, n-am̄e nan aē.
A tru version exists.

N-am̄e bele tapēva nongēn anen a na-tamge en.
(Pandanus) mats make a perfect / typical gift in our country.

Ni-tiy am̄e mōyōs non ige to-M̄otlap en, nē-bē.
The main need among Motalava inhabitants, is water.

(3) special, specific.

Syn: tiy

n-am̄e ēm̄ ba-laklak
a special house for dancing

n-am̄e bē b-inin
water specially for drinking

(4) excellent, superior.

Ōōy ! N-am̄e eh nōk!
Hey! Excellent, that song!

N-am̄e et ēanen!
That's a really good person!
am̄e   (n-am̄e) excl. excellent, great.

Syn: namnan

Ni-vidio en, n-am̄e nowmat!
This film is really great!

[ Mota <°á-m̄oá-i. Cf. Mtp m̄oa-ifirst, foremost, principal’.  am̄ag. ]

Am̄ot   [aŋ​͡mʷɔt] -. <Géo> Mota: tiny island south-east of Motalava.

Am̄ot   (to-M̄ot) adj.

(1) originating from or characteristic of Mota.

no-hohole to-M̄ot
the Mota language, mota

(2) act 'like Mota people': in an awkward, ridiculous, or impolite manner.

m̄ōl to-M̄ot
[lit. take off in Mota style] take French leave, leave impolitely without notice

[  <°a-ˈŋ͡mʷota. ]

Am̄sēn  [aŋ​͡mʷsɪn] -. <Géo> Mosina or Mwesen: village on the neighbouring island Vanua Lava (Apnōlap), close to the village of Sola (Asol).

anen  [anɛn] dx. that, there. Second degree deictic, referring to a speaker's action, words or thoughts (opp. agōh).

Anen! Kē anen!
Yes, that's it! (it's exactly as you say)

N-ēm̄ non tētek anen.
That (you're referring to), is my cousin's house.

Tita vatag me anen!
Hey, here comes Mum (towards you/for you).
anēyēh  [anɪjɪh] loc.

(1) the day before yesterday.

anoy ‘hier’

(2) the other day, another time.

Anēyēh an̄qōn̄, no-qoyqoy mino so no m-etsas nēk.
⟨song⟩ The other night I dreamt of you.

Mey nen, anēyēh ēwē !
It's far more recent than that [it was just the other day].

[ Mota anarisa. POc *[qa-]na-waʀisaday before yesterday’. Cf. Mtp *waʀisatwo days from today’.  ōyēh. ]

anoy  [anɔj] loc. yesterday.

No m-et tō kē anoy lemyēpyep.
I saw her last night

[ Mota <°ˌa-na-ˈnora. POc ananora.  *qa-na-ñoʀap. ]

an̄ēh  [aŋɪh] -. when, at what time. Queries the past (opp. n̄ēh ‘when future').

Nēk ma-van tō me an̄ēh?
When did you arrive?
an̄qōn̄   [aŋk​͡pʷʊŋ] loc.

qōn̄

(1) at night, in the evening, considered a mark in time.

An̄qōn̄, kōyō van laklak.
At night they used to go dancing.

Qiyig an̄qōn̄, gēn qan̄qan̄yis ; talōw le-mtap e, gēn van.
Tonight we'll prepare the food; tomorrow morning we'll set off.

Ne-leg a lō-qōn̄ tēvēlēm an̄qōn̄.
Friday evening there'll be a wedding feast.

An̄qōn̄ nan hōw nen, kē ni-van lok me.
The following night, he came back.

(2) the night before, i.e. ‘last night’.

Nēk ma-van tō ave an̄qōn̄?
Where did you go last night?

Nok van me an̄qōn̄ so gēn so kaka : kimi tateh.
I came last night to discuss with you, and you weren't here.

Imam, no mo-qoyqoy an̄qōn̄ kē, na-m̄alm̄al ma-van me.
Father, last night I dreamt a girl came up to me.
an̄qōn̄   (n-an̄qōn̄) noun. night.

vel-an̄qōn̄
every night
an̄qōn̄ nēwē  intj. good night.

an̄qōn̄ [A]

Ant: lemtap nēwē ‘bonjour’

Apnōlap  [apnʊlap] -. <Géo> designates Vanua Lava, huge volcanic island opposite Motalava.

Nok so van le-pnō liwo, nok van Apnōlap.
I'm going to the big island, to Vanua Lava

tekel Vōnōlap
the other side of Vanua Lava

[ Cf<°ˌa-βaˈnua-ˈlaβagrande île’.  vōnō.  lap. ]

apol  (n-apol) [napɔl] noun. <Bot> European apple.

n-ēwe apol
an apple

nō-tōti apol
an apple-tree
apwo~  [apwɔ] -.

(1) above ‹s.th›.

(2) depending on, subject to ‹s.o's› decision; incumbent to.

Dō so van? – Apwē !
Shall we go? – As you like! [it's on you]

Apwondō ēwē!
It's only up to us two! [it's on us alone]

Kamyō so van, ba apwēk ēwē.
He and I should have gone there, but it was up to me (i.e. but I didn't want to).

[ PNCV <°ˌa-βaˈwo. POc *vavo.  *papoabove’. ]

Aqke  [ak​͡pʷkɛ] -. <Géo> Pakea or Qakea: islet off the neighbouring island Vanua Lava (Apnōlap), opposite the village Qan̄lap.

[  <°ˌa-g͡bʷaˈgea. ]

aqyig  [ak​͡pʷjiɣ] loc. : today. Refers to the part of day already gone by, today in the past (opp. qiyig, today in the future).

a-2 + q[i]yig.

Asol  [asɔl] -. <Géo> Sola: village south-east of the neighbouring island Vanua Lava (Apnōlap), today administrative centre of the Torba province.

[  <°a-ˈsola. ]

at  [at] intransitive verb. look at or turn one's head in a certain direction.

et ‘regarder’

at yak

at kal

at tēqēl

at taqlun̄

at lō

at kēlē

Kēy atat goy meh!
They're a nuisance leaning over like that!

Ququy goy galgalsi nē-bē den na-tmat, veg kēy tiple atat aē, kēy tiple in.
Be very careful to protect the water from the devils, in case they lean over it to drink.

[ Mota ateturn the face, direct the look’. ]

at kal  intransitive verb. direct one's glance or one's face upwards.

at

Kē ni-at kal hag le-tō en: ne-men liwo.
She looked up at the mountain (and saw) a huge bird
at kēlē  intransitive verb. turn round to look back, look over one's shoulder.

at

at lō  intransitive verb. lift one's head, take a look out: fig. appear, appear on the horizon.

at

yay

kal lō

At lō meteēm̄, wo “Ey ! Lemtap nēwē nēk !”
Popping his head around the door, he shouted "Hey! Hello there!"

E– misin te, ni-siok vitwag ni-at lō.
A little later, a ship appeared on the horizon.
at taqlun̄  intransitive verb. look down, e.g. out of modesty or shame.

at

Ige lōqōvēn e kēy at taqlun̄ den kē.
The women turned their eyes away from him (disconcerted by his charm).
at tēqēl  intransitive verb. direct one's glance or one's face downwards.

at

Tuwuh n-ih namun, tō at tēqēl hōw lē-vētan tō kay ēgēn.
He bent his bow, stared at the ground, and shot his arrow at it.

Kēytēl at tēqēl hōw lē-vētan en, yon̄teg, tateh.
All three of them put (their ear) to the ground to listen, but heard nothing.
at yak  intransitive verb. look up (from a resting position) to look into a particular direction.

at

At yak tog yow gēn, nēk et ?
Look this way, do you see?

Kē ni-at yak me hiy kēy: “M-akteg?”
He looked up at them: "What's happening?"
ate  [atɛ] ptc. :

(1) presentative, accompanying the deictic reference: X here.

Ate kēy goy vētgi vatag me anen.
Here they are just, crowding towards us.

Nēk n-ēglal na-pnō su a ate hag tō hay agōh ?
Do you know this islet here to the west?

(2) suggests a coincidence between the deictic reference and the speech context: hence (there) exactly, precisely.

Syn: ete

Ipluk gōh kē no-togtog namun a ate le-pnō a nēk me-leg aē en.
This friend lives precisely in the village where you got married.

“Takle ingon” ate agōh.
The month of August, it's right now.

at + e.

atgiy  [atɣij] loc.

Ant: am̄ag

(1) behind.

Imam nonon ni-haw am̄ag, kē ni-haw atgiy.
His father danced in front, and he danced behind.

(2) after, later.

Na-haphap non ige qagqag qoyo van tō me atgiy.
The White men's objects arrived much later.

[ PNCV, POc <°á-taɣúru.  *takuʀus.o.'s back’. ]

atmētēl  [atmɪtɪl] pp. trial imperative pronoun, free variant for amtēl.
atmi  [atmi] pp. Plural imperative pronoun, free variant for ami.
atmōyō  [atmʊjʊ] pp. dual imperative pronoun, free variant for amyō.
ave   [aβɛ] -.

(1) where? location interrogative.

tive

(2) what name (for a location).

qele ave

mey ave

Nu-wutwut gōh, ave ?
What's the name of this mountain? [lit. where is it?]
ave   loc. somewhere; wherever it may be. Non-specific, indefinite adverb of place.

[ PNCV *vea. POc *pea. ]

ayme  (°n-ayme) [najmɛ] noun. <Pois> Bluehanded Surgeonfish, bsl. Renbofis: reef fish, 39 cm. Acanthurus lineatus.

[ Mota aromea. ]

Ayō  [ajʊ] -. <Géo> Roua, Reef Is., now a desert island close to Mwotlap. Following a tidal wave (c.1935?), the inhabitants left their island (yow_veteg) for Ureparapara (Nōybaybay). Ayô island is still visited several times a year by fishermen from Mwotlap, when a celebration requires a huge catch of fish.

te-Yō

[ Mota Roua. ]

ba1   [ᵐba] conj. and.

ba so

ba2   (na-ba) [naᵐba] noun. <Tps> number

(1) number.

(2) date, day of the month (in modern calendar expression). Derived from bislama namba (Eng. number), reanalysed into na-ba, with prenasalized /b/. Full dates are often given in bislama: Julae_namba_fiftin, "July 15".

Kōyō te-leg la-ba vēvēh ? – La-ba vōyō.
What day will they get married ? – The second (day of the month)
ba so  ptc. when the speaker has only a partial knowledge of a situation, he introduces the question by ba_so. Translates 'yes, but (remains to be seen)....

ba [1]

N-et vitwag hay alon anen; ba so iyē?
There's someone in there – yes, but who might that be?

Na-hapqiyig n̄itn̄it no agōh, ba so na-hap?
I can feel something itching, but whatever can it be?

No n-ēglal so kē no-togtog a Wulgēt, ba so na-pnō nan e ave?
I know he lives in Wulget, but where is that village?

Kēy so tu-wuh no qiyig. Ba so qele ave ?
They intend to kill me. OK, but how?
ba wele wo  ptc.

wele

Kē wo “Tateh, imam, no et-vanvan te hag!” – ba wele wo kē ni-galgal ēwē veg kē mal van hag en.

Nēk ma-gal no so nēk mahgē, ba wele wo kōmyō qulqul nōnōm!

Kēy dēm so na-day – ba wele wo, et-day te : ne-geg ēwē.
ba wun?  expr.

wun

baēy  [ᵐbaˈɪj] intransitive verb. ask permission (of s.o, hiy or den).

vēhge ‘demander’

baēy lō

Nēk ma-van me hag nōk, nēk ma-baēy tō hiy tita nōnōm, so tateh?
Before you start your journey, you did ask permission of your mother, didn't you?

[ Mota paerebeg, ask for’. ]

baēy lō  transitive verb. seek authorisation for ‹s.o› to go out.

baēy

Nēk ma-baēy lō kemem den imam, tō kē ni-ukēg kemem me.
You "asked" my father for us (i.e. you asked his permission for us to go out), and he let us come.

No ma-baēy lō no hiy tita mino.
[lit. I "asked" my mother for myself] I asked my mother the permission to go out.
bagbaglo  (na-bagbaglo) [naᵐbaɣᵐbaɣlɔ] ~ na-babaglo ~   noun. <Ornith> Swiftlet.

(1) White-bellied Glossy Swiftlet, 9 cm. Collocalia esculenta.

(2) White-rumped Swiftlet, 10 cm. Aerodramus spodiopygius.

[ Mota pagpagaloa. ]

bago  (na-bago) [naᵐbaɣɔ] noun. <Pois> sharkCarcharhinidae spp.

nō-wōm̄el ne bago

na-glo bago

[ Mota pagoa. PNCV *bakewa. ]

bah   [ᵐbah] intransitive verb.

(1) finish, end.

Na-lēt nonmem mal bah.
We have no more wood.

Ne-leg may bah.
The marriage is over.

Mal bah ēgēn!
It's all over!

Na-vap t-am̄ag nan ni-bah hōw gēn.
And this is how the story ends.

(2) finish, put an end to an activity.

No mal bah.
As for me, I've finished.
bah   transitive verb. end, put an end to ‹s.th›.

Ige susu so bah nu-skul qiyig.
The children finish school this very day.

No mal bah muwumwu.
I've finished working.
bah   adv.

(1) finish.

Ant: qētēg ‘commencer’

No mal muwumwu bah.
I've finished working.

Kē ni-teteh, te–h; teh bah en, taq bat.
He began to cut out (his canoe); once he'd finished carving, he hid himself.

(2) 'already'.

Nēk may suwsuw bah ēnōk?
You've already washed?
bah   loc. after that, later, then.

Syn: bastō

bah … (en)

Kēy suwsuw le-naw; bah, kēy vēykal lok le-pnō.
They were going to bathe; then [lit. finished], they went back to the village.
bah … (en)  asp. indication of priority: at first, first of all.

bah [D]

“E” bah, tō “Y”.
First "E", and then "Y".

Ino bah en, tō ikē.
Me first, and then her.

Nēk m̄ōkheg bah en!
You should rest first.

Nok in bah na-ga en, nok qoyo gengen.
First I want to drink kava, and afterwards I'll eat.
bahne   [ᵐbahnɛ] ~ babahne  adj. last, ultimate (in time or space).

Ant: am̄e

Ikē bahne et a n-ēglal na-gatgat nonon.
He's the last person who knows his language.

Qiyig babahne qōn̄ mino hiy nēk.
Today's the last day I'll spend with you.
bahne   (bahnegi) ~ babahnegi  sb. : the last; finally, at last.

Ant: totogyeg

qētēg hiy no-totogyeg kē ni-van hiy bahnegi
from the first to the last (photo)

Bahnegi: inēk.
To finish, it's your turn (to play).

Nok laklak babahnegi qiyig.
I'll be last to dance.

bahne + -gi.

bak  (na-bak) [naᵐbak] noun. <Bot> banyan (Moraceae). Ficus spp.

[ POc *baga. ]

bak yon̄ vagal  [ᵐbak jɔŋ βaɣal] noun. <Art> lit. “sacred war banyan” : traditional motif in pictural art on masks, representing an ornate javelin type war weapon (qtag). This is a sacred symbol taught by men to na-halgoy, and to which the non-initiated do not have access. Its design is similar to na-mlas_qo (Cf. blas).

baklap  (na-baklap) [naᵐbaklap] noun. large boat, ship esp. of western manufacture (opp. n-ok ~ ni-siok, traditional canoe.

na-baklap yapyap
fishing boat

na-baklap gapgap
[flying boat] plane
bakolol  (na-bakolol) [naᵐbakɔlɔl] noun. <Mer>

(1) jellyfishPelagia noctiluca.

loyoy

Na-bakolol mu-qulqul no !
A jellyfish clang to me!

(2) by comparison with this poisonous animal, an insult aimed at a nasty person: bastard.

(3) Sea anenome. Stoichactis sp.

bakōs  (na-bakōs) [naᵐbakʊs] noun. <Pois>

(1) hard-shelled, non-edible fish, bsl. Boksfis. Ostracion meleagris.

(2) (met) suitcase, solid trunk, of western manufacture.

bal1   [ᵐbal] transitive verb. hold_tight

[ Mota palawattle, take up with/between two sticks...’. PNCV *bala-tiwattled structure’. ]

bal2   (na-bal) [naᵐbal] noun. scissors

b[a]lakm̄ēt  (na-mlakm̄ēt) [namlakŋ͡mʷɪt] noun. <Pois> Pink squirrelfish, bsl. Redfis: reef fish, 16 cm. Sargocentron tieroides.

[ Mota palakom̄ot. ]

b[a]las  (na-mlas) [namlas] noun. <Anat>

(1) lower jaw, chin.

balse~ ‘joues’

win̄i~ ‘menton’

na-mlas qo

Na-mlas mino mē-yēg.
My jaw is swollen.

(2)

na-mlas ne qo

[ PNCV *balasejawbone (of pig)’. ]

balbe~  (na-balbe~) [naᵐbalᵐbɛ] -. <Anat> 1s: na-balbe-k 3s: na-balba-n

(1) sole of the foot.

(2)

Syn: belem

na-balbe gētē

na-balbe gētē tekelgi

na-balbe qo
the footprints of the pig

[ Cf<°ˌbaleˈba-.  belem. ]

balse~  (na-balse~) [naᵐbalsɛ] -. <Anat> 1s: na-balse-k 3s: na-balsa-n cheek

[ PNCV <°ˌbalaˈsa-. Cf. Mtp *balasejawbone (of pig)’.  balas. ]

bastō  [ᵐbastʊ] conj. :

(1) and then, later, in addition, finally. In spontaneous speech, partic. to end or begin an enumeration, or add a new argument.

Ba Qasvay tō-Nōybaybay, ikē ignōn aē ; ēntēn aē, na-m̄alm̄al vitwag ; bastō tētan.
But Q. of Ureparapara had a wife, he had a child |{endash} a daughter; uc:and_finally, his sister.

(2) (Quest) and then? so what?.

Syn:

bah tō.

bat   [ᵐbat] adj. hidden, secret.

na-lqōvēn bat mino
[my hidden wife] my mistress

nē-vēglal bat
[the secret signal] the password
bat   adv.

(1) (V) inside; fl{thus} go into.

et bat
look inside

tig bat
stand up inside (the house)

kal bat
[go forward towards the interior] enter

Kēy mi-sikyak bat hay la-maltow.
They ran into the bush.

Kem ma-kal bat alon, tō ma-hag bat tō aē.
We went inside, and remained seated there.

(2) (V) towards the inside, fl{thus} put s.th inside, get s.th to go into somewhere.

yaveg bat hay
push s.th into a long, narrow hole

Imam nonon me-hn̄ēn bat nē-sēm hay le-tbey en.
His father put the money inside the basket.

Lep bat na-haphap den na-sm̄al!
Bring your things (under cover) out of the rain!

Kēy wuh mat bah kē en, kēy mo-sosm̄eg bat veteg kē van le-qyan̄ vitwag.
After they'd killed him, they threw (his body) into a grave.

(3) (V) in hiding, or hiding s.th.

taq* bat
[crouch down hidden] to hide

hohole bat
[speak hidden] speak in veiled terms

Nēk so vap bat den kēy, a so kēy tog ēgēglal.
We must speak in veiled terms so that they don't understand you.
baw  (na-baw) [naᵐbaw] noun. <Pois> Flametail snapper, bsl. Jone: reef fish, 48 cm. Lutjanus fulvus.

[ Mota pawaSerranus’. ]

be-  [ᵐbɛ] ~ bV-  -. for

(1) for, with a view to (s.th), with s.th in mind.

hiy ‘pour, à (+Anim.)’

Kem ma-galeg tō bi-qn̄i ēm̄ yon̄.
We did it for the church's day

(2) in order to (+NVb).

Kēy ma-van ba-laklak.
They went off to dance.

(3) because of, for ; in virtue of.

Ba-hap ōk ?
Why ? what for ?

(4) about (sthg).

Kōyō kaka tō bē-vētan.
They are talking about property.

(1) because of.

(2) about.

(3) [verb + bE- + noun/verb] with an aim to, in order to, to.

(4) [noun + bE- + noun] with an aim to, in order to, to.

(5) [noun + bE- + verb] in order to, for a particular purpose or action.

(6) [n-et ~ collective ige + bE- + verb] forms the agent name.

n-et bē-sēil
the seer (cf. sēil)

(7) introduces the oblique complements of certain intransitive verbs.

(8) introduces the oblique complements of certain transitive verbs.

(9) during.

(10) locative indication: at, in.

Kēy be-leg.
They're at the wedding.
bebe  [ᵐbɛᵐbɛ] transitive verb. entice by a bait.

wo-bebe ‘appât’

[ Mota pea. PNCV *beabait’. POc *bayan. ]

bebes  (°na-bebes) [naᵐbɛᵐbɛs] ~ na-bebes ne mōmō  noun. <Pois> pilot_fishEcheneis naucrates.

[ Mota pepeso. ]

beg  (ne-beg) [nɛᵐbɛɣ] noun. <Bot> breadfruit tree. Artocarpus altilis.

Syn: bte

[ Mota <°béko. PNCV pego. POc *baeko.  *baʀeko. ]

b[e]he1   (°na-mhe) [namhɛ] noun. <Bot> Dillenia spp.

Bekyepnō  [ᵐbɛkjɛpnʊ] -. <Géo> : the Santa Cruz archipelago and the Solomon islands, situated far north-west of Motalava.

Solomon

Tukopia

be- + k[e]ye- + v[ō]nō.

bel1   [ᵐbɛl] transitive verb. steal
bel1   adv. (do V) furtively, in hiding.

No me-lep bel ēwē no-totgal nan.
I secretly took the photo, by surprise. [ax.lit. take steal]

[ Mota palu. ]

bel2   (ne-bel) [nɛᵐbɛl] noun. <Ornith> Purple Swamphen, 36 cm. Porphyrio porphyrio.

Tō kōyō ēglal van so ne-men a me-gen na-ptel naga-yō en, kē ne-bel.
And this is how they understood that the bird that had eaten their bananas was a Purple Swamphen.

[ Mota palu. ]

b[e]le2   [ᵐbɛlɛ] intransitive verb. play cards (na-kat).

belekat

[ Bisl. pleple. Angl. play (cards). ]

b[e]le~1   (°na-mle~) [namlɛ] -.

(1) personal properties, estate: partic. economic possessions, garden, domestic animals.

(2) offering, gift, present.

Syn: tapēva

ni-tiy bele

No m-ak nō-sōq hiy nēk, ba tō, nēk qoyo vēl na-mlek atgiy.
I helped you pass the initiation: you'll give me a present later.

Welan, nok so lep na-mle van, na-tan̄ sēm gēn.
Chief, I would like to give you this gift of a basket full of money.

Gēn so ti van na-mlangēn hiy hiqiyig a gēn na-tam kē en, gēn te-lep vēh no-som, si so nu-suk.
If you want to give a present [lit. your present] to someone you esteem, you can give a bar of soap, or some sugar.
b[e]lebiy   [ᵐbɛlɛᵐbij] intransitive verb. play marbles.

diy

tōqōl

b[e]lebiy   (na-mlebiy) noun. marble game.

[ Angl. play. Fr. billes (?). ]

b[e]lekat   [ᵐbɛlɛkat] intransitive verb. play cards (na-kat).

Syn: bele

Dō so belekat?
Shall we play cards?
b[e]lekat   (na-mlekat) noun. card game, playing cards.

na-he belekat
song in honour of card games

[ Angl. play cards. ]

bem1   (ne-bem) [nɛᵐbɛm] noun. <Ins>

(1) butterflyLepidoptera spp.

Ne-bem so ma-gapgap lelo ēm̄ en, vasem so hiqiyig ta-van qiyig me.

(2)

(3) Lined butterflyfish, reef fish, 35 cm. Chaetodon lineatus.

(4) (met) sheet of paper (Cf. empr. pepa); letter (lētes); notebook, book (Cf. empr. bōk).

Syn: no-yobem

[ PNCV, POc *bebebutterfly; chaetodon, cobblerfish’. ]

bem2   [ᵐbɛm] transitive verb. carry ‹a child›.

lower register: bo

Ige qagqag, kēy bem nē-vētbē a na-qtag ni-tig geh aē.

Lisēpsēp kē ne-bem ēntēn, na-han Tin̄ielo.

[ Mota pepe. ]

bem didi  (ne-bem didi) [nɛᵐbɛm ⁿdiⁿdi] noun. <Pois>

(1) Lined butterflyfish, reef fish, 35 cm. Chaetodon lineatus.

(2) Platax orbicularis (?).

bep  (ne-bep) [nɛᵐbɛp] noun. <Bot> bird's eye chilli, a very small but very hot chilli. Capsicum spp.

Ne-bep gōh ne-sewsew, ay!
Isn't this chilli hot!
b[e]te  (na-mte) [namtɛ] noun. <Bot> breadfruit tree, breadfruit. Artocarpus altilis.

na-mte ‘tes yeux’

Syn: beg

[ Mota patau. PNCV *batavu. ]

betolol  (ne-betolol) [nɛᵐbɛtɔlɔl] noun. <Ins> caterpillar

bey  (ne-bey) [nɛᵐbɛj] noun. women's skirt, formerly made from pandanus leaves.

[ Mota pariwomen's belt’. ]

b{ē}hay  (nē-mhay) [nɪmhaj] noun. <Pois> wan fish, Piko o Waetspot piko. Siganus canaliculatus.

[ Mota pisara. ]

b{ē}lag  (nē-mlag) [nɪmlaɣ] noun. <Ornith>

(1) Buff-banded Rail, a long-legged bird, 30 cm. Gallirallus philippensis.

(2)

keleklen ‘multicolore’

na-mya bēlag

wuywuy bēlag

na-vag bēlag

na-bago bēlag

[ Mota pilage. PNCV *bilake. ]

1   (nē-bē) [nɪᵐbɪ] noun. water

(1) soft water, drinking water (opp. na-naw, seawater); used for drinking, cooking, washing purposes, etc..

nē-bē (ne) sam̄al
rainwater

ha nē-bē le-wel
draw water from the well

Nē-bē mino et-haytēyēh te bu-suwsuw.
I don't have enough water to wash myself.

Nē-bē, kē n-ēh non n-et.
Water is vital. [lit. men's life]

tēytēy-bē*
[the one who holds the water] the healer, traditional doctor

(2) any natural expanse of soft water: stream, river, lake, etc. Its exact nature is sometimes specified by a verb.

Syn: na-qyo bē

s[i]yip

q[ē]lēs bē

nē-bē lon̄
[water running] river

nē-bē hey
[water gushing] waterfall, torrent

Qele ave gēn van yowtig hōw lē-bē liwo?
Shall we go for dip in the river [the big water]?

(3) seawater: poetic name for the ocean.

(4) name of certain liquids, either because they do not have a specific name (e.g. lymphatic liquid, volcanic lava), or because the name must be avoided.

lig

g[i]li~ ‘jus, liquide, humeur’

nē-bē ne vōy
[water from the volcano] lava

nē-bē (qagqag) non ige tam̄an
[men's (white) water] sperm (syn. mōy).

[ Mota pei. PNCV *beiwater’. ]

2   [ᵐbɪ] adj. blind.

matbē

bēl  [ᵐbɪl] transitive verb. (vulg) have sexual intercourse with (s.o.).

Syn: den̄

qoy bēl

[ PNCV *bile (?)female genitals’. ]

bēl mem  transitive verb.

mem [B]

bel

[  <°ˈmeme. ]

b[ē]nē~  (na-mnē~) [namnɪ] -. <Anat> 1s: na-mnē-k 3s: na-mne-n hand

(1) arm; hand : includes the entire arm, from the fingers to the shoulder.

m[ō]tō ‘droite’

g[a]la ‘gauche’

na-qtēg bēnē ~

Na-mnē ne-lem.
Your hands are dirty.

Na-mnēk tekel-gi ni-memeh.
My hand hurts.

Na-mnē et vitwag tan̄tan̄ me agōh.
I see a [man's] hand approaching.

(2)

Syn: qētqēt^buhu~

Na-mnēk vōyō me-sqo.
I scalded two of my fingers.

(3) [bird] wing.

(4)

Syn: wēti~

na-mnē qētēnge
[a tree's arm] a branch

(5) [flower] petal.

Na-tweh tēnge en, tateh benen.
This flower doesn't have any petals.

[ Mota <°bané-. PNCV pane-i. POc *baniarm, wing, armlet’.  *panicwing’. ]

b[ē]nēmnē~  (na-mnēmnē~) [namnɪmnɪ] -. 3s: na-mnemne-n reduplicated form of bēnē~ 'hand', referring metaphorically to more than two hands.

(1) group of petals, corolla.

gayme~

Na-mnēmnē teweh tēnge en na-lawlaw lēs.
This flower's petals are beautifully red.

(2) forelegs of certain animals.

bēnwar  (nē-bēnwar) [nɪᵐbɪnwar] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, bsl. Benoa. Albizzia lebbeck.

[ Fr. bois noir. ]

bēw  (nē-bēw) [nɪᵐbɪw] noun. <Bot> a yam variety (Dioscoreaceae). Dioscorea bulbifera.

[ Mota pewu. ]

bēyih  (nē-bēyih) [nɪᵐbɪjih] noun. lateral wall of the house gen. of plaited bamboo (cf. vinhe).

din ‘mur’

[ Mota paparis. ]

bia  (ni-bia) [niᵐbia] noun. beer.

inin

No m-in ni-bia vitwag, tō kē mō-vōy qeleqlen̄ matmayge namuk.
I drank a beer, and my fatigue vanished.

Ni-bia vitwag so ni-van se me!
Another beer, please!

[ Angl. beer. ]

bigtōw  [ᵐbiɣtʊw] intransitive verb.

(1) mix two different foods, esp. enhance a meal with coconut, grated to suit one's taste.

Nēk so gen nē-kēy, nēk ti-bigtōw vēh mi na-mtig.
If you eat the breadfruit biscuit, you can put coconut on it.

(2) mix two languages; esp. introduce borrowings from foreign languages, fl.esp. from bislama.

Ige yatkelgi kēy vap so ‘nē-plēn’, ba ne-het, veg kēy bigtōw ēwē.
Some say nē-plēn (< Eng. plane), but it's not good, because it mixes languages.

[ Mota pig toueat cocoa-nut and almonds together’. Cf. Mtp big. ]

bin1   (ni-bin) [niᵐbin] noun. <Bot> bean, esp. long, edible bean, recently imported.

Nēk et van ni-bin lol tō yow en, ba nēk he me ni-bin en.
You see that bean climbing (lol) over there? Well, go and pick it for me!

[ Angl. bean. ]

bin2   (ni-bin) [niᵐbin] noun. clothes peg.

[ Angl. pin. ]

bit  [ᵐbit] intransitive verb. tap the ground with one's foot, esp. to begin a dance session.

n-eh bi-bitbit

[ Mota putstamp on the ground (in anger, in singing)’. PNCV *butustamp, step on’. ]

biybiy  (ni-biybiy) [niᵐbijᵐbij] noun. <Bot> Sea hearse, bsl. Napiripiri. Hernandia nymphaeifolia.

[ Mota pirpir. PNCV *biri. ]

b[i]yin̄   [ᵐbijiŋ] transitive verb.

(1) join s.o during an activity; hence assist, help, oblige.

Nēk te-myin̄ vēh no, si?
Can you help me, please?

Vēwē kimi, kimi mal biyin̄ no a ni-lwo.
Thank you, that was a great help.

(2) be useful to s.o.

N-age gōh et-biyin̄ te n-et.
This thing is useless [lit. this doesn't help man]

Vēwē nēk. – Tateh, kē ne-myin̄.
Thanks. – That's OK; if it's of any help... [lit. That helps]
b[i]yin̄   (biyin̄) adv. (do V) to help s.o; (do V) by joining s.o, hence with s.o.

Nok so tēytēy biyin̄ nēk hay?
Do you want me to help you bring your things in? [transport help you]

Dō so lak biyin̄ kēy?
Shall we dance with them? [dance help them]
bo  [ᵐbɔ] transitive verb. carry ‹a child› on one's back, on one's shoulders.

higher register: bem

yuwu

heyaw

oyveg

Kē ni-van sisqet n-ep van no-bo ēntēn.
She approached the fire, carrying her child on her back.

[ PNCV *bava (?)carry child, bear child’. ]

boel   [ᵐbɔɛl] intransitive verb. get angry or to be angry, be in a temper.

higher register: akmēhteg

Imam mo-boel tō, ba may bah.
Dad was angry, but it's over now.
boel   transitive verb. get angry or be angry with ‹s.o›, begrudge ‹s.o›.

Tita vele boel dōyō !
Let's stop mum from getting in a temper with us.
boel   (no-boel) noun. anger, wrath.
boel   (boboel) adj. hot-tempered, irritable.

Egoy kē, kē no-boboel.
Beware of him, he's hot-tempered.
bomdete  (no-bomdete) [nɔᵐbɔmⁿdɛtɛ] noun. <Bot> potato. Tuber inexistent in Mwotlap, known in town.

sn̄an

kumay

[ Fr. pomme de terre. ]

bomkēn  (no-bomkēn) [nɔᵐbɔmkɪn] noun. <Bot> pumpkin. Cucurbita pepo.

[ Angl. pumpkin. ]

boy  (no-boy) [nɔᵐbɔj] noun. kind of basket....

boyboy

get

tan̄

[ Mota pora. PNCV *boracoconut leaf basket’. ]

boyboy  (no-boyboy) [nɔᵐbɔjᵐbɔj] noun. basket

boy

[ PNCV *boracoconut leaf basket’. ]

b[o]yoy  [ᵐbɔjɔj] transitive verb. wring

boyoy mamah  transitive verb. wring (clothes) to dry them.

b[o]yoy

bōbō  [ᵐbʊᵐbʊ] sb. grandfather

[ PNCV *bubua. POc *(bu)bu. ]

bōg  [ᵐbʊɣ] ~ bōw  transitive verb. feed and raise ‹child, animal›.

Syn: etgoy

Me gōh kēy bōgbōg no-qo.
Here we raise pigs.

Kōyō bōg kē van i bōg en, kē ni-lwo.
Both of them raised him so well that he grew up.

bōw liwo
[feed-big] bring up

[ Mota pugato feed and bring up’. ]

bōl   [ᵐbʊl] transitive verb. <Mus>

(1) crush ‹s.th› by holding it in one's hand and hitting it against a hard surface.

Kē ni-lep n-ēwe vag en, ni-bōl tatapsey qēt.
She took the pandanus fruit and crushed them (by hitting them against the tree).

(2) beat on ‹a surface› with a held object ; by ext. crash into ‹s.th›.

Ne-men gapgap mō-bōl mat ige bul vet.
The plane crashed into and killed four people.

(3) beat ‹the big slit drum no-koy› with heavy drumsticks made of coconut palm petiols.

Kēy bōl no-koy nen tō kē ni-haw lō me le-gmel.
When we started beating the big drum, he danced out of the men's house (haw).
bōl   (nō-bōlbōl) noun. <Mus> action or way of beating (bōl) the big slit drum (no-koy); rhythm of music played in this way, in bass tones.

No-koy sēyēsyē tiwag mi turbal en, na-mlemleg nan haytēyēh, ba nō-bōlbōl nan ne-tegha.
nokoy_sēyēsyē and cf. beleg), but different in the bass (nō-bōlbōl).
bōlōk  (nō-bōlōk) [nʊᵐbʊlʊk] noun. <Zool> From: bullock . bovid: cow, ox, bull.

Syn: kuykuy vilih

Van me gēn so wuh nō-bōlōk nōk, tēymat ne-gengen.
Come and kill an ox with us in preparation of the feast.

ni-sis ne bōlōk
cow's milk

ni-nti bōlōk
a calf
bōōt  (nō-bōōt) [nʊᵐbʊʊt] ~ nō-bōt  noun. shuttle, medium-sized motor boat used for deep-sea fishing or as a link between islands, esp. between Motalava and Vanua Lava.

nō-bōt ‘nombril’

Ba dōyō hohole tō gōh, nō-bōt ni-nyē no yow le-sle en!
But while we're talking, the shuttle (for Vanua Lava) is waiting for me over there in the harbour

[ Angl. boat. ]

bōs  (nō-bōs) [nʊᵐbʊs] noun. beam, post: generi name for beams used in building houses (cf. han̄, salwolwol, soso, etc.).

[ Angl. post. ]

bōt  (nō-bōt) [nʊᵐbʊt] noun. <Anat>

nō-bōt ‘bateau’

(1) navel.

(2) umbilical cord, esp. portion of the cord cut at birth.

(3) refers to the coconut tree (nō-wōh, na-mtig) that the aunt planted, immediately following the tuw-bōt custom, together with the umbilical cord of her nephew. This tree, associated exclusively with the life of this nephew, is symbolically referred to as his "navel".

Na-mtig gōh, nō-bōt mino.
This coconut tree is my "navel".

Nok in ētog nō-wōh ne bōt non Pēlēt.
I'm going to drink from the first (cf. ētog) fruit coming out of Fred's "navel".

[ POc *butoŋ. ]

bōtbōt  [ᵐbʊtᵐbʊt] adj. <Ethn> perfectly round or spherical, whether the base of a trunk (nō-qōlten) or its fruit (n-ēwan).

vōkvōk

walēg ‘rond’

Nō-wōh gōh kē nō-bōtbōt : goh bah en, gēn et vēglal so kē nō-bōt non hiqiyig.
This green coconut is round (like a navel): once the skin is removed, one discovers it is someone's "navel"
b[ō]wōy  (°na-mwōy) [namwʊj] noun. <Bot> tamanu, bsl. Nambangura. Calophyllum inophyllum.

[ Mota pawura. PNCV *bakura. ]

bōy  intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨body part⟩  puffy, swollen, due to sickness or accident.

bōybōy ‘gros’

yan̄bōy ‘elephantiasis’

(2) ⟨sea⟩  swell, grow, as in tidal wave.

M̄otlap gōh en, na-naw ni-bōy qēt.
⟨tidal wave⟩ Suddenly, the sea began to swell all around Motalava island.

[ Mota puraelephantiasis’. PNCV *bura. PEO *puRa. ]

bōybōy  [ᵐbʊjᵐbʊj] adj. Redup. of bōy.

(1) ⟨s.o.⟩  fat.

Ant: wakah

(2) (be ~ become) chubby, in a positive way; hence healthy, well-fed; sturdily built.

Na-tayben Vēnvēntey e kē mi-lwo ēgēn, kē mō-lōmgep a hēywē! Kē mō-bōybōy, a– na-tayben mē-wē a mē-wē a mē-wē!
Vēnvēntey grew up, and became a young man. He was now a sturdy boy, with a perfect body!

Qeso nēk mō-bōybōy, ay! Ba namnan!
⟨formula when meeting a long lost friend⟩ Hey, you've put on weight! Congratulations!

(3) ⟨wooden obj.+⟩  sturdy, thick.

bug  (nu-bug) [nuᵐbuɣ] noun. <Christ>

(1) debt

(2) sin

Syn: bugu~

ganganoy ‘pécher’

[ Mota puga debt, fault’. PNCV *bukudebt’. ]

b[u]gu~  (ni-mgu~) [nimɣu] -. <Christ> ‹s.o's› sin.

Syn: bug

ganganoy ‘pécher’

Tigsas ma-mat leh ni-mgu sil.
Jesus died to atone for [leh ‘change’] man's sins.

[ Mota pug(u)a debt, fault’. PNCV *bukudebt’. ]

bul  [ᵐbul] pf. a numerator prefix, presenting the counted referent (typ. human) as a homogeneous group. Especially as a predicate: 'form a group of'.

n-et bul tēl = tēlge bul tēl
three people, a group of three

na-m̄alm̄al / ige m̄alm̄al bul tēvēlēm
(a group of) five girls

ige bul son̄wul
the Gang of Ten

Kimi bul vēh? – Kamtēl bul tēl.
How many will you be?– There'll be three of us.

Na-tmat vitwag bah en, me hiy, bul yōnegi.
A first devil (appeared), and a little later, a second.

Nō-bōlōk mino bul levete.
I have six cows altogether.

[ Mota pulprefix with numbers of persons’. PNCV *bulu-tisticky stuff, to stick to; be friends with’. Cf. Mtp qul. ]

bulsal  [ᵐbulsal] sb.

(1) friend, chum, comrade.

yoge bulsal
the two friends

E, bulsal! Qele ave?
Hey, friend! How are you?

(2) girlfriend, boyfriend of the opposite sex.

Bulsal mino ikē.
She's my girlfriend.

No ne-myōs so dōyō so bulsal.
I'd like us to go out together [to be friends].
bulsal vogon  noun. <Ethn> particularly strong relation of friendship that an adolescent has with only one other, either of the same sex or not.

bulsal

bum  (nu-bum) [nuᵐbum] noun.

(1) all descendants, ancestors; line of descent.

bōbō ‘aïeul’

Nu-bum nonmem ma-van me den Apnōlap.
Our line of descent (our ancestors) comes from Vanua Lava.

(2) history of family pedigree, tracing back to the origins of a family's line of descent.

histri

[ Cf<°na ˈbubu.  bōbō. ]

bun  [ᵐbun] transitive verb.

(1) extinguish, put out ‹fire, lamp+›.

Tog bunbun nu-qul gōh, kē ni-law lap.
Don't put this lamp out, it stays on.

(2) erase, wipe out ‹traces, written text+›.

[ Mota pun. PNCV *bunu-ʔikill, extinguish’. POc *punuq. ]

bus1   (nu-bus) [nuᵐbus] noun. <Zool> cat.

Nu-bus tam̄an kōyō nu-bus lōqōvēn...

[ Angl. puss. ]

bus2   [ᵐbus] transitive verb.

(1) spit ‹water+› out from the mouth after filling it, producing a fine spray of droplets.

Tēytēybē kē n-in nē-bē ba kē et-dol tēqēl te, tō kē ni-bus lō a le-ngon mey a no-gom en.
The healer drinks the water without swallowing it, then he spits it out on to the sick person's face.

(2) squirt water from the mouth over ‹s.th, s.o›.

busgeg

Tog busbus no!
Stop wetting me (by spitting water)!

[ Mota pupus. PNCV *bubu-sipuff, blow’. POc *pusi(wind) blow’. ]

bus3   [ᵐbus] intransitive verb. click fingers (with s.o, tiwag_mi): by bending one's index between the index and middle finger of s.o else, and snapping it away sharply.

[ PNCV <°busu. Cf. Mtp *bisufinger’.  qēt-buhu~. ]

busgeg  transitive verb. spit on.

bus [2]

Kē ni-bus(geg) na-lo...
buste  [ᵐbustɛ] intransitive verb. exceptional form of mōyōs 'like, want' in the negative: (et-…) buste.

Buste!
I don't want to!

No et-buste kē.
I don't like it.

Nēk et-buste nō-mōmō?
You don't like fish?
d[a]hal  (na-nhal) [nanhal] noun. <Bot> plant name. Pseudoranthemum carruthersii.

[ Mota sasala. ]

dam   [ⁿdam] intransitive verb.

(1) hanging, suspended, typic. in a dropping position.

sal

vēhbeg

Nēk et van a na-qyet a dam tō alge nōk en?
You see those flying fox hanging up there?

Kē n-en hiy hōw nen e n-et hag a l-ēwe tētēnge a dam tō en.
He lay down on the ground and began to observe the fruit hanging from the branches.

(2) long, falling, hanging down the back (like European and Polynesian women's hair).

N-ēlēn na-damdam dēn̄ a na-wut nonon!
Her hair fell all the way down to her backside!

(3) hang on, cling on to something high up (e.g. liana, rope +) to help oneself to move; hence climb (up) or slide down something.

Damdam egal tog van la-gayga agōh!
Try and climb up this rope.

Iqet ni-dam van aē, tō ni-dam, tō ni-dam, tō ni-dam tēqēl hōw lē-vētan.
Ikpwet started to go down, down, down, all the way down (the liana) until he reached the ground.

(4) 'hang on' to s.th in front of oneself, take it as a landmark to move; hence head for (+ locative), follow.

hiy

Tētē nōnōm ma-dam goy na-yn̄ēk.
Your baby hangs on to my legs (he follows me everywhere).

Dam ēgē lē-klek! Dō yow ēagōh!
Quick, follow me [lit. hang on / use my back to take your bearings]! We'll run away!

dam hay
head inland (following a path, footsteps...)
dam   transitive verb.

Syn: tatag

(1) move away, taking ‹s.th› as a landmark; hence follow ‹s.th›; take ‹route, means of transport› to get about.

Vēnvēntey ni-hō ēgēn; ni-dam a na-yo bak e ma-hal tō aē en.
Venventey began to paddle; he got his bearings by following the banyan leaf that he had seen flying in that direction.

dam na-mtehal (yow…)
follow the route (to the beach...)

No ma-dam me na-baklap gōh den Vila.
[lit. I've feen following this boat from Vila] I came from Vila on this cargo boat.

(2) follow in ‹s.o.'s› footsteps, follow ‹s.o.›; hence come with, accompany, join ‹s.o.› in his moves or his activity.

Syn: biyin̄

So ne-welan so ni-van ave e, kē ni-dam kē.
Wherever the chief goes, she follows (She follows the chief wherever he goes).

Ni-siok en, vētmahē aē? Nok so dam kimi!
Is there any room left in the canoe? I want to come with you!

Kēy qētēg laklak ēgēn. Van me, dō dam kēy !
They've just begun dancing. Come on, shall we join them? [lit. shall we follow them?]

Kē et-vanvan te so ni-damdam ige susu so kēy so siseg.
She didn't want to join in on the children's game [lit. follow the children for them to play].

[ Vurës <°dame. Mota diam.  nam̄ehang’. ]

dam na-mtehal  expr. take such and such path, go through (+ loc.).

Dō so dam na-mtehal ale.
We'll take the beach route.

Ba tita mino vasem so nok so dam na-mtehal gēn.
But Mum told me I should come this way [lit. follow this route]
dawdaw  [ⁿdawⁿdaw] intransitive verb. <Ethn> perform a magic dance to put a curse on (s.o. or s.th, hiy).

vēgēl ‘ensorceler’

dawdaw hiy na-sm̄al
dance for rain (to fall)

dawdaw hiy na-naw
dance for the ocean (to bring on a storm)

N-et hewhew ta-dawdaw vēh hiy n-et tegha tō kē ni-mat.
The sorcerer is capable of performing a death dance against someone else, to kill him.
day1   [ⁿdaj] adv. (do V) waiting for ‹s.o, s.th›.

dēyē ‘attendre’

tig day
stand waiting for ‹s.o, s.th›

hag day
sit waiting for ‹s.o, s.th›

en day
lie waiting for ‹s.o, s.th›

tog day

Kem hag day so nō-mōmō so ni-gon lelo qen.
We sit and wait for the fish to get caught in the net.

[ Mota narewait, expect’. ]

day2   (na-day) [naⁿdaj] noun. blood

[ PNCV *daʀa. POc *draʀaq. ]

d[a]yag  (na-nyag) [nanjaɣ] noun. <Bot> wild nutmeg, bsl. Nandae. Myristica fatua.

dayday  [ⁿdajⁿdaj] adv. just in case.

Nok vap dayday ēwē van hiy nēk so kēy tele tit nēk.
It's just to warn you, in case they come and beat you up.
del  [ⁿdɛl] dét. all
delan̄  (ne-delan̄) [nɛⁿdɛlaŋ] noun. <Bot> name of a plant. Pongamia pinnata.

deldel  [ⁿdɛlⁿdɛl] intransitive verb. wander

deldel magaysēn

[ Mota nalnalto go continually about’. PNCV *daligo around’. ]

d[e]m̄e  (na-nm̄e) [nanŋ​͡mʷɛ] noun.

(1) in measuring shell money (nē-sēm), designates the portion which 'hangs' once the main units have been counted.

(2) remainder, supplement: for example, what remains in the basket after having distributed most of its contents.

(3) in numeration, a relating element (nanm̄e*) separating tens from units.

son̄wul tēl nanm̄e vōyō
[three tens supplement two] thirty-two

son̄wul yō nanm̄e aē
a little more than twenty, twenty odd
den   [ⁿdɛn] -. ablative....

So nēk wo ma-van me am̄ag den, itōk ēwē.
If you come earlier, it'd be better.

sili ok lok den na-sam
near the canoe, on the float side
den   conj.
den̄   [ⁿdɛŋ] intransitive verb. ring, resound.
den̄   transitive verb.

Syn: bēl

d[e]n̄eg  [ⁿdɛŋɛɣ] intransitive verb. startle

yow den̄enn̄eg

[ Mota nin̄agbeat upon, ram down, distress, startle’. PNCV *diŋiknock, hit, beat drum’. ]

den̄hel  [ⁿdɛŋhɛl] adv. askew, lopsided.

Na-mtēgtap mi-tig den̄hel, veg ne-len̄wuh mo-lom.
The door is [standing] lopsided, beaten by the storm.
den… tiple  -.

den [B]

d[e]ye~  (na-nye~) [nanjɛ] -.

(1) ‹s.o's› blood.

(2) ‹fruit+› stain.

[ PNCV *daʀa. POc *draʀaqblood’. Cfday. ]

d{ē}lo~  (nē-nlo~) [nɪnlɔ] -. <Anat> neck, throat.

Nēk lep nē-sēm, tō oy van lē-nlē.
Shell money is put around your neck (as a necklace).

No-gom nan, kē ni-tyatyah a lē-nlē.
This illness (throat soreness), hurts the throat.

Kē ni-hēlat nē-nlon.
He cut the other's throat.

[ PNCV *daleʔovoice ; neck, throat’. ]

dēlan̄  (nē-dēlan̄) [nɪⁿdɪlaŋ] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, unidentified.
dēln̄e~  (nē-dēln̄e~) [nɪⁿdɪlŋɛ] -.

(1) ears.

qoywon ‘sourd’

nē-dēln̄e gōhōw

(2) pectoral fin.

[ PNCV *daliŋa. POc *taliŋa. ]

dēlse~  (nē-dēlse~) [nɪⁿdɪlsɛ] -.

(1) saliva.

ninih ‘crachat’

(2) skin mucus, covering fish scales.

dēm  [ⁿdɪm] transitive verb.

(1) think. Used in numerous phrases designating mental activities or dispositions of the mind.

dēm sosok X
[think look for] think hard in order to remember X

dēm sas X
[think find] remember X

dēm* lok X
[think again] remember X

dēm* veteg X
[think leave] pardon, forget, abandon, drop

dēm* liwo hiy X
[think big] attach a lot of importance to X

dēm lōlhiy
[think following] think of X in detail

dēm vēglal X
[think know] understand X by thinking hard

(2) think that.

Nok dēm so kē ma-mat.
I thought he was dead.

[ Mota nom. PNCV *domithink (about), love’. ]

dēm liwo   [ⁿdɪm liwɔ] intransitive verb. attach great importance (to:[+ Inan.] bE- ; [+ Anim.] hiy).

Ant: dēm su ‘dédaigner’

(1) feel concerned, worried about; be specially interested in the outcome of (s.o., s.th).

dēm meh ‘s'inquiéter’

Tog dēmdēm liwo meh van aē.
Don't attach too much importance, forget about it.

(2) respect, be particularly respectful towards (s.o.).

dēmap

(3) attach a lot of importance (o (oneself): be vain, conceited, pretentious.

Syn: sotel

Syn: waksē

Ant: lep-hiy

Kē ni-dēmdēm liwo meh hiy kē.
He's full of himself.
dēm liwo   transitive verb.

(1) have a high opinion of ‹s.th, s.o.›.

(2) be conceited.

Nēk tog dēmdēm liwo len̄ nēk, ba nēk dēm su nēk.
One must not have too high an opinion of oneself, one has to be modest.
dēm lok  [ⁿdɪm lɔk] transitive verb. keep in mind, remember, recall ‹s.th, s.o.›.

Syn: dēm sas

Ant: lolqōn̄

lo~ [2] ‘mémoire’

Nok dēm lok lepgetō, na-lēk et-qōn̄ qete.
I can still remember, I haven't forgotten.

Kimi dēm lok kē?
Do you remember her?

Nok dēm lok tōqōn̄ anen a dō ma-van tō hōw en.
I recall precisely the day we went for a walk.
dēm meh  [ⁿdɪm mɛh] intransitive verb. be obsessed by an idea, worry, anxious (about, , hiy).

Nēk wo ma-van, ba nitog dēmdēm meh hiy no.
Don't worry too much about me when you leave me.
dēm ne-qet  intransitive verb. silently rehearse the words associated with this dance for men, in order to find the correct rhythm for the footwork.

qet [2]

dēm veteg  [ⁿdɪm βɛtɛɣ] transitive verb. forget ‹s.o, s.th›, on purpose.

(1) forget ‹a worry›, wipe the slate clean over ‹a quarrel› ; purposely forget; hence forgive.

ukēg ‘laisser tomber’

Nēk galeg a so nēk may dēm veteg na-haphap a kē ma-galeg tō van hiy nēk.
You act as though you'd forgiven him for what he did to you.

(2) unintentionally forget, omit.

Syn: lolqōn̄

Syn: yak veteg

Kēy tile dēm veteg qēt na-vap nongēn!
They might forget their language.
dēmap   [ⁿdɪmap] ~ dēm map  transitive verb. respect, have consideration for or fear ‹s.th, s.o.›.

Qiyig gōh, kēy et-dēmap si te na-kastom en.
These days, hardly anyone respects tradition any more.
dēmap   adv. (act) respectfully, with respect.

Ant: vasawyeg

Ant: lege

Nēk so hohole dēmap!
Be more respectful when you talk!
dēmap   (nē-dēmap) noun. respect, part. respect for authority, tradition, elders.

Me gōh, nēk mo-tog leln̄e dēmap tatag van lē-vēnan ige to-M̄otlap.
Here you live in respect for Motalava's tradition.
dēmdēm   [ⁿdɪmⁿdɪm] intransitive verb. think, be pensive (about s.o., hiy); part. worry, care about.

Nēk so dēmdēm hiy na-vap t-am̄ag.
Think about a story.

Ige le-pnō kēy dēmdēm aē ni-lwo.
The villagers have doubts about this, they're very worried.

Nēk tog dēmdēm me hiy no!
Don't worry about me!
dēmdēm   (nē-dēmdēm) noun. idea, thought, reflection.

(1) mind, whereabouts for thinking.

Nē-dēmdēm nonon na-qaqa.
She's mad [lit. her thinking is mad].

Ba nu-vu mal hēw me le-tqan wa lē-dēmdēm nonon.
But the supernatural being had already entered her heart and mind.

(2) idea, content of thought.

Gēn et-ēglal te nē-dēmdēm ne qo, ba…
We don't know what's in a pig's mind [lit. pigs' thoughts], but...

Tō kē me-lep a nē-dēmdēm non imam nonon en.
He applied the exact idea that his father had conceived.

(3) affair, matter, intention, subject of discussion; question, problem.

Nok so vasem te dēmdēm van hiy kē.
I want to discuss something with him [lit. a thought].

Dō hohole lok si tog bē-dēmdēm mino a no ma-van me aē en.
Let's get back to the matter [to the thought] I came here for.

No mal lep nē-dēmdēm a nēk vap me en.
I fully understand what you meant / the problem you're talking to me about.

No ma-van me bē-dēmdēm liwo vitwag.
I came here for an important matter;

(4) sense, significance, meaning; hidden intention, reason, motivation.

Syn: manig

Na-Tmat n-aksok e so kē ni-wuh Iqet e, nē-dēmdēm nan aē: so kē so ni-lwo goy a na-myam kē.
If Satan tried to kill God, it was for a precise reason: he wanted to become master of the world.

No-hohole gōh, nē-dēmdēm nan qele ave?
What's the meaning of that term?

ni-tiy dēmdēm ne gatgat to-M̄otlap
[lit. the true spirit of the language...] the foundation of the mwotlap language (the grammar)
dēmdēm hethet  [ⁿdɪmⁿdɪm hɛthɛt] intransitive verb. think ill of s.o; disapprove s.o's attitude.

Imam m-etsas kamyō e tō kē ni-dēmdēm hethet aē.
My father caught us by surprise, and he disapproved (our relationship).

Ige to-M̄otlap kēy dēmdēm hethet.
Mwotlap people see evil everywhere.
dēn̄1   (nē-dēn̄) [nɪⁿdɪŋ] noun. semi-mat

tamn̄a

[ Mota non̄. PNCV *doŋicoconut leaf mat’. ]

dēn̄2   [ⁿdɪŋ] transitive verb. reach

Bulsal! Nēk mē-dēn̄!
So you've arrived, my friend!

[ Mota <°diŋa.  nin̄a. ]

dēvet  (nē-dēvet) [nɪⁿdɪβɛt] noun. <Bot> wild_yamDioscorea bulbifera.

dēw   [ⁿdɪw] adj.

Ant: momya

(1) heavy, ponderous.

Nē-dēw meh!
It's too heavy!

(2) causing a feeling of fatigue or numbness, similar to the effects of carrying a heavy weight.

Nēk yon̄teg na-taybē ni-dēw aē, tō nēk mitiy galsi an̄qōn̄.
⟨narcotic effects of kava⟩ You feel your body becoming heavy, which allows you to sleep well at night.

(3) (metph) inspiring awe and respect, espec. in relation with traditional society; hence imposing, grave, serious, solemn.

Syn: map

Ige m̄ōlm̄ōl van la-halgoy a kem et-lēs tamat qete: nē-dēw mi kemem, kem nē-dēmap so kem so hayveg van.
When men used to gather together in their secret societies, we the non-initiated, were quite impressed [lit. it was 'heavy' for us], we felt too much awe to join them.

(4) ⟨topic, story+⟩  important, major, serious; of outstanding social or symbolical significance.

Nē-dēmdēm nan nē-dēw a nē-dēw.
This is a very important issue.

Na-kaka t-am̄ag gōh nē-dēw lē-vēnangēn.
This myth is a major one in our culture.

(5) ⟨artwork, style+⟩  of great aesthetic value, of impressive beauty (vs. momya ‘lightweight, careless, slapdash’): hence grand, superb, awesome, magnificent, elegant, noble.

Nok so mōk na-plakas van l-eh so kē n-ak dēw na-he.
I wanted to add a few nice turns to the poem in order to make this ode even more majestic. [lit. even 'heavier']

(6) accomplished, refined, tasteful, elaborate; artfully performed.

Ige lōmlōmgep nen kēy laklak namuy en, et-dēw galsi te.
These young people have a way of dancing that is not very graceful. [lit. not very 'heavy']

(7) ⟨word, phrase⟩  well said, elegant, recherché; of a formal style, imbued with respect (vs. vasawyeg ‘informal, casual’); hence idiomatic, proper.

mutuw ‘idiomatique’

“Heleg” nē-dēw veteg “vēlēs”.
Heleg” is a more formal word than “vēlēs”.

Itōk, ba et-dēw galsi te.
(This sentence) is correct, but it's not very idiomatic [lit. not heavy enough]
dēw   (dēwdēw) adv. ⟨sit+⟩  lit. “heavily” : in a stable or firm manner.

Na-magtō en ni-hag dēwdēw hōw kōyō.
The old woman made them sit down firmly.
d[ē]yē  [ⁿdɪjɪ] transitive verb. await ; wait
di   [ⁿdi] transitive verb. <Pêche>

(1) bang, slap, burst out, make a slapping sound, espec. caused by a shock on a hard surface.

Nok en hōw e, nok yon̄yon̄teg na-naw ni-didi.
Lying on the ground, I listen to waves breaking (on the rocks).

(2) produce a clapping noise, by hitting a hard surface repeatedly.

Kēy didi mi na-yn̄oy.
They produce slapping sounds (on the water) with their legs.

(3) produce a slapping sound by hitting the surface of the water with the palm of one's hand.

Syn: wosdi

Kimi lōqōvēn, di hōw ! Di tō n-ēg ni-hay la-hay !
Come on, ladies, slap the water! Slap the water so that the fish swim towards the fishing net!

(4) play music with a music board (cf. below) to accompany dancingstrike ‹the music board› using long poles, to beat the rhythm of the dance (cf. waha)..

Kem tig ketket: n-eh ni-qtēg, tō kem di ēgēn.
We stand up, and the moment the singing begins, we start hitting the board.

Yatkelgi mey a nē-tēy nē-qēt-didi en, kēy didi hōw na-qyēn̄ malbuy.
All those who hold rhythmic poles play the music board.
didi1   (ni-didi) [niⁿdiⁿdi] noun. <Ins> tiny red, non-poisonous ant.

[ Mota niniu. PNCV *duduired ant’. POc *dui. ]

didi2   [ⁿdiⁿdi] intransitive verb. reduplicated form of di ‘clicking'.

di

didi2   (ni-didi) noun. <Mus>

(1) beating, tapping.

(2) rhythm beaten on a musical board.

di

Kimi vatne n-eh vēlēs, siso ni-didi nan se?
Do you just learn the words of the song, or do you also learn how to play its music [its rhythm]
didin  (ni-didin) [niⁿdiⁿdin] noun.

(1) partition inside a house, trad. made of bamboo (ni-vinhe), separating the area into several rooms (opp. nē-bēyih, external wall).

din ‘emmurer’

(2) partition inside modern homes.

d[i]lit  (na-nlit) [nanlit] noun. <Pois> Caranx ignobilis.

tokel

din̄  [ⁿdiŋ] transitive verb. rattle

din̄din̄ le-mtēgtap
knock at the door

[ Mota nin̄to rattle, tap, rap; to ring’. PNCV *diŋiknock, hit, beat drum’. ]

diy1   [ⁿdij] transitive verb. throw ‹marble, cauri›, esp. in a game of marbles (belebiy) or a game of cauri shells (tōqōl).

Kē mi-diy mat nō-wōqōl hohole mino.
He played-killed (cf. "hit and sink") my talking cauri! (i.e. he succeeded in touching my marble, so I must keep quiet now)
diy2   (°na-diy) [naⁿdij] noun. <Zool> coconut crab, a shellfish whose fine flesh is highly prized, for which the Banks-torres Islands are famous. Birgus latro.

[ Mota <°daˈuru. PNCV naer.  *daweʀu. ]

dol  [ⁿdɔl] transitive verb. swallow.

Nēk dol qiyig mey geh anen !
Swallow it all up (medecine)!

Tēytēybē kē n-in nē-bē ba kē et-dol tēqēl te.
The healer drinks water without swallowing it.

[ PNCV *dolo-mi. ]

dot  (no-dot) [nɔⁿdɔt] noun. <Bot> name of a plant. Excoecaria agallocha.

doydoy  [ⁿdɔjⁿdɔj] intransitive verb. make a clinking noise; click, clink, resound.

Welan, nē-lēw ni-doydoy a le-mnē.
Big chief, his ivory bracelets clinking all along his arm.
doydoy goy  transitive verb. resound, ring out, echo.

doydoy

Ne-vet ni-doydoy goy na-pnō.
The rocks (slapped by the waves) echo throughout the island.
1   (nō-dō) [nʊⁿdʊ] noun.

dōlm̄ele  (nō-dōlm̄ele) [nʊⁿdʊlŋ​͡mʷɛlɛ] noun. <Bot> water yam. Dioscorea alata.

dōyō  [ⁿdʊjʊ] ~ ~   pp. the two of us, ie. you & me; 1inc Dual.

[ PNCV <°da-rúa.  *kida-ruanous deux’. ]

duw1   (°na-duw) [naⁿduw] noun. <Pois> "Two spine angelfish". Centropyge bispinosus.

duw2   (nu-duw) [nuⁿduw] noun. <Bot> name of a plant. Diospyros samoensis.

egoy  [ɛɣɔj] excl. watch out, be careful (.... doesn't, tiple + Prop).

etgoy

Egoy!
Look out!

Egoy ni-hiy nan, nēk tiple dolm̄a aē !
Be careful of the bones, you might swallow one!

Nēk egoy kē tiple wuh nēk.
Watch out he doesnt kill you.
eh  (n-eh) [nɛh] noun. <Mus>

(1) song

Na-ln̄e eh yoyoy me gēn.
I can hear a song getting nearer and nearer.

Mahē kē so ni-tōytōy, kē ni-se n-eh, n-eh non Iqet.
While she swept, she began to sing a song in the language of Iqet.

(2) melody, music.

[ Mota <°na ási.  asa song’. ]

el1   [ɛl] intransitive verb. walk quickly.

[ Mota al. Mota alial. PNCV *ali(ali). ]

el2   (n-el) [nɛl] noun. <Pois> reef fish which camouflages in sand.

(1) "Lizard fish". Synodus spp.

(2) "Sand perch". Parapercis spp.

el3   (n-el) [nɛl] noun. <Jeu> string game: traditional game in which various geometrical shapes are made out of string (gen. of pandanus leaves nō-yōpdēge), according to how it is hooked on to the fingers.

Ige susu galeg n-el tiwag mi na-gayga yōpdēge.
Children play string games, with string made out of pandanus leaves.
empi  [ɛmpi] sb. deputy, member of parliament.

Kē m-empi tō am̄ag.
He used to be a deputy.

[ Angl. MP, Member of Parliament. ]

en1   [ɛn] ~ e ~   ptc. mark of anaphora.
en2   [ɛn] intransitive verb.

(1) lie down, e.g. to rest.

en tō

Kōmyō van enen day no.
Go and lie down while you wait for me.

Na-mtewot en tō metehal.
Someone injured is lying on the side of the road.

(2) to be somewhere in a lying position.

na-tno tamge en tō en
the mat that's lying over there

N-ēm̄ nonoyō en tō a laln̄e bak.
Their house is [lying] under the banyan tree.

Nē-vētbē vōyō en tō a antan a le-lo siok en.
The two bamboos are [lying] on the ground in the canoe.

[ PNCV *ʔeno. POc *qenop. ]

en goy  [ɛn ɣɔj] transitive verb.

(1) lying down so as to bar the way to ‹s.th› (s.o, den): hence cover, hide; form an obstacle.

Na-m̄at m-en goy na-mtehal en.
The snake lay across the path.

Na-lam t-en goy dōyō.
The ocean will separate us [lit. will be spread out between us].

(2) lying down alongside a ‹sick person+› to take care of him/her.

Van me en goy qōtō tētē gēn kē tiple qēsdi.
Come and lie down next to the baby, in case he falls.
en hiy  [ɛn hij] intransitive verb. lie down.

hiy [1] ‘(2)’

Nok so en hiy goy bah tusu.
I'm going to lie down a while.

Ige susu en mal enen hiy.
The children have already gone to bed.
en tō  loc. at the moment, in this situation.

en [2]

tō [2]

En tō gōh, tita mino mal mat ēgēn.
At this point in time, my mother must have given up the ghost.

En tō nōk, nēk tog vanvan qete antan.
In these circumstances, you should wait a lilttle before going back down.
ep  (n-ep) [nɛp] noun. <Christ>

(1) fire.

N-ep mino tateh.
I've no flame left.

Nok hohoh n-ep van : tateh, et-lawlaw te.
I keep rubbing and rubbing (to start) a fire, it doesn't work.

Kēy gal n-ep a le-qyēn̄i qōqō ōk, tō n-ep ni-lawlaw.
You light the fire at the back of the oven, and the fire begins to burn.

wiyis n-ep tō kē ni-lawlaw
adjust (the wood in) the fire to rekindle it

Dō so bē n-ep van a le-pyēyag agōh.
We'll set light to these dead leaves.

N-ēm̄ mino, n-ep mal gen qēt.
My house burnt down completely [lit. the fire 'ate' it altogether].

N-ep me-gen mat ēntēn.
His son perished in the flames [lit. the fire ate him-dead].

(2) Hell.

Nēk ta-van l-ep!
[you'll go to the Fire] You'll end up in Hell!

[ POc *api. ]

es  [ɛs] transitive verb. stab, kni throw a knife or an assegai at ‹s.o› (opp. gon, stab and keep hold of the knife).

et1   (n-et) [nɛt] noun.

(1) man, human being; spec. living person (opp. na-tmat ('devil', etc).

Iqet mi-tin̄ na-myam; bastō, kē mi-tin̄ n-et van alon en.
Iqet created the world, then he created men.

Tigsas kē et-wot vu te, kē mo-wot et.
Jesus wasn't born a spirit, he was born a man.

Kē n-et si na-tmat?
Is it alive, or is it a ghost?

(2) no one; someone, the one who....

n-et qagqag vitwag
a White man [a white person]

Nēk n-et m̄aya vitwag!
You're a funny person!

N-et aē l-ēm̄ gōh?
Is there someone in this house?

Tateh et me agōh.
There's no one around here.

n-et mey a mo-gom en
the person who's sick

(3) someone regularly associated with an object N.

n-et b-ih
[the person with the bow] the archer

n-et be-non ēm̄
[the person for his house] the owner

(4) someone used to (doing V); hence forms names of agent.

Nok et- n-et be-qneqneg te.
I'm not someone who's jealous.

Nēk n-et woswos vitwag!
You're a handyman! [someone to nail]

n-et bē-sēsēil
[someone for divination] the seer

n-et bē-tēytēy tēnge
[someone to handle plants] the healer

n-et behemhe tele
[someone to join metal] the coachbuilder, the mechanic

n-et towtow eh
[someone to compose songs] the poet, the composer

n-et vēgēpgēl
[someone to bewitch] the healer (witchdoctor)

(5) people, we, you.

Sisqet n-et ni-qlen̄ qēt.
The whole population nearly disappeared.

Imam mino kē nu-kuykuy et.
My father is a cannibal [he bites people].

ige tēytēy-et
the police [lit. people catchers]

Itōk, veg kē ne-myin̄ n-et.
It's good, because it's useful [it helps people].

N-et ta-galeg vēste qele anen.
You can't do that / That's not done.

Nē-bē, kē n-ēh non n-et.
Water is life. (lit. people's lives]

[ PNCV *ʔataspirit, soul; person’. POc *qatashadow, reflection’. ]

et2   [ɛt] transitive verb.

(1) see; look.

higher register: halveg

et hiy
to look closely, carefully

et lōlhiy
follow with one's eyes

et kēlē
to look behind oneself

Nok so et te muk!
Let me have a look.

Kē van me nen, kē et van qele kē : no-woh !
As he drew near, he suddenly looked up [he looks like this]: a figtree!

(2) establish that, find that; consider ‹s.th., s.o.› in a certain way.

et vēglal

et yak

Kē m-et van so ma-haytēyēh ēgēn.
He considered that was enough.

Nēk et van tita nonon kōyō imam nonon, kōyō na-tam nēk?
Do you think her parents (of your fiancée) like you? [lit. You look at her mother and her father, do they like you?]

Nēk etet no me qele ave?
How do I look? To your eyes, how am I?
et-3   [ɛt] mod. first element of negation et-… te ‘not’, etc. [cf. brackets]..

tit-2 ‘fv:te-2 + fv:et-3’

et-… te

et-… qete

et-… si te

et liwo  (n-et liwo) [nɛt liwɔ] noun.

(1) adult (opp. n-et su 'child'), eldest.

ige lōmlōmgep, tiwag mi ige lililwo lo-lo vōnō en
young people, as well as the village elders

(2) person of high rank, dignitary, chief (cf. bsl ‘Bigman’).

n-inti et liwo
chief's son, a prince

N-et bi-tigtigheg ni-ha van ni-vinlah hiy ige lililwo, tō kēy in ēgēn.
The servant serves a bowl (of kava) to the dignitaries, who drink it.
et su  (n-et su) [nɛt su] noun. child (opp. n-et liwo ‘adult’).

su

E, n-et su!
Hey, little one!

n-et su vōyō
two children
et vēglal  transitive verb. recognize ‹s.th., s.o.› at sight (by looking); understand (after seeing s.th.).

et [2]

Bulsal, nēk et-et vēglal te no?
Don't you recognize me, my friend?

Ne-twoyig ēwē, nēk t-et vēglal nowmat vēh.
It's easy, one can recognize it straight away.

Nok et n-ili men en, tō nok et vēglal so na-gop.
As soon as I saw the feather, I understood it was a heron.
et yak  transitive verb. examine in a selective manner: hence choose, select.

et [2]

Ige lōqōvēn kēy et yak galgalsi na-mtevōn ige tam̄an.
(in Europe, to choose a husband) Women carefully observe a man's character.
et yak  transitive verb. lit. “see-(take) off” : choose, select.

yak [C]

Ikē nen a kē t-etyak mayanag ne vōnō.
ete  [ɛtɛ] ptc.

(1) presentative, accompanying the deictic reference: here, there.

Ete n-ēm̄ mino a hag gēn.
There's my house over there.

Ros a ete magtō agōh.
Rose is this old lady here.

(2) suggests a coincidence between the deictic reference and the speech context: hence (that's) exactly (it), precisely.

Syn: ate

Syn: ēgōh

Ohoo, ete, kē no-togtog van agōh.
This is precisely where she lives.

Ete ige bul vet hah vatag hag na-tgop anen.
Four men are just arriving with the wedding cake.
etet  (n-etet) [nɛtɛt] noun. noun derived from the vb et 'see': point of view, vision, opinion.

L-etet nōnōm, ne-qe ni-en lok ave itōk?
Where do you think we should put the bed?
etet hethet  [ɛtɛt hɛthɛt] transitive verb. feel resent for, be envious, jealous of ‹s.o›; hate.

Syn: etet wolwol

Syn: dēmdēm hethet

qeneg ‘être jaloux’

Kēy t-etet hethet vēh nēk aē, a so nēk sotel nēk bo-hohole galsi to-M̄otlap en.
They might be jealous of you, seeing how proud you are to speak mwotlap so well.

Ige lōmlōmgep en kēy etet hethet kē.
The other boys developed a feeling of jealousy / hatred towards him.
etgoy  [ɛtɣɔj] transitive verb. keep an eye on.

(1) watch over; spy.

Ige le-pnō kēy etetgoy meh n-et.
At the village, we observe others a little too often.

(2) beware of, be wary of; be careful (that ....not, tiple + Prop).

Nēk so m-ekas na-magtō nēk etgoy galsi!
If you meet an ole woman, beware.

Nēk so van ale, nēk etgoy kēy tiple ekas nēk.
If ever you go to the beach, be careful nobody sees you.

(3) take care of, look after ‹someone weak›; spec. educate, raise ‹child›.

Kē ni-mat en, ino mahgēk no m-etgoy kē.
When she died, I was the only one to look after her.

(4) govern, politically administrate ‹a territory›.

Syn: liwo goy

Mayanag ni-etetgoy galsi na-pnō nonon.
The chief looks after his village well.
etgoy liwo  transitive verb. take care of ‹child› until he becomes an adult, hence bring up, educate.

etgoy

Syn: bōg

Taitus me-lepyak Ivana, tō kē ni-etgoy liwo kē.
Taitus adopted Ivana, and educated her.
et-misin te  expr. a little later, immediately.

Kōmyō van, et-misin te nē-vēytitit.
[lit. You had just left, and it wasn't long before they started fighting.

Kē ni-wot en, et-misin te tita nonon mi na-tqan lok se.
Shortly after his birth [lit. he was born, and without delay], his mother became pregnant again.
etsas  [ɛtsas] ~ eksas ~ ekas  transitive verb.

(1) see, esp. after an effort; manage to see.

Ave en? Nok et-etsas te !
Where? I can't see anything.

(2) find ‹s.th, s.o›, by chance or purposely.

sok ‘chercher’

(3) receive ‹an object addressed to me: letter, parcel+›.

Qōn̄ vitwag no m-eksas nē-lētes namu nēk ma-yap me.
The other day I received the letter you wrote me.
et-yeh  (n-et-yeh) [nɛtjɛh] noun. <Bot> (Sl) lit. “see-far” : rice. In the village of Toglag, a young deaf man called Kaya would represent rice as improving eyesight: the nickname n-et-yeh was created jokingly as a slang word for rice.

raes

Ige to-Toglag, kēy et ōl si te 'na-raes' en, kēy ōlōl so 'Nok so van wēl n-et-yeh' !
The people from Toglag no longer say 'rice', but 'I'm going to buy some see-far'!
et-… qete  mod. not yet. Accomplished negation (mal).

et- [3]

qete

Mal monog > Et-monog qete.
It's already cooked > It's not cooked yet.

No et-eksas qete kē.
I haven't found it yet.
et-… si te  mod. no longer.

et- [3]

Kem et- vanvan si te l-ēm̄yon̄.
We no longer go much to church.
et-… te  mod. Realis negation, referring to past, present or timeless events. Both elements surround the predicative syntagm (verb, noun, etc.), and replace the affirmative aspect modals (ex. nE- Stative, mE- Perfect…).

et- [3]

No ne-mtēgteg > Nok et-mētēgteg te.
I'm afraid > I'm not afraid

No ma-van et-van te Toglag.
I went to T. > I didn't go to T.

Kēy et-gengen te hap te.
They don't eat anything. [do not eat something]

Et-ni-siok nonontēl te.
It's not our canoe.

Et-haytēyēh te.
It's not enough.
ey2   (n-ey) [nɛj] noun. <Bot>

(1) She-oak, bsl. Oktri. Casuarina equisetifolia.

(2)

[ POc *aʀu. ]

ē-  [ɪ] pf. prefix forming presentative deixis of temporal or situational value: here, then, now....

ēagōh  [ɪaɣʊh] dx. : form taken by the temporal deixis fv{ēgōh}* at the end of an assertion or exclamation.

ē- + agōh.

ēanen  [ɪanɛn] dx. : form taken by the temporal deixis ēnen* at the end of an assertion or exclamation.

ē- + anen.

ēg  (n-ēg) [nɪɣ] noun. (anc) fish.

[ PNCV *ika. POc *ikanfish’. ]

ēgēn  [ɪɣɪn] ~ ēnōk  dx. : temporal deixis, pragmatically neutral, i.e. orientated neither towards the speaker (opp. ēgōh) nor towards the interlocutor (opp. ēnen).

(1) now; from now on. Focuses speech on the present moment, at times with a contrast effect ('from now on', opp. before).

Na-lo vēvēh ēnōk? – Na-lo vēvet ēgēn!
What time is it [now]? - It's four o'clock [now].

Mahē ni-qōn̄ ēgēn!
Hey, it's getting dark!

Nēk may suwsuw bah ēnōk?
So you've had your shower [now]?

Nēk so m̄ōl ēnōk? – Ò! Nok so m̄ōl ēgēn.
Are you going [now]? - Yes, I'm going [now].

Ma-haytēyēh ēgēn.
That's enough [from now on].

Kēy qētēg laklak ēgēn.
They are beginning to dance right this minute.

Nok suwsuw vag-yō ēgēn!
Well, I'm taking a shower for the second time!

(2) then, it was then that; from now on. Focusses the speech on the instant of the current narrative.

Kē ni-hatig tō ni-se n-eh ēgēn.
At that moment he burst into song.

Na-vap t-am̄ag nan ni-bah ēgēn.
This is the end of the story.

Gēn ak monog galsi ewo tō ige del te-gen vēh ēgēn.
Once it's well cooked, [then] everyone can come and eat round the table.

Kē me-se m̄ēt hōw n-eh nōk ewo tō na-naw ni-mlat ēgēn.
[lit. he stopped talking, and and then...] He had hardly interrupted his singing when a huge wave came crashing on the coast.

ē- + gēn.

ēglal   [ɪɣlal] transitive verb.

vēglal

(1) know, know ‹s.th, s.o.›; know (that, so + Prop.).

Ant: lēn̄teg

Nēk n-ēglal so imam mino ave? – Óòó, nok et-ēglal te.
Do you know where my father is? – No, I don't.

Kēy et-ēglal galsi te na-vap to-M̄otlap.
They don't know mwotlap very well.

La-taēm nen en, dōyō et-ēglal qete dōyō.
at that time we didn't yet know each other.

(2) be capable of, know how to do s.th.

te-… vēh ‘Potentiel’

Nok et-ēglal te susuy.
I don't know how to sew.

Kē n-ēglal gagaleg n-et t-ēh lok vēh.
She's capable of raising the dead.

(3) understand.

lep [A] ‘(9)’

Ba kē mal ēglal a so kēy so wuh mat kē en.
He'd already understood that people intended to kill him.

Nēk n-ēglal?
Do you understand?/Do you see?
ēglal   intransitive verb.

(1) know about, have clear ideas (about s.th, hiy); feel at ease about s.th.

Kēy dēmdēm aē, tō kēy ēglal m̄ōleg van hiy no-hohole non Iqet; tō kēy tow n-eh aē.
With a bit of concentration, they get inspired in poetic language [lit. they 'know' clearly in the language of Ikpwet]; then they can compose their song.

(2) be used to (s.th, be{_}).

No et-ēglal meh te be-mwumwu a haghag misin en.
I'm not too used to working sitting down all the time.

[ POc *kilala. ]

ēgōh  [ɪɣʊh] ~ ēagōh  dx. : temporal deixis, pragmatically addressed to the speaker.

(1) now, immediately, straight away.

Tō m̄on nowmat ēgōh?
Shall we wrap the food up right now?

Haa, nok wuh mat nēk ēagōh!
Ha, ha, I'll slay you straight away!

Van me! – Nok vanvan me ēagōh!
Come here! – I'm coming right away!

(2) Look ! here.

Syn: ete

Lahlap ēagōh, a kem togtog aē en.
Here's the village of Lahlap, where we live.

Na-mteēm̄ ēagōh!
Look! A passage!

ē- + gōh.

ēh   [ɪh] adj. alive (opp. mat ‘dead’).

nu-tutu ēh
a live chicken

N-et vitwag a mi gēn gōh en aa, kē n-ēh laptō!
A living being is among us, he's still alive!
ēh   intransitive verb. live, survive.

ēh lok

Kēy del matmat qēt, ige nen m-ēh.
Everyone else was dead, they alone had survived.

Kē t-ēh vēh?
Do you think he'll survive (live)?
ēh   (n-ēh) noun. life, the faculty of being alive; (rare) s.o.'s life, the course of his existence.

no-togtog ‘façon de vivre, mœurs’

Nē-bē, kē n-ēh non n-et.
Water is vital. [lit. life of men]

[ Mota <°esu.  es. ]

ēh lok  intransitive verb. come back to life, come alive again.

ēh [B]

Kē n-ēglal gagaleg n-et t-ēh lok vēh.
She can raise the dead. [lit. make people live again]

Nok vēwē nēk magtō, veg inti-k kē m-ēh lok, nēk m-ak ēh lok kē.
Thank you, old woman, my son has come alive again, you've brought him back to life.
ēkal  (n-ēkal) [nɪkal] noun. <Zool> green lizard living in trees, 22 cm. Emoia sanfordii.

ēleg   [ɪlɛɣ] intransitive verb. <Mus> sing the coda of a customary song or ode.

ēleg   (n-ēleg) noun. coda, last stanza of a customary song.

Nok se qētēg nō-tōtēn, dēn̄ bahnegi, l-ēleg nan.
I'm going to sing it from beginning to end, right to the coda.
ēleg goy  transitive verb. end ‹a song, n-eh› by the coda; abs. sing the coda.

Se bah na-vasig en, tō nēk ēleg goy ēgēn!
After the verses, you go to the coda.
ēm̄  (n-ēm̄) [nɪŋ​͡mʷ] noun. house, home.

N-et aē l-ēm̄ gōh?
Is there someone in this house?

Nēk so van l-ēm̄ non Qasvay.
You must go to Q's house.

Kēy may tot nē-qētēnge b-ēm̄ del.
They've already cut the beams for the house.

no-sosowolō* ne ēm̄
materials for building a house

N-ēm̄ nonmamyō, kamyō mitimtiy l-ēm̄ vitwag, n-ēm̄ qayqayn̄is vitwag, ba n-ēm̄ su vitwag.
Our house (is like this): we both sleep in one house; there's a house for cooking, and finally a small house.

[ PNCV *yumʷa. POc *ʀumaq. ]

ēnen  [ɪnɛn] ~ ēanen  dx. : temporal deixis, pragmatically addressed to the speaker.

(1) now, right away; here.

Nēk qoyo et ēnen?
[lit. you only see her now?] It's the first time you see her?]

Ba so na-ln̄e hap nōk? – Na-ln̄e vētōy, kēy bitbit ēanen.
What is it we hear, now? – It's the sound of drums: here the dance has begun.

(2) look! here; like this. Presentative expression..

Na-tataqnet ēanen!
Look, here's your squid! (you spoke of)

N-am̄e et ēanen!
Here's a good person!

Iqet en aa, Ḡot ēanen!
But this Ikpwet is God!

ē- + nen.

ēnōk  [ɪnʊk] dx. : form taken by the temporal deixis ēgēn* in questions, or in the middle of an utterance.

ē- + nōk.

ēntēl  [ɪntɪl] ~ intēl ~ dētēl ~ idētēl  pp. the three of us, ie. me & you & him/her; 1inc Trial.

Kōmyō dam no, dētēl van.

Wō ēntēl mahgentēl a tog tō le-pnō gōh?

ēntēl tita

[ PNCV <°ˌida-ˈtolu.  *kida-tolunous trois’. ]

ēqas  (n-ēqas) [nɪk​͡pʷas] noun. <Zool> wild black lizard, 20 cm.

ēqay  (n-ēqay) [nɪk​͡pʷaj] noun. <Pois> Acanthurus triostegus.

Lep lō yow ne-qen, suwyeg goy n-ēqay susu.
⟨song⟩ (They) bring out a net, and throw it over small surgeons.

[ Mota qiarea fish, thorn-tail, sea-surgeon’. ]

ētan  [ɪtan] adj. pregnant.

teqe~

ige ētan
pregnant women

[  <°tianaher belly’. ]

ēte   (n-ēte) [nɪtɛ] noun. year.

l-ēte gōh
this year

l-ēte mey a mal bah
last year [the one that's finished]

l-ēte itan, si so l-ēte mey van hiy
next year, or the following year

Na-mlaklak b-ēte gayaq!
Happy new year! [Joy for the new year]

N-ēte nōnōm vēvēh?
How old are you? [your years are how many?]

Nē-nētm̄ey mi-lwo van, mē-dēn̄ n-ēte son̄wul.
The child is growing up to reach (the age of) 10 (years).
ēte   intransitive verb. happen, take place (after an event).

N-ēte mal ēte goy.
Years have passed [years already been] / it's been a long time.

[ POc *taqunyear’. ]

ētog  [ɪtɔɣ] adv. eat the first fruits of a harvest, taste the first fruit produced by a tree: inaugurate.

lō [1] ‘(5) être le premier à, inaugurer’

egal ‘essayer’

Dō in ētog nō-wōh mino?
Let's taste the first fruit from my coconut tree [drinking coconut, nō-wōh].

gen ētog ni-hnag
taste the new harvest of yams
ēvet  (n-ēvet) [nɪβɛt] noun. <Bot> strong bamboo. Bambusa spp. ◈ Cut between two knots (na-vtōy), this bamboo is used to make slit tamtams (nē-vētōy) to accompany dancing.

vinhe ‘bambou’

ēvēp  (n-ēvēp) [nɪβɪp] noun. <Art> name given to a devil's mask, the highest ranked in na-halgoy..

na-mlak le-hye ēvēp
insignia of the devil n-ēvēp

[ Mota viov. ]

ēwe~  (n-ēwe~) [nɪwɛ] -. fruit

(1) edible part of a plant, its fruit.

ō ‘fructifier’

n-ēwe lolmeyen

n-ēwe bak
banyan fruit

n-ēwe man̄go
a mango

n-ēwe mitig
a coconut

n-ēwe tētēnge
fruit [lit. tree fruit]

Na-ptel may galeg n-ēwan.
The banana tree has finally borne fruit [made its fruit].

(2) (metph) most useful part of an object, e.g. the bulb of a lamp.

[ Mota wia-i. PNCV *vua. POc *puaq. ]

ēwē   [ɪwɪ] adj. good.

no-yoy ēwē
good news

N-et ēwē anen.
He's a good person.

Ne-bem ne Le Ēwē.
The Good Law book / The Good Book (the bible).
ēwē   adv. only, just. Qualitative restrictive, leading a predicate argumentatively towards 'less'. Typically accompanies lower numerals; low quantity adjectives (e.g. 'small', 'short', 'easy'...); verbs suggesting limited effects; names of culturally non prestigious objects; etc..

Kamtēl vētēl ēwē.
There are only three of us.

Kem vanvan vagvag-tiwag ēwē.
We only go there very seldom...

Ni-siok gōh no-momya ēwē.
This canoe is very ligh [light only].

Ne-twoyig ēwē!
It's dead simple!

Nok hohole siseg ēwē.
It was only a joke.

Kē ni-mwumwu mamah ēwē.
He works for nothing (without earning anything).

Nēk so van ave? – Ohoo, tateh, nok tatal ēwē.
Where're you going? – Nowhere, I'm just going for a walk.

[ Mota wiagood, of the right sort; merely, only’. ]

ēy1   (n-ēy) [nɪj] noun. <Pois> crayfish, crawfish, spiny lobster; prawn, shrimp. Panulirus spp.

ēyēy ‘petite crevette’

Nēk so van yow, so vay te kis ēy me.
I'd like you to go to the sea and catch a few crawfish for me.

[ Mota <°ira. POc ura.  *quraŋ. ]

ēy2   (n-ēy) [nɪj] noun. <Bot> ambarella, bsl. Naos. Spondias cytherea.

[ Mota ur. POc *quʀis. ]

ēy-lawlaw  (n-ēy-lawlaw) [nɪjlawlaw] noun. <Pois> Pink squirrelfish, bsl. Redfis: reef fish, 16 cm. Sargocentron tieroides.

ga1   [ɣa] intransitive verb.

(1) propagate, gain ground.

(2) propagate, spread.

Na-yoyo vōnō gōh kē kē ni-van tō ni-ga vel-vōnō ēgēn.
Our island's reputation has already spread all over the world.

[ Mota gaospread; burn’. ]

ga2   (na-ga) [naɣa] noun. <Bot> kava

(1) kava plant. Piper methysticum.

nō-wōgtag ne ga
kava root

(2) slightly narcotic drink, traditionally drunk by important dignitaries (n-et_liwo) in their secret house (na-gmel), and today by all men, in public or in private, at nightfall around 7 p.m..

Nēk so in na-ga, nēk vatqep na-mte, den no-hohōw ne ga tale qal na-mte.
When you drink kava, you must close your eyes, to protect them from the kava "vapour".

Na-ga so ni-wuh nēk, tō ni-qti ni-m̄ōlm̄ōl aē, tō itōk.
When the kava gets to you, your head starts swimming, and that's what's good.

[ PNCV *kawaʀ. POc *wakaʀroot’. ]

ga~2   (°na-ga~) [naɣa] pos. possessive classifier of edibles, designating fi:x as food from fi:y.

(1) presents x as to be eaten by y, literally.

gen

Na-gōm te mahgē ! Na-gan ige del.
It's not only your food, it is everybody's food.

na-gōm vetel / na-ptel na-gōm
your bananas (to eat)

(2) (fig) presents x as to be affected by y, as a source of unpleasant or uncontrolled physical sensations.

Iyah, na-gōm !
(volley-ball smash) Take that!

(3) (Sl) ga~ refers to love or sexual behaviour. The woman, or a part of her body, is designated as a delicacy for the man; and vice versa..

Na-kis inēk.
[you're my meal] I fancy you

Na-kis wongē.
[your face is my sweet] I love your face

Na-gan mal aē si tateh qete ?
Does she already have a boyfriend [“food”] or not yet ?

Kē mo-yon̄teg na-gan manan aē.
She thrilled / That (present, song) really made her happy.
ga-3   [ɣa] pf. <Bot> derivative prefix forming names for some lianas and weeds, eg. ga-yētyēt, ga-vag, ga-tqav, ga-sēsē, ga-qiy.

gayga

[ North-V °ɣa[w]e. PNCV *kaʀovine, rope’. ]

g[a]ban  (na-gban) [naɣᵐban] noun.

(1) sail.

gam ‘naviguer à la voile’

na-gban ne baklap
a boat's sail

Am̄ag, kēy leplep na-tamge so gagaleg na-gban ne ok gamgam aē.
In olden times, (pandanus, tamge) mats were used to make boat sails

(2) dorsal fin, esp. big enough to resemble a ship's sail.

hiyi~

[ Mota <°kabáne. PNCV gapane.  *kabanisail (n)’. ]

gadōhō  (na-gadōhō) [naɣaⁿdʊhʊ] noun. <Bot> name of a plant. Gnetum latifolium.

gagah  (na-gagah) [naɣaɣah] noun. <Anat> verbal noun for gah ‘assemble a structure’.

(1) frame for certain structures (gah) made from semi-rigid materials, such as rattan.

na-gagah ne tētvē
frame of a biscuit oven (round structure made of light wood)

na-gagah ne m̄oto
frame of a food-safe (wicker)

(2)

[ Mota gasorafter’. ]

gah1   [ɣah] transitive verb. <Archi>

(1) assemble ‹a structure› using semi-rigid materials such as rattan (na-gaqiy) or similar (e.g. na-gawol); wickerwork.

Syn: yēt

Syn: lēg ‘attacher’

gah nō-m̄ōto
create a pantry

(2) erect the structure of ‹a house›, build its frame, its roof structure.

gilgeg

tēy ‘édifier ‹une maison›’

At tō gōh, veg nu-busmayaw ma-van me, gēn ōl so ‘wos’ n-ēm̄; ba ni-tiy kē en, so ‘gah’.
Today, since the introduction of nails, one speaks of "nailing a house"; but the true term is gah "assemble (with lianas)".

Kem may gah kal n-ēm̄.
That's it, we've finished setting up the structure of the house.

[ Mota gasoput on the rafters of a house’. ]

gal1   [ɣal] intransitive verb.

(1) lie unintentionally, say something by mistake.

Syn: gayap

Ēt! No ma-gal!
Oh, no, I made a mistake!

(2) lie purposely, tell lies, be insincere.

Nēk galgal ēwē!
Liar! [lit. you're telling lies]

(3) not keep one's promise, perjure oneself.

Talōw le-mtap, lelo levete. Tog galgal!
Tomorrow morning at six. For sure! [lit. don't lie!]

(4) pretend, simulate, feign.

Kēy galgal goy ēwē.
They're not really dancing (not correctly).
gal1   transitive verb.

(1) lie to ‹s.o.›, purposely or not; mislead ‹s.o.›, give wrong information; make false promises to ‹s.o.›.

No ta-gal vēste nēk.
I wouldn't dream of lying to you / I'll keep my promise, I swear.

Nok so vap van, ba no tele gal nēk.
I'd really love to answer you, but I'm afraid I might mislead you [lit. lie to you].

(2) lead ‹a child› to believe s.th to calm him down, console or amuse him, spec. under false pretensesby ext. amuse or get ‹a child› to laugh.

gal1   sf. false pseudo-, semi-: suffix in certain technical combinations together with nouns or verbs.

Ant: tiy ‘véritable’

n-ēleg-gal
false coda

nē-qēthōn-gal
so-called roofing

no-soso-gal
pseudo stringpiece (i.e. intermediate purlin

voyot-gal
half saw, make a notch

tot-gal
half carve (thus sculpt, represent: cf. totgal)
gal1   (na-gal) noun. lie, invention.

Na-gal!
It's a lie!
gal1   (na-gal) excl. of course: expression of evidence.

Ino, na-gal!
It's me, of course! [lit. It's me, liar!]

[ PNCV *kaletease, joke, deceive’. ]

gal2   [ɣal] transitive verb.

(1) blow into one's hands on to leaves to light ‹a fire, n-ep›.

gal n-ep
light a fire

(2) blow into one's hands on to magic leaves to rouse ‹a magic power, na-man›.

N-et tēytēy tēnge en ni-gal na-man nonon e tō ni-leh ne-len̄.
The sorcerer employs his magic power, and diverts the wind.
gal3   [ɣal] transitive verb. roll ‹fibres, e.g. nu-nuy› on the thigh to make cord.

[ Mota galo. ]

g[a]la   (na-gla) [naɣla] noun. left side of the human body, esp. left hand.

Ant: mōtō

g[a]la   (gala) adv. from right to left.

Ige Arabik kēy yapyap gala.
Arabs write from right to left.
galeg  [ɣalɛɣ] transitive verb.

lower register: ak

(1) make, produce ‹s.th›.

ige mey a kēy ma-galeg n-ēm̄ en
those who built the house

ige galeg-ēm̄
the builders (of houses)

galeg na-tamn̄a
make a mat

galeg n-ep
make a fire

(2) make, prepare, create.

galeg na-ga
prepare [make] kava

galeg na-pyēyag
sweep [do] the rubbish

galeg ne-gengen
prepare the meal, cook

Kem galeg na-wha.
We'll play [make] music.

Ami galeg qele kimi n-ēglal.
Do as you think best.

Kēy ma-galeg na-hap mey a ne-het.
What they did is not good.

(3) present a particular development stage.

Kē mal galeg na-yon.
It's already got [made] its leaves.

Ni-hnag et-galeg galsi te n-ēwan.
The yam hasn't grown properly [didn't make its fruit].

(4) do as if; act in such a way that, make sure that.

Nēk galeg a so nēk may dēm veteg na-haphap a kē ma-galeg tō van hiy nēk.
You act as if you'd forgiven him for what he'd done to you.

Dōyō mas galeg a so kē mas togolgol.
We must make sure that (the song) is perfect.

Na-Tmat so ni-galeg so Iqet so tateh.
Satan wanted to make sure that God disappeared.

(5) make sure that. Forms factitive phrases..

Nok galeg kē ni-ēh lok.
I'll revive him [lit. I make sure he revives].

(6) annoy, harass ‹s.o.›.

Tog gagaleg kē van!
Stop annoying him!
galeg galsi  [ɣalɛɣ ɣalsi] transitive verb. repair, patch up ‹s.th›.

wiyis

No-tos mino me-het, nēk ta-galeg galsi vēh?
My lamp doesn't work, can you fix it?
galgal m̄aya  [ɣalɣal ŋ​͡mʷaja] intransitive verb. act, play a part to amuse the public; by_ext. give a comical or serious theatrical performance –e.g. in church.

na-hye galgal m̄aya
theatre [place to perform comedy]
galgal m̄aya  intransitive verb. act a part on stage. The tone may be comic (Cf. m̄aya) or otherwise, as in religious scenes in anglican churches.

m̄[a]ya [B]

gal ‘mentir’

galingoy   [ɣalinɣɔj] intransitive verb. plot ; keep a secret.

goy ‘(13)’

Dō galingoy den kēy.
We talk behind their backs, we plot against them.
galingoy   transitive verb. prepare (sthg) without s.o. else knowing it (den).

Dō galingoy na-tapēva gōh den kēy.
Let's give them a surprise present.
galsi  [ɣalsi] adv. well, correctly, exactly.

Nēk te-mtiy galsi qiyig.
You'll see, you'll sleep very well tonight.

Kōyō m-etgoy galsi ēntēyō.
Both took good care of their child.

Nok et-ēglal galgalsi te.
I'm not perfectly sure about that.

Nēk hohole galsi den no.
You speak even better than I do.
gam  [ɣam] intransitive verb. to sail, sail out to the ocean.

gaban ‘voile’

vak

n-ok gamgam
sailboat [canoe with sail]

Ni-siok vitwag gamgam tō agōh !
A sail on the horizon! [lit. a canoe is sailing here]

[ Mota gam̄osail, make a sailing voyage’. ]

gamat  (na-gamat) [naɣamat] noun. <Bot> generic name for some plants.

[ Mota gamata nin̄nin̄. ]

gamatqey  (na-gamatqey) [naɣamatk​͡pʷɛj] noun. <Pois> "Square tailed mullet", reef fish. Mugil vaigiensis.

ganah

gamlala  (na-gamlala) [naɣamlala] noun. <Anat> vein

[ Mota gapalaotendons, veins’. ]

gamteg  [ɣamtɛɣ] transitive verb.

tēy

Nēk so gamteg kē me.
g[a]nah  (na-gnah) [naɣnah] noun. <Pois> Bluespot mullet, reef fish, 50 cm. Mugil seheli. ◈ This fish is caught in large quantities at feast times which imply collective meals. About six men go off for a few days to the local Ayô island to catch hundreds of these na-gnah.

[ Mota ganase. PNCV, POc *kanase. ]

ganwon  [ɣanwɔn] adv.

(1) (do V) suddenly, unexpectedly, without warning.

Na-sm̄al me-sm̄al ganwon.
Suddenly the rain fell, unexpectedly (without warning)

(2) (do V) briskly.

Kē mē-hēlat ganwon nē-nlon.
In one sharp bloa, he cut his throat.

[ Mota ganawonowantonly, carelessly’. ]

gap  (na-gap) [naɣap] noun. <Zool> crab.

nē-lwo gap
crab's claw ['tooth']

Na-gap ma-sak lō den na-qyan̄ nonon.
The crab crawled out of his hole.

[ POc *kape. ]

gap1   [ɣap] intransitive verb. fly, fl:esp. flapping wings (fl:opp. hal 'float').

Ne-bem so ma-gapgap lelo ēm̄ en, vasem so hiqiyig ta-van qiyig me.
If a butterfly flies into the house, it's a sign someone is going to visit you.

[ Mota gavato fly with flapping wings’. POc *kapak. ]

gapluwyeg  [ɣapluwjɛɣ] transitive verb. spill ‹liquid› accidentally, clumsily.

luwyeg ‘déverser’

Yugo ma-gapluwyeg ni-gli wōm̄ēl naman.
Y. spilled his orange juice.
gapwut  [ɣapwut] transitive verb. heave up ‹soil›.

wut

wōq

Gēn wōq nē-tqē mi nē-qētah kē ni-yoy, tō gapwut.

Ni-hnag ta-gapwut vēh nē-vētan.
gapyuy  (na-gapyuy) [naɣapjuj] noun. <Bot> a giant liana, extremely thick and robust (unidentified).

Na-glon en, ne-mtēltēl qele na-gapyuy a hag lē-m̄ēt en.
⟨Giant Pig⟩ Its tail was as huge as the giant liana from the bush.

[  < °ɣa-βaruru. ]

gaqiy  (na-gaqiy) [naɣak​͡pʷij] noun. <Bot> Lawyer cane, rattan. Flagellaria spp.

gasel  (na-gasel) [naɣasɛl] noun.

(1) knife.

(2) large, long solid blade bush knife, approx 50 cm long.

ga-sēsē  (na-gasēsē) [naɣasɪsɪ] noun. <Bot>

(1) plant name (Amaranthaceae). Cyathula spp.

(2) rainbow.

gatakōn̄kōn̄  (na-gatakōn̄kōn̄) [naɣatakʊŋkʊŋ] noun. <Bot> plant name (Lauraceae). Cassytha filiformis.
gatam  (na-gatam) [naɣatam] noun. <Bot> plant name (Leguminous). Canavalia maritima.
gatay   [ɣataj] transitive verb.

(1) evoke, speak about ‹s.th›; mention, quote ‹(the name of) s.o.›.

Kem mō-yōstiwag en, kemem ma-gatay se na-he.
During our meeting, we also mentioned your name.

Na-he taq tō gōh kē, kēy et-gatay te van namwumwu namu.
In this ode in your honour, they forgot to speak about your work.

(2) speak ill of ‹s.o.›, spread rumours about ‹s.o.›.

Syn: lēlēlhiy

Nēk tog gagatay n-et qele nen!
Stop running those people down!
gatay   adv. about, on the subject of ‹s.o., s.th›; (speak) of.

Syn: bE-

Syn: veg

Nok hole gatay na-laklak to-M̄otlap.
I'm going to speak about [lit. speak-mention the] Motalava dances.

Dō ma-kaka gatay tō en, et-misin goy qete en!
But we've just spoken about that!

[ Mota <°gato-tara.  gatotalk’.  taramention a person's name’. ]

gatgat   [ɣatɣat] transitive verb. talk, speak; esp. speak ‹a foreign language›.

lower register: hohole

Ige qoywon, kēy gatgat nono-y mi na-mne-y.
The deaf speak with their hands.
gatgat   (na-gatgat) noun. language, dialect.

lower register: hohole

lower register: vap

lanwis

na-gatgat to-M̄otlap
the language of Mwotlap, Mwotlap

Kē et-ēglal te na-gatgat nongēn.
She doesn't know our language.

ige tēytēybē ne gatgat
[language doctors] linguists

[ Mota gatospeak; talk another language’. ]

gatgoy  [ɣatɣɔj] transitive verb. : forbid.

[ Mota gato goro. ]

gat + goy1.

gatqap  (na-gatqap) [naɣatk​͡pʷap] noun. <Bot> plant name (Convolvulaceae). Merremia peltata.

[ Mota taqava. ]

gatqēh  (na-gatqēh) [naɣatk​͡pʷɪh] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, unidentified. Its sticky gum is sometimes used as glue.
gavag  (na-gavag) [naɣaβaɣ] noun. <Bot> k.o. pandanus, bsl. Big-pandanas. Pandanus spp.

vag

gavan̄  (na-gavan̄) [naɣaβaŋ] noun. <Bot> plant name (Smilacaceae). Smilax spp.
ga-vey  (na-gavey) [naɣaβɛj] noun. <Bot> climbing plant linked to the beach hibiscus.

vey

gavilvil  (na-gavilvil) [naɣaβilβil] noun. : rocker arm ties (na-sam), fixing the rivets (na-sam), to the extremities of the joining beam (nē-wtē).

ga-3 + vil.

gawol  (na-gawol) [naɣawɔl] noun. <Bot> Lawyer cane, rattan. Flagellaria spp. ◈ Techn. This kind of rattan is used as a rope.

Nok nin na-gawol, tō yēt maymay nē-qētēnge aē.
ga-wow  (na-gawow) [naɣawɔw] noun. <Bot> (unidentified) plant.

ga-wuh  (na-ga-wuh) [naɣawuh] noun. state of drunkenness due to kava, between relaxation and somnolence.

Na-gawuh ma-bah?
Are you sobering up [the kava drunkenness is over]?
gay1   [ɣaj] pf. half

gay2   [ɣaj] intransitive verb. clench the teeth....

gayēy

gaymōm

[ Mota garagarato clench the teeth’. POc *kaʀatbite’. ]

gay qul goy  transitive verb. cover ‹object, opening› partially (gay), e.g. block the opening to a cave with a large stone.

qul [A]

g[a]yaq  [ɣajak​͡pʷ] adj. new

[ Mota garaqa. PNCV *kara-bʷa. ]

gayeh  (na-gayeh) [naɣajɛh] noun. <Bot> plant name (Schizéaceae). Lygodium reticulatum.
gayētyēt  (na-gayētyēt) [naɣajɪtjɪt] noun. <Bot> a plant (Agavaceae), bsl. Nangaria. Cordyline terminalis. ◈ Its leaves are used to tie up (yēt) small packs of pudding (tgop) before cooking them in stone oven.

gayga  (na-gayga) [naɣajɣa] noun. <Bot>

(1) any kind of natural liana or climbing plant.

ga-

Kem tot na-gayga, yoweg hoyo hiy nē-vēthiyle.
You cut a liana and lay it down on the beach.

(2) liana having a function (e.g. to tie, link up, hook, delimit, etc.); rope, string, thread, wire, cable, electric wire.

na-gayga mōmō
string of fish

Ige lōqōvēn kēy ye yosveg nō-mōmō, kēy tabay la-gayga nonoy.
The women caught many fish and hooked them one by one on to their ropes.

Kēy wōkwōk na-qyan̄, kēy yoweg na-gayga, kēy wōkwōk na-qyan̄…
They dug out a hole, stretched out a line, dug another hole...

Kē ni-lēg na-gayga van lē-qēthōn, tō ni-lēg mat kē aē.
As soon as he'd fixed the rope to the main beam, he hung himself and passed away.

Kēy lep na-gayga tō kēy susuy ne-qen aē.
With a string we make a net.

na-gayga yapyap
fishing line, line

[ PNCV <°ˌɣaro-ˈɣae. North-V *kaʀovine, rope’.  °ɣa[w]eliana, vine, rope’. ]

gaygay1   [ɣajɣaj] intransitive verb. stinging, itchy.

ēlag ‘urticaire’

gaygay1   (na-gaygay) noun. <Méd>

Na-gaygay aē mi kē.

[ PNCV *kaʀa-tistinging, itchy’. ]

gaygay2   (na-gaygay) [naɣajɣaj] noun. <Pois> reef fish: blue stiped Eleotris. Valenciennea strigata (?).

gayme~  (na-gayme~) [naɣajmɛ] -. <Anat>

(1) tongue.

na-gayme m̄at
vicious tongue

Nē-bē sewsew me-sqo na-gaymek.
I burnt my tongue with the tea.

Kōyō vēy-wesewseg na-gaymayō.
They kiss each other on the lips [lit. stick each other's tongue out]

(2)

[ Mota garam̄ea-i. POc *kaʀamaya. ]

gaymōm  [ɣajmʊm] adv. mumble, (speak) indistinctly, unintelligibly.

Ige susu, kēy hohole gaymōm.
Children babble. [speak-mumble]

Nok sese-eh gaymōm ēwē, veg nok et-ēglal te na-vavap nan.
I sometimes sing to myself / without articulating [sing-mumble], because I don't know the words.
gayte  (na-gayte) [naɣajtɛ] -. piece ; half.

na-tkel-gi ‘morceau’

na-gayte gengen
a piece of food

nō-wōl na-gayte-gi
half-moon

Na-lo vētēl na-gayte-gi.
It's half past three.

Nō-bōk mino mal gayte-gi.
My notebook is half way through.

[ Mota garataifragment, remnant’. ]

ge1   (°na-ge) [naɣɛ] noun. thing
ge2   (ne-ge) [nɛɣɛ] noun.

[ Vurës <°káu. POc ɣo.  *kawil. ]

-ge3   [ɣɛ] sf. PersSuf
geay  (ne-geay) [nɛɣɛaj] noun. fence

[ Mota geara. PNCV *ara. POc *qaʀa(r). ]

geg  (ne-geg) [nɛɣɛɣ] noun. <Bot> red flower. Amaranthus gangeticus.

[ Mota gegaan amaranthus’. PNCV *kekacockscomb plant’. ]

geh  [ɣɛh] adj.

(1) each one of them, everyone, all of them. Distributive, consisting of distributing the same predicate on a parallel, on several referents taken separately.

Ige to-M̄otlap geh anen.
All those people are from Mwotlap (each and every one of them).

Ige geh nen, qulqul nonoy geh aē.
Those (girls) over there, with no exception, they've all got boyfriends.

Kēy gapgap geh ēgēn!
They all took off (one after the other, separately).

Iqet mi-tin̄tin̄ n-et geh.
Iqet created men, one after the other.

Kēy goy vētgi me, ne-ptig geh na-kaskas lē-qtēy.
Here they come in crowds, everyone with a flower in their hair.

No-yobem gōh e, na-hek na-taq geh aē.
In this book my name appears several times.

Kem et-ēglal te na-kaka geh gōh en.
We don't know all those stories.

Iyē geh nen?
Who is it? Who are these people? (what are their names, of each of them?) – Cf. iyē.

(2) none, not at all.

Tateh ipluk geh.
I have no friend.

Tateh et geh le-pnō, ige del mē-qēt bi-hilhil !
There's absolutely no one in the village, they've all gone to the fields.

Tateh gengen geh so kēy so gen.
They had nothing [at all] to eat.

No et-ēglal geh te.
I don't know anything at all about that.
g[e]mel  (na-gmel) [naɣmɛl] noun. <Hist> men's house, bsl. nakamal. Designates several kinds of common houses reserved for men, and associated with exercising power.

(1) palace, private home of dignitaries (welan), in former society. Noble term to designate 'house' (n-ēm̄) in stories and myths..

Iqet mitiy tō a le-gmel nonon.
Iqet was sleeping in his house.

(2) sacred house in which some ceremonies took place to establish dignitaries of high rank (cf. nō-sōq), in former society.

(3) house reserved for village chiefs (mayanag), sometimes for adult men in general. part. designates the local council house (also called n-ēm̄ qos).

(4) house reserved for drinking kava, including in its modern and urban form of kava-bar, where kava is bought by the glass.

[ Mota gamalclub-house of suqe, or of a single high rank’. POc *kamali(ʀ)men's house’. ]

gen1   [ɣɛn] transitive verb. <Ethn> eat

(1) eat ‹meat, vegetables +›.

Gen !
eat it!

Kem me-gen nō-mōmō, kem me-gen ne-beg…
We ate fish, we ate breadfruit...

(2) suffer ‹something unpleasant›; be obliged to receive or do s.th, in the form of a test (cf. Eng. "swallow the pill", "endure".

ga~

No mal tēytēy bah nō-wōlin̄lin̄yeg, tō nēk gen ēgēn !
There you go, I've hidden the tokens, it's your turn to eat them now! [i.e. rummage through the sand with your hand]

(3) take a meal to celebrate ‹a certain number of days, nō-qōn*› since someone died; hence accomplish a family ceremony to commemorate the deceased.

Kem gengen nō-qōn̄ son̄wul nonon ēgēn.
Today we commemorate [lit. eat] the tenth day (of his death).

(4) move up the ranks in the initiatory hierarchy. In the course of a secret ceremony, the candidate had to eat ‹the contents of an oven›, among the dozen stone ovens (na-qyēni) corresponding to the dozen ranks of the initiatory course (nō-sōq); hence acquire ‹such and such rank›.

Kē me-gen nē-tētuw ; kē me-gen na-lan.
He moved up [lit. ate] the ranks netetuw, he achieved a higher rank nalan.

(5) ⟨fire n-ep consume, burn.

lal

N-ēm̄ mino, n-ep me-gen qēt.
My house got completely burnt down.

N-ep me-gen mat kē.
He died in a fire [the fire ate-killed him]

[ PNCV, POc *kani. ]

gen2   (ne-gen) [nɛɣɛn] noun. <Ins> big black poisonous ant. Solenopsis geminata.

didi

[ PNCV *kadiblack biting ant’. ]

gen heylō  ~ gen vaywēg  transitive verb. go through all the steps of the initiatory course nō-sōq) represented in the ‹initiatory house na-gmel›;|fl{hence} move up all the steps of the hierarchy ladder, reach the highest rank.

gen [1]

Ma-bah ēgēn. Kē me-gen heylō na-gmel.
There, it's all over: he's passed each grade of [lit. eaten up] the initiatory house.
gengen   [ɣɛnɣɛn] intransitive verb. take one's meal, eat (Intr.).

Sōwō, gengen!
[come on, let's eat] Meal's ready!

Nok gengen, ba na-maygay ni-akak no.
I'm still hungry, even after a meal.

gengen tot-matap
eat in the morning, have breakfast

gengen lēwomyen
eat at midday, lunch

gengen yēpyep
eat in the evening, dine

gengen mamah
[eat dry] fast

gengen tuvusm̄el
[eat big chief] eat with one's fingers, from the plate
gengen   transitive verb. eat (s.t.), be an eater of.

No ne-gengen ēwē nō-mōmō.
I only eat fish.
gengen   (ne-gengen) noun.

(1) food ; (pred.) edible..

Ne-gengen nagangēn ma-bah qēt.
We've got nothing left to eat.

(2) something edible, that can be eaten.

Na-ptel gōh et-gengen te.
This (type of) banana is not edible [lit. is not food].

(3) meal, spec. collective meal;hence gathering around a collective meal.

lavēt

Kēy so galeg ne-gengen liwo.
They're going to make a big collective meal.

[ PNCV *kani-kanioccasion of eating (feast, meal); food’. ]

gengen vasgēt  transitive verb.

vasgēt

Ant: gengen vētleg ‘repas d'adieu’

gentel  (ne-gentel) [nɛɣɛntɛl] noun. <Pois> Three coloured perch, reef fish.. Pterocaesio tile.

g[e]sew  (na-gsew) [naɣsɛw] noun. <Bot> a wild variety of bush-nut (ne-vel, na-wtag). Barringtonia racemosa.

get1   (ne-get) [nɛɣɛt] noun. basket

boy(boy)

tan̄

[ PNCV *kete. ]

gey   [ɣɛj] intransitive verb.

(1) to wade through water; to ford a river (esp. between the Lahlap beach and the Aya islet.).

(2) swim, move through water without touching the bottom.

suwsuw ‘se baigner’

No me-gey ēwē.
I'm out of my depth [lit. I'm swimming only].

Nē-nētm̄ey ni-geygey misimsin, na-bago ni-n̄it kē.
The child swam too slowly, he got bitten by the shark.

Kōyō me-gey i gey i gey e, gey yow dēn̄ ni-siok.
Both of them began to swim, swim, swim right up to the canoe.

(3) clear off, go away, leave.

Kē may gey!
She's gone off! [lit. she swam)

Nok so gey m̄ōl ēagōh.
I feel like clearing off. [swimming-going home]

Nēk te-gey vēh !
[lit. Go for a swim] Go and take a jump!

Ukēg kēy, kēy te-gey vēh!
Forget about them, let them go to hell!
gey   transitive verb. push ‹s.th that floats› through water, while in the water oneself.

gey hay

gey ni-siok le-naw
push a canoe through the waves (whilst swimming alongside it, or wading through water)

gey na-hay
move through water whilst pushing the coconut net (na-hay)

[ PNCV *karuswim, bathe’. POc *kaʀu. ]

gey hay  voi. "liana fishing": go collectively fishing, using a huge fishing liana (na-hay).

gey [B]

Yatkel mahē, ige yoyoweg goy nō-mōmō mi na-hay lililwo, a so ‘gey hay’ en.
From time to time we surround the fish with an enormous fishing liana, called ‘gey_hay’.
g[e]yeh   [ɣɛjɛh] transitive verb.

(1) grate, spec. grate the pulp of a coconut using a shell (ni-vingey) or a grating board (nē-qēt-geyegyeh).

yah ‘râper (tubercules)’

(2) scratch ‹a rough surface›, e.g. with one's nails.

gaygay ‘se gratter’

g[e]yeh   (na-gyegyeh) noun. grating action; result of grating action: grated food (e.g. coconut).

na-gyegyeh mitig
grated coconut [coconut gratings]

[ Mota <°korási. POc gorasscrape out, grate, the hard meat of coconut with cockle-shell’.  *korasscrape (coconut meat)’. ]

gēl  [ɣɪl] intransitive verb. hurl insults (on s.o, hiy), tell off.

vēy-gēl ‘s'engueuler’

Nitog gēlgēl me hiy no! Nok et-ak te na-hap mey ne-het hiy nēk.
Stop shouting at me, I haven't done any harm!

[ Mota goluse angry language’. ]

gēlqaqa   [ɣɪlk​͡pʷak​͡pʷa] intransitive verb. swear, use swearwords, hurl insults (on s.o, hiy).

Nēk so gēlqaqa, nēk ganganoy.
If you swear, it's a sin.
gēlqaqa   (nē-gēlqaqa) noun. swearwords, swearing.

Nēk vatne bah nē-gēlqaqa en, tō nēk qoyo ēglal galgalsi na-gatgat.
Start off by learning swearwords, and you'll know the language perfectly.
gēmteg  [ɣɪmtɛɣ] transitive verb. seize ‹s.th› with one's foot.

sēmteg ‘pousser du pied’

Nēk mē-gēmteg kal nē-qētēnge.
You picked a stick up with your foot.
gēn1   [ɣɪn] pp. we all, ie. me & you & they; 1inc Plural.

igēn

dōyō

ēntēl

ti-mi-gēn

[ PNCV *kida. POc *kita. ]

gēn2   [ɣɪn] dx. there, that, here. Third degree deictic of focalised demonstrative value..

(1) hee, there, over there. Refers to a precise location, designated physically (by the hand or the head), whether at a distance or close by..

No ne-myōs mey gēn!
I want that one!

Intik gēn!
Here's my son.

Na-ln̄e eh vanvan me gēn!
I can hear a song coming from this side...

At yak tog yow gēn, nēk et?
Hey, look over there (towards the beach)! Do you see?

Ete n-ēm̄ mino a hag gēn, a isqet n-ēm̄-yon̄ en.
My house is over there (to the east), next to the church.

(2) all of a sudden; now. Emphasizes present utterance.

ēgēn

Na-vap t-am̄ag nan ni-bah hōw gēn.
This is how (my story) ends.

(3) this, here, thus. Refers to a current action (gestures+).

Ne-hyo tege qele gēn.
It was roughly as long as this.

Nēk laklak qele gēn!
This is how you should dance.

(4) this way, like this. Refers to words of immediate context, either just before or just after..

Kē gēn!
That's it (as you say).

Tō ni-bah. Na-maltē ēwē gēn.
(The story) is over. You see, it's very short.

Tō kē vēlēs gēn.
That's all.

Tō no-towtow-eh e, ikē qele gēn.
And that's what poetry is all about.

N-eh nan qele gēn:…
This is how the song goes we spoke about [lit. the song was like this]: ...

No-woslēgē en, kē qele gēn, so: …
This is how traditional weddings go [lit. it's like this]: ...
gēpne~  (nē-gēpne~) [nɪɣɪpnɛ] -. <Anat> armpit

gēpnah

[ PNCV <°káviná-.  *ʔavi-ŋaarmpit’. ]

gēt1   [ɣɪt] adj. stiff, rigid.

hag gētgēt
[sit stiff] crouched down

Na-lwek mē-gēt.
I'm having an erection.

Nē-gēt?
Are you OK? [lit. is it hard?]

[ Mota getrise, stand, stiffly’. ]

gēt2   [ɣɪt] transitive verb. detest, hate.

gēt3   (nē-gēt) [nɪɣɪt] noun. <Pois>

(1) Pencil-streaked rabbitfish, bsl. Yelotel-piko. Siganus doliatus.

(2) Siganus sp.

g[ē]tē  (na-gtē) [naɣtɪ] noun. <Zool> hermitcrab, a small crustacean that lodges inside inside shells. Pagurus spp. ◈ Given to fish as bite in line fishing (yapyap). In animal fables, it sometimes plays the role of a fragile, but crafty animal.

[ Mota gatou. PNCV, POc *katou. ]

g[ē]vēg  (na-gvēg) [naɣβɪɣ] noun. <Bot> Malay apple, bsl. Nakavika. Syzygium malaccense.

[ PNCV *kavika. POc *kapika. ]

g[ē]vēg gan tamat  (na-gvēg gan tamat) [naɣβɪɣ ɣan tamat] noun. <Bot>

(1) the Devil's apple-tree, an unedible, wild variety of Syzygium (na-gvēg), bsl. Wael-kavika. Syzygium spp.

(2) name of the main traditional sand-drawing design.

gēy  (nē-gēy) [nɪɣɪj] noun. <Bot> pandanusPandanus tectorius.

ga-vag

yōpdēge ‘(feuilles de) pandanus’

[ Mota gire. PNCV, POc *kiʀePandanus tectorius’. ]

gēybak  (nē-gēybak) [nɪɣɪjᵐbak] noun. <Bot> name of a tree. Syzygium spp.

gēymet  [ɣɪjmɛt] adj. long variant of met2.

(1) ⟨nuts⟩  ripe, ready to eat.

met [2]

Na-wtag mal gēymet.
The Barringtonia nuts are ready.

(2) ⟨s.o.⟩  ripe in age, mature.

Syn: mata

Kē mal liwo, kē mal gēymet.
She is well grown up, she's quite mature.

[ Cfmet2. ]

-gi  [ɣi] sf. suffix.

bahne-gi
the last

vōyōne-gi
the second

na-gayte-gi
half

na-tvel-gi
a piece

tekel-gi

taval-gi
the other side
gil  [ɣil] transitive verb. dig

[ PNCV <°kíli. POc *k(e,i)li.  *kelito dig’. ]

g[i]li~  (ni-gli~) [niɣli] -.

(1) juice ‹fruit, vegetal›.

ni-gli wōm̄ēl
orange juice

ni-gli yan̄yan̄
juice from Acalypha leaves

(2) liquid.

gin  [ɣin] transitive verb.

(1) pinch ‹s.th, s.o.› with the thumb and index.

Gin gin i gen e
Pinch the ant

(2) tear off one by one the ‹Cycas fern ne-m̄el›, leaflets to count days.

m̄el*

gin m̄aya

Imam nonon gin ne-m̄el van nō-qōn̄ son̄wul nen en, e tō kē ni-van lok me.
His father picked off one by one the leaflets of his Cycas for ten days, then he came back.

[ PNCV *kini-tipinch, nip’. POc *ŋkinit. ]

gin m̄aya  transitive verb. lit. “pinch funny” : pinch to make s.o. laugh, tickle.

gin

Tog gingin m̄aya kē van!
Stop tickling her!

gingin m̄aya  transitive verb. tickle.

m̄[a]ya [B]

gin ‘pincer’

gismamat   [ɣismamat] transitive verb. prepare ‹collective meal, feast›.

Syn: tēymat ‘préparer’

Kēy hay ne-qet, gil ni-hnag, wuh no-qo, gismamat qēt ne-gengen nagay del ēgēn.
They picked taros, dug up yams, killed pigs... in preparation of a gigantic meal for everyone.
gismamat   intransitive verb. complete preparation, spec. for a collective meal or feast.

Gēn so gismamat ēgēn.
Now's the time to start preparing (for the feast).
gismamat   (ni-gismamat) noun. preparation for a feast.

Na-tamn̄a en, gēn te-vet yosveg vēh lō-qōn̄ vitwag woy ēwē, yakhagyeh a bi-gismamat be-leg.
Sometimes we weave a large number of mats in a single day – especially when we prepare for a wedding.

[ Mota gismamateget ready beforehand, prepare overnight’. ]

git  (ni-git) [niɣit] noun. <Ins> louse.

lōp

ni-git vey

[ PNCV, POc *kutu. ]

gityak  [ɣitjak] intransitive verb. run, run away.

Syn: plag

gog  (no-gog) [nɔɣɔɣ] noun. <Bot> a tree (Euphorbiaceae), bsl. Navenue. Macaranga dioica.

gog  (no-gog m̄am̄al) noun. <Bot> lit. “blue/green Macaranga” : another variety. Macaranga tanarius.

[ PNCV, PEO *kokaBischofia sp.’. ]

goh  [ɣɔh] transitive verb. husk

[ PNCV *koso-mito husk a coconut’. POc *kojom. ]

golgol  [ɣɔlɣɔl] intransitive verb. ?.

[ PNCV *kolowither’. ]

gom   [ɣɔm] adj. (fall or be) ill.

Nēk tiple gom aē.
Be careful not to fall ill.

No-momyiy m-ak no, nok so gom.
I'm cold, I'm going to be ill.

Kē mo-gom e tō kē ni-mat.
He died of illness [He was ill and then he died].
gom   (no-gom) noun. illness, pathology.

n-ēm̄ gom
[house of sickness] dispensary, hospital

no-momyiy gom
[illness cold] malaria

[ Mota gopato be sick, ill’. ]

gon1   [ɣɔn] adj. sharp, bitter; of bad taste.

Ant: neneh ‘sucré, délicieux’

Ne-gengen gōh kē no-gon naw.
This food is bitter (like) salt!

Na-ga kē no-gon!
Kava has a strange taste.

[ PNCV *konabitter’. POc *(ŋ)kona. ]

gon2   [ɣɔn] intransitive verb.

(1) be stuck, trapped, accidentally immobilized.

gongon ‘occupé’

Kem hag day so nō-mōmō so ni-gon lelo qen.
We're waiting for the fish to come and get caught in the net.

Ēt! Ne-qen mo-gon le-vetvet!
Ooh! The net's caught in the rocks!

(2) muddled, inextricable.

Syn:

vogongon

(3) arduous, difficult, complicated.

Syn: meh

Syn: galēs

Syn: vēgih

gon2   intsf. Intensifier of the vb mētēmteg 'be afraid, frightened. cf. ang. "to death" in "frightened to death" or "dead" in "dead frightened".

No ne-mtēmteg gon na-bago.
I'm dead frightened of sharks!

[ Mota gonaentangled, intricate, so difficult; to be engaged, occupied’. PNCV *konacaught, tangled’. ]

gon3   [ɣɔn] transitive verb. <Techn>

(1) drive a long pointed object (e.g. sagay) into ‹a larger object›: knife, stab, harpoon; drive into, plant, pierce.

gon goy

Kēy mo-gon Jises.
They struck Jesus with a spear.

Gon bat ni-vinhe tiwag mi nē-qētah, tō na-ptōy nan ni-m̄lō.
You dig a rod [cf. nē-qētah] into the bamboo in order to split the knots.

Luw na-qyan̄, tō gon maymay nō-tōti han̄, kē taple mōmōgēg.
You dig a hole, then you push the pillar into it firmly [na-han̄], to stop it from swaying.

(2) press ‹the ground› down with a heavy stick held in both hands, where a post is to be erected (vētgiy), e.g. when building a house.

Vētgiy na-han̄, tō gon nē-vētan ēgēn.
Once you've erected your post, you press the earth down (around it).
gon goy  transitive verb. <Techn> close ‹door, lock› securely by pushing a long object into another; bolt, padlock (opp. vēhbeg goy, close with a simple catch.

gon [3]

goy [1] ‘(5) en refermant’

tabeg ‘fermer’

Gon goy galsi na-mteēm̄ !
Bolt the door properly !
gongon   [ɣɔnɣɔn] adj. busy, tied up with another activity, occupied.

gon [2] ‘bloqué’

Dō so muwumwu, ba veg no no-gongon.
I'd like us to work together, but I don't have the time.
gongon   (no-gongon) noun. occupation, hindrance.

Ne-mgaysēn, ba no-gongon aē mi no.
Sorry, I'm busy [I am hindered]
gonteg  [ɣɔntɛɣ] adv. (secure)

[ Mota gonatagto secure as by tying’. PNCV *konacaught, tangled’. ]

gop  (°na-gop) [naɣɔp] noun. <Ornith> Eastern Reef Heron, 50 cm. Egretta sacra.

Koloyni na-Gop, na-n̄ye en ne-heyhey ne-mlēmlēg.
⟨rhyme⟩
goy1   [ɣɔj] adv. always suffixed to a verb V. Gen. pattern. Sb (A) protects stg (B) by means of a covering object C, esp.in such a way to prevent, purposely or not, another person (D) from reaching B. Hence |fb{A interposes C to protect B and/or to keep away D}. The various meanings of goy are a result of the combinations between these elements

(1) [A,B,C] cover, envelop, shroud, encircle (stg) with a surrounding object, the latter being specified in the sentence. See [V+goy] with V: m̄on, quy, yoq.

Na-tmatwoh, lep no-yot tō yēt goy na-mtan.
For the big drum, take some sago leaves and tie them together (yēt) so as to cover (goy) its opening.

Hey goy ni-qti mi na-hat anen!
Protect your head with your hat!

Nēk wēdē goy no mi ne-vet.
⟨tale⟩ You will cover me over with stones (in the oven, cf. wdē).

(2) [A,B,(C)] idem, the nature of the covering object being suggested by the verb V. Cf. [V+goy] with V: geay, bey, hey2, luw, tetey, talvip, vet3, wēdē.

Kem me-geay goy nē-vētan, kē tale sisgoy soloteg.
We fenced the mound of earth (geay 'fence'), for fear it might collapse.

Kē me-bey goy kē.
She put a skirt around her (bey).

(3) [A,B,(C)‹A] cover, block, hide: V implies that A covers B with a part of his body (hig 'with the finger', tēy 'with the hand'). Cf. [V+goy] with V: hig, ol, tan̄, tēy, qosos, sil.

Nok tēy goy nē-dēln̄ek.
I block up my ears (with my hands).

Nēk mi-sil goy kē!
You put your arms around her!

(4) [A,B] cover, invade (a place): the covering object is A itself. Cf. Eng. over. Cf. [V+goy] with V: gay, hey1, hin̄yeg, yō1, yoq.

Nō-wōl me-hey goy na-pnō del.
The whole village is swamped in moonlight.

N-ēm̄ ni-yoq goy ne-men ē-gēn !
And then the trap closes in on the bird.

Ige van wolat goy na-mtehal.

(5) [A,B=C] cover stg with itself, hence: close, shut; fasten; put together, join. Cf. [V+goy] with V: tabeg, vēhbeg, gon1, qul1, won, lok2, qal, yam.

qul goy no-totgal
stick together a photo

gon goy na-mteēm̄
bolt the door

Lok hōw, kē ni-van qal goy mey lok hag.
The west is joining the east.

Kē ni-yam goy lok me.
She pays back her debt to me.

(6) [A,B,(C),D] purposely or not, act or find oneself in such a position (verb V) that one hides an object (B), thus preventing someone (D) from seeing it or reaching it; hence block, occupy, monopolise; hide (stg), preserve, protect (stg) (from, against: den) [Obj=B]. Cf. [V+goy] with V: en2, hag2, tig, vay1, hal1, qoy, myuw, ōy, vay1, vlōl.

Nēk ma-tan̄ melmel goy nō-bōk.
Your hand (tan̄) is casting a shadow (mel) over my notebook.

Nēk ma-hag goy na-tnēk!
You're sitting in my seat [you sit-block my seat]!

In̄glan, na-naw na-hal goy.
England is an island [the sea floats-blocks].

Ige mayanag mi-hig goy na-tmat so kē nitog leplep.
The chiefs protected the masks by preventing (the tourist) from taking them away.

(7) [A,B,'C',(D)] protect (stg) from others by pronouncing ritual words; reserve (stg, sb, a place) by marking it as one's property, appropriate; render holy or taboo; consecrate, bless. Cf. [V+goy] with V: ‘reserve for o.s.’, ak, vēg, lēlēv, sal, tan̄, ōl_gonteg; "to get engaged" ak, vatlēg, hoghog; ‘consecrate’, vav, tatay.

No mē-vēg goy so na-kis.
I reserved it for myself (to eat, kis).

Kem van ak goy na-lqōvēn.
We're going to celebrate (my son's) engagement.

salsal goy n-ēm̄
mark one's private property on one's home [by hanging stg on it, sal].

Ige qagqag kēy mi-lilip goy Numea.
New Caledonia was colonised by Whites.

(8) [A,B] act (V) so as to protect, obtain, master (stg); have a dominant position over; act for (stg). Cf. [V+goy] with V: liwo, welan, bos; wotwotm̄ag; mtiy.

Kem mitiy goy ni-mit.
We're keeping watch over the meat [sleep on it, mtiy].

Kē no-wotwotm̄ag goy kemem.
He's the eldest of ("over") us all.

Magra kē ni-lwo goy na-gmel agōh.
Magra runs [who is ‘big over’] this kava-bar.

No no-bos goy mahgēk !
I am my own boss (I am free to do whatever I want).

Na-Tmat m-aksok so kē ni-wuh Iqet, so kē ni-lwo goy a na-myam kē.
Satan tried to kill God, in order to rule the world.

(9) [A,B] act esp. go and find (stg), go and fetch (stg, sb). Cf. [V+goy] with V: van1, gityak, at, sōyteg, tatag, yow2; daeva, mnuw, tvēy; vēhge, yav1.

Na-trak so ni-van goy na-mtewot!
We need a car to go and fetch an injured man!

Kēy tēvēy goy nō-mōmō.
They are diving for fish.

Nok vēhge goy ne-gengen na-ga-mem.
I'm going to find out about (goy) the meal we're going to eat.

(10) [A,B] act (V) so as to take care of (sb); look after, nurse; help; maintain. Cf. [V+goy] with V: hag2, en2, vkasteg, tatag, wow1, et2.

etgoy ‘faire attention à, prendre soin de’

Nēk haghag goy qōtō Makmak veg kē mo-gom.
Come and sit with Makmak, he's ill.

No me-tron̄, ay! Nēk te-pkasteg goy vēh no?
I think I'm sloshed! Can you help me (get back home)?

Na-mtig non Wotlōlan, kē no-dowdow goy vaga.
Wotlôlan always looks after his coconut trees [by weeding around them, dowdow]

(11) [A,'B'] Benefactive value: act in favour of (sb, stg): cf. Eng. “for, because of”. Goy is used like an applicative morpheme. Cf. [V+goy] with V: boel, qneg, dēmdēm, mlaklak, wēh, wawlil.

dēmdēm goy ‘s'inquiéter’

Kē me-qneg goy nēk.
She's jealous for you, because of you.

No mo-boel goy intik (/No mo-boel inti-k).
I'm angry over my son (/I'm angry at my son).

Tjibau kē so ni-pgal goy na-pnō nonon.

Nok dēmdēm goy nēk aē.
I'm worried about you.

Dō mal kaka goy.

(12) [A,(B),D] purposely or not, act or find oneself in such a position (V) that one hinders sb else (D), by preventing him from doing or getting stg (B). Hence: interfere against; retain, prevent; refuse a right to, forbid (sb) [Obj=D]. Cf. [V+goy] with V: hig, tig, gat, tēy.

gatgoy ‘interdit’

Roland kē ni-tēytēy goy kōyō.
Roland stopped them (from fighting).

Kēy mi-tig goy kē hag le-tno baklap gapgap en.
They stood in his way at the airport (to prevent him from leaving).

Nok hig goy kōmyō so kōmyō tele vanvan hep na-n̄ye mey gēn.
⟨tale⟩ I forbid you from going further than the headland over there.

(13) [A,D] act secretly, without sb's knowledge; keep sb out of the way of one's movements or conversation; plot against. Cf. [V+goy] with V: galin, lōn̄veg.

halgoy ‘secret, société secrète’

Dō hole lon̄veg goy Edga!
Let's talk so that Edgar doesn't hear us!

(14) [A,D] Detrimental value: hinder, bother (sb); cf. “prevent”. Cf. [V+goy] with V: wow1, siseg, wlēg, luwyeg; qal, van.

siseg goy ‘se jouer de’

Nitog wowow goy no.
Stop annoying me!

Nok hel goy no-hohole nonmoyō.
I interrupt you.

Na-naw t-ōy goy no.
The sea will keep me away (from you).

Nē-bē ma-mah goy kēy.
The river dried up on them.

Tateh age het ni-van goy me.
No problem ! [nothing bad coming].

(15) [A,'D'] if V expresses time passing, goy indicates that this passing of time is unfavourable to an envisaged action, that it is too late: Cf. '(time) act against (sb)'.. Cf. [V+goy] with V: qōn̄, ēte, wōl2, misin, van1.

Mahē tō-qōn̄ goy qiyig dōyō!
[night is falling on us] It's going to take us all day (so don't let's start now)!

n-ēte mal m̄adeg goy

Dō ma-kaka gatay tō en, et-misin goy qete en!

(16) [A,(B),(C),'D'] do stg (V) in reaction to an event, react; do stg to counteract or cancel the negative effects of another action. E.g. after drinking kava, eat (gen) stg to take away the taste; the complement of group gen_goy can either be what one eats (C), or kava (D), or the mouth itself (B). Cf. [V+goy] with V: in, gen1, tig; mōkheg, en2, mtiy, yav1; tēngeg.

ne-gengen so gen goy na-ga aē. / so gen goy na-ple.
food to eat 'over' (counteract) kava/to eat 'over' (relieve) your mouth.

Kēy mōkheg goy ne-legleg.
They are resting (following) the wedding ceremonies (which exhausted them).

tēngeg goy n-ēm̄
support a house which might fall down (using a buttress)

(17) [A,'D'] act alternately with sb else; respond to sb's action by another, whether once only or repeatedly. Cf. [V+goy] with V: hole, vlu, ēleg, yav1; tēy, vēl.

v[u]lu goy ‘répondre’

Nok ti, kēy ti goy.
I sing first, then they sing back.

Nēk tēy goy, ba kē ni-in.
While you're holding (the cup), he drinks.

Nok yem n-aranis, ba nēk sekeske goy.
I'll climb up the orange tree and you catch (the fruit).

Nok vap na-vap t-am̄ag, ba nēk sese goy n-eh nan.
I'll tell the story, and you sing the song.

Sowo kēy ne-mlaklak goy...
If they're happy about it...

(18) (esp) execute a particular dance at the same time as a certain music; dance to. Cf. [V+goy] with V: lak, haw, lōs.

Ige tam̄an haw goy na-hek.
The men dance the no-yon̄yep to my song (in my honour).

(19) ⦗A,‘D’⦘ behave in a particular manner (V) systematically, reacting to sb else's repetitive behaviour.

Nēk vavap me, ba na-lēk qōn̄qōn̄ goy.
Although you repeat it to me, I forget each time.

Kē ni-balbal goy nē-lēn.
He always cuts his hair (i.e. each time it's too long)

Na-plih ni-mtomtow aē ewa kē ni-dow goy, kē ni-koko goy.

(20) [A] do stg often or recently (?), in negative context.

Nok et-lam̄lam̄ goy te ni-ḡita.
I haven't played for a long time/I don't play the guitar very often.

[ Mota goropreposition of motion towards, around, against...’. PNCV *korosurround, cover, obstruct ; shelter, enclosure’. POc *koroto surround ; fortified village’. ]

goy2   [ɣɔj] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨sea⟩  surge, flood.

yēm ‘vague’

Na-naw mo-goy vag-tēl.
The sea broke three times, waves broke three times.

na-naw goygoy
huge waves, tidal wave

(2) ⟨human or animal crowd⟩  invade somewhere, pour into, move massively.

goy* tiwag
move as a crowd

goy* vētgi
to horde
goy2   transitive verb. flood over, submerge.

lil ‘raz-de-marée’

Na-naw mo-goy kēy.
The sea engulfed them : they were victims of a tidal wave.

[ Mota gorasweep, away or together’. ]

goy tiwag  [ɣɔj tiwaɣ] intransitive verb. ⟨human crowd⟩  mass movement.

Ige ta-la-Man̄go goy tiwag vatag hag Sarakata.
Everyone from the Mango village goes together to the Sarakata village.

Kemem goy tiwag tēy nēk me.
⟨wedding song⟩ We've come here with you as a crowd.
goy vētgi  [ɣɔj βɪtɣi] intransitive verb. to move massively (flock, horde, swarm, etc.).

Ige nonon mey na-tm̄an goy vētgi me le-mtēgtap non mey na-lqōvēn.
The groom's family hordes together in front of the bride's door.

Ne-men ni-goy vētgi me.
The birds are coming in flocks.

Nō-mōmō goy vētgi tō gēn.
Fish swim in shoals.
goygoy  (no-goygoy) [nɔɣɔjɣɔj] noun. <Pois> Black bream, long-fin bream: huge ocean fish. Taractichtys longipinnis.

g[o]yogyo-  (na-gyogyo-) [naɣjɔɣjɔ] pf. prefix referring to a small fish, added on to the name of the species.

na-gyogyo-gnah
a little Mullet (ganah)

na-gyogyo-hōm̄
a little Parrot-Fish

na-gyogyo-duw
a little Angel-Fish
goytig  (no-goytig) [nɔɣɔjtiɣ] noun. belt, traditional clothing worn around the waist.

goytig goy  transitive verb. put a belt on ‹s.o›.

goytig

Nēk so goytig goy nēk!
You must put your belt on!
goyveg  [ɣɔjβɛɣ] transitive verb. clean, rake: pick up ‹grass, sand, rubbish+›.

m̄ōgteg ‘nettoyer’

g[ō]bōn  (na-gbōn) [naɣᵐbʊn] noun. <Zool> Tiny edible crab. Zozimus sp.

[ Mota gapuna kind of crab’. ]

gōgōp  (°na-gōgōp) [naɣʊɣʊp] noun. <Pois>

(1) Pencil-streaked rabbitfish, bsl. Yelotel-piko. Siganus doliatus.

(2) Waetspot pikoSiganus sp.

gōh  [ɣʊh] ~ gōs  dx. Dx1:Tp
g[ō]hōw  (na-ghōw) [naɣhʊw] noun. <Zool> rat, mouse. Rattus rattus.
g[ō]hōw   intransitive verb. act like a parasite.

g[ō]hōw   transitive verb. beg, obtain ‹goods› from others by being a parasite.

[ Mota gasuwe. POc *kasupe. ]

gōm  (°na-gōm) [naɣʊm] pos. 'your'.

ga~

Nēk so gen te gōm ?
Do you want some?
g[ō]nōm  (na-gnōm) [naɣnʊm] noun. <Bot> name of a plant. Diospyros ferrea.

gōskē  ~ gōh kē  dx. (same sense).

kē [1]

qele kē

tog tō qiyig gōskē
nowadays

M̄alm̄al gōskē itōktōk a itōktōk !
This girl is absolutely magnificent!

M̄otlap gōskē, kemem qan̄qan̄yis vēlēs a hōw le-qyēn̄i.
Here in Mwotlap, we cook only in stone-ovens.
gōyi~  (nō-gōyi~) [nʊɣʊji] -.

(1) root.

nō-gōygōyi gēvēg
the roots of the apple tree

nō-gōygōyi qētēnge vitwag
roots (of a tree)

(2) tentacles.

gagi~ ‘ventouse’

nō-gōygōyi wēyēt
octopus tentacles

[ Mota <°kúarí- (?). PNCV gari-u. POc *kawa-riroot’.  *wakaʀ. ]

g[ō]yōw  (na-gyōw) [naɣjʊw] noun. <Zool> white crab.

[ Mota garuwea flattened crab’. PNCV *kaʀuveghost crab’. ]

gum  (nu-gum) [nuɣum] ~ nu-wum  noun. moustache, beard.

wn̄i~ ‘menton’

[ PNCV *kumʷibeard’. POc *kumi. ]

ha  [ha] transitive verb.

Nēk ha nē-bē van le-ketel agōh.

Am̄ag, kēy haha na-naw a le-tn̄e wotva.
hag1   [haɣ] dir. <Géo> up, upwards.

Ant: hōw

(1) up, on top. Locates an object or an action set on a vertically high spot.

hag lō-tōk
up there in the firmament

Welan e ni-tig ketket hag lo-won.
The chief stood up on his platform.

Kē ma-hag hiy hag lē-wēt n̄ey nen e, kē me-ten̄.
He sat high up on the branch of the almond tree, and began to cry.

Kōyō hag ketket hag li-siok.
They took a seat [high up] on board the canoe.

Kōyō sal hag ni-tintin dēvet nagayō.
They grilled themselves a few wild yams (lit. on top, because one places yams on top of oven stones).

(2) upwards. Qualifies most actions directed upwards, e.g. 'grow', 'get up', 'pick up', etc..

hatig hag
get up, stand up [upwards]

N-ey en ni-mlaw hag.
The tree suddenly began to grow [upwards].

Kē ni-et hag le-ptel alge en.
He looked at the top of the banana tree.

Kē me-ywu yak hag nētm̄ey en ba kē ni-whewheg kē.
She picked the child up in her arms, and began to lull him to sleep.

(3) growing (age, number, vigour, price...).

Tō kōyō bōg hag nētm̄ey e, tō kē mu-su liwo hag.
They brought their child up [lit. upwards], until he became a grownup [upwards]

(4) qualifies the start of an activity (opp. hōw, suggesting the end of an activity.

Kēy mitiy tō matyak hag.
After spending the night, they woke up [lit. the next day upwards]

Taval qōn̄ nan lok se hag en…
The next morning [lit. the next day upwards]...

Qētēg a le-mtap en! Kem a se hag en, se me en.
It starts in the morning: someone starts singing [lit. someone sings upwards] and continues.

Kēy hi yak lok se hag…
They started playing music again... ( cf. yak)

Kē ni-hēgeg n-eh hag nen…
He starts singing...

(5) south-eastwards, southwards and/or eastwards (opp. hōw). Partic. in the island of Motalava: following the island lengthwise, from west to east. Between islands: hag refers to islands to the south (Mota, Gaua, Santo, Efate…), as well as foreign countries (Australia, Europe...).

Hag en, mahē ni-myen ēgēn!
Look to the east, day's breaking!

hag Aplōw
in Valuwa, over there to the east [lit. up there]

hag Am̄eg
in Maewo, over there to the south [lit. up there]

hag Vila en
in Port Vila, over there to the south

hag Franis en
in France, over there to the south (because the international airport is in Port Vila).

N-et tēytēy-bē nonoy, kē ni-leh lok ne-len̄ en : ne-len̄ tig lō me hag Len̄yeqo en, ba ni-yip lok hōw.
Their witch changed the direction of the wind : it was blowing southwards (hag), it was South Wind (Len̄yeqo), and suddenly it began to blow northwards (hōw).

(6) indicates the same direction (south-eastwards), within a close area.

Nitog vanvan yeh lok hag!
Don't adventure too far east!

Kē ni-tanem tegha kē, na-ngon lok hag; nē-klan lok hōw.
He began to walk backwards, his face turned to the east, and his back to the west...

Et hag en!
Look this way (south-eastwards)!

Tita ave? – Hag l-ēm̄ en.
Where's mum? - In the house over there (on the south-east side).

[ POc *sake. ]

hag2   [haɣ] intransitive verb. to be sitting (opp. hag hiy ‘to sit down’).

(1) sitting; to be seated somewhere.

hag gētgēt
[sitting stiff] squatting

hag day
sit and wait (for sb, stg)

hag kēlē
to be seated backwards

hag yoyon̄
to be seated calmly

hag hiy
to sit down, to be seated

Dō ma-haghag misin meh!
We spent too long sitting down!

(2) to stay, remain somewhere (not necessarily in a seated position).

hag qaqa
to remain idle

hag qōn̄
make a picnic, spend the day somewhere [syn. tog_qōn̄]

(3) to be in a particular place.

(4) to remain immobile.

(5) to solidify, either under the impact of the cold (e.g. water into ice), or under the impact of heat ( e.g. coconut milk into cream).

hag goy  [haɣ ɣɔj] transitive verb.

(1) be seated in such a way as to bar (s.o. den) access to ‹s.th›: hence cover, hide, keep.

Nēk ma-hag goy ni-vidio den no.
You're stopping me from watching television.

(2) be seated by the side of a ‹sick person +› to look after him/her.

Nēk haghag goy qōtō Ian veg kē mo-gom.
Sit a little while with Ian, he's sick.
hag hiy  [haɣ hij] intransitive verb. :

(1) sit down, from a standing position (opp. hag_ketket, from a lying position).

Ant: hatig

Hag hiy hōw.
Sit down.

Kem a se me en, kem tig ēwē. Van van van, n-eh ni-bah, kem hag hiy.
While we sing, we stand; and then, once the song is finished, we sit down.

(2) be in session, attend a meeting; hence [meeting] take place.

Iyē geh ni-haghag hiy bō-yōstiwag nan?
Who attends this meeting?

Art Festēvol hōw Torba en, kē ta-hag hiy ate lō-wōl agōh.
The Torba Art Festival will take place [lit. will sit] this month.

(3) settle, touch down.

Syn: yow taq

hag2 + hiy1.

hag yoy  [haɣ jɔj] intransitive verb. capsize, sink.

yoy

Na-sam ma-yak, tō ni-siok ma-hag yoy.
The float came away (from the surface), and caused the canoe to capsize.
hag yoy  intransitive verb.

yoy [1]

Na-sam ma-yak, tō ni-siok ma-hag yoy.
hagtin̄ goy  [haɣtiŋ ɣɔj] transitive verb. remain somewhere in order to take care of; look after ‹object, place›, keep watch over, attend to.

lower register: hag goy

Ignik ni-hagtin̄ goy n-ēm̄ mino, mi nē-sēm mino.
My wife is there to take care of my home and my fortune.
hah  (na-hah) [nahah] noun. name, designation.

Tiy hah nan aē.
There's a specific term for that.

[  <°na sása. ]

haha   [haha] adj. separate, far from each other.
haha   adv. separately.

Kōmyō mitimtiy tiwag, so kōmyō mitimtiy haha?
Do you sleep in the same bed, or separately?

Qōn̄magde, ige no-togtog haha.
In the village of Qeremagde, the houses are scattered about [lit. people live separately]

[ Mota sasaedifferent’. ]

hal1   [hal] intransitive verb. float

(1) float, drift.

Ne-vet ma-hal !
(The stone) is floating!

hal hotog
[float-stop still] to moor

Na-mtig ma-hal kal Alkon.
The coconut floated [float-go up] all the way to Alkon.

Ni-siok ma-hal ēwē.
The canoe drifted (i.e. we were drifting, we made no progress by rowing).

N-age nen ma-hal ēwē tō me.
This thing floated here (in the sea).

(2) float in the air,hence move in the air in a stable position: fly, glide (flopp. gap 'fly flapping wings'.

hal goy

Ne-men en n-et vēglal m̄alm̄al en, tō kē ni-hal tēqēl hōw.
As soon as he recognized the girl, the bird glided down to her [lit. he glides downwards].

Na-qtag ni-hal van hiy na-tvale mino
The arrow is flying towards my enemy.

Na-yo bak ni-hal, tō ni-qlen̄ tege yow le-mtam̄e en.
The banyan leaf flew away in the air for a while, before disappearing somewhere in the ocean.

Ne-bemyowyow ma-hal lōlō me le-ngēk.
The sparks are flying before my eyes.

(3) take off, soar up, 'fly off'.

Syn: yow

Kē ni-mtēmteg, tō ni-hal yow nen, ni-plag valag i valag e ni-qlen̄.
In a sudden panic, she took off [lit. she flew], and ran as fast as she could, until she disappeared altogether.

Kē ni-hal lege na-qyan̄ en.
[lit. he flies over the hole] He jumped over the ditch.

[ PNCV *salefloat, flow’. ]

hal2   (na-hal) [nahal] noun.

(1) route.

mtehal

(2) message from outside (by road); special news..

Syn: yoy

Na-hal na-mu aē.
There's a message for you.

No mē-vētleg hōw na-hal, so ...
[song] I sent the message that ...

[ POc *salan. ]

hal goy  transitive verb. float (on the water fl:or in the air) in such a way as to bar access to ‹s.th›.

hal [1]

halgoy ‘secret’

In̄glan, na-naw na-hal goy.
England is an island [the sea floats-blocks].

Nē-plēn ma-hal goy van na-mtelo.
The plane passes in front of the sun [lit. flies-hides the sun].

Nō-wōl ma-hal goy na-lo.
The moon passes in front of the sun.
hal yak  [hal jak] intransitive verb. jump in the air.

(1) leap up into the air, e.g. to avoid an obstacle (puddle, etc.), or to threaten one's enemy during a fight.

Syn: yow (kal)

Kēy ōl vag tēl, tō kēy hal yak, tō kēy ōl taw, tō kēy kay.
(In battle) we cry out three times, jump up in the air, let out the battle cry, and then we throw the assegai.

(2) [plane] take off.

(3) [sun] rise.

Le-ln̄oln̄o-mtap na-lo ni-hal yak tiwag mi nēk.
⟨song⟩ This morning at dawn the sun rises with you.
hal yak  intransitive verb.

yak [C]

hal yak

h[a]lat  (na-hlat) [nahlat] noun. <Bot> Devil nettle, bsl. Nangalat. Dendrocnide spp.

han  (na-han) [nahan] -. <Gram> (acts like a noun, always followed by a noun without an article).

(1) which. Interrogative followed by a noun N without an article; han is prefixed like any other noun, either with the article nA-, or with a preposition.

na-ha-n ‘son nom (fv:he~)’

na-han vōnō ?
which country ?

la-han vōnō ?
in which country ?

Kēy so se na-han eh ?
Which song do they want to sing ?

Nēk ta-van me la-han lo (= le-lo vēvēh)?
At what time will you come ?

(2) the pronoun "which one" is never translated with han, but with the periphrase mey_ave "the one where", even without a spatial value.

Nēk ne-myōs na-han gasel? = Nēk ne-myōs mey ave ?
Which knife do you want? = You want which one?
han̄  (na-han̄) [nahaŋ] noun. <Archi> pillar, main vertical post supporting the roof structure of a house.

Syn: bet

‘poteau’

na-han̄ wōbēyih

na-han̄ yogyēn

na-han̄-m̄ēt

Vētgiy na-han̄, sal n-ēvet hag aē.
We erect the pillars, then we place large bamboos on them.

Iqet mi-gin na-han̄ gōskē, ba kem kal bat a alon.
Iqet scratched this post (magically), and we all went inside.

[ Mota san̄aa fork, crotch, forked stick or post’. ]

hap2   (na-hap) [nahap] -.

(1) what, which thing? Interrogative by non-humans (opp. ‘who’), in direct or indirect questions.

Na-hap gōh?
What's this?

Nēk ne-myōs na-hap?
What do you want?

Na-ln̄e hap qele nen?
What's that sound we can hear?

Na-tmat, si na-hap?
Is that a ghost, or what?

Ba-hap?
Why?

Kem et-ēglal te so na-hap ni-ōlōl en.
We don't know what's making all that noise.

(2) what (P); whatever.

Nēk et na-hap nok galeg.
Look what I'm doing

Na-hap a no ma-vap tō van hiy nēk en, nēk mal lep qēt.
You've understood everything I said to you.

Kē so ni-vap na-hap en, ami so tatag kē.
Whatever he says (lit. he can say what], obey him.

(3)

Tateh hap alon.
There's nothing inside. [lit. there is no what]

No et-vap te hap te van hiy kē.
I didn't say anything to him [lit. I didn't tell him something]

Nēk tog hohole na-hap vitwag van hiy kē!
Don't speak to him [lit. don't tell him what]

Kē tit-ak se vēste na-hap.
He can't do anything any more.
hap2   noun. thing, concrete or abstract.

Syn: age

hapqiyig ‘quelque chose’

na-hap del

Kē ni-vēl yak na-haphap nonon, tō ni-van.
He gathered together his belongings [his things], and left.

na-haphap be-leg
marriage items (clothes, bride's veil, various accessories)

na-haphap non ige qagqag
objects of the modern world [lit. White man's things]

Nēk so et na-haphap non Iqet?
Do you want to see vestiges of Iqet? [lit. Iqet's things]

Nēk mas van heylō yatkel haphap maymay nok galeg hiy nēk.
You must first pass a few tests successfully [lit. difficult things].
hatig  [hatiɣ] intransitive verb.

(1) get up, stand up (from a lying or sitting position).

Hatig tog!
Stand up.

Kōyō matyak tō hatig.
They wake up and get up.

(2) arise, suddenly appear, rise, spread one's wings, soar.

Nē-bē ni-hatig lu-wutwut alge.
The stream has its source at the top of the mountain.

Na-bago ni-lm̄eh na-naw e tō na-naw liwo ni-hatig.
The shark (with its tail) hit the sea so hard that a huge wave (tidal wave) suddenly soared up.

Kē ni-wseg yak na-qtag namun en, nō-vōy ni-hatig.
The moment he pulled the arrow (out of the ground), out burst a volcano.

Na-may ni-hatig le-pnō nonoy!
May famine arise in their country!

(3) leave, take off.

Ami hatig qēt a Wotō!
Off you go, all of you, to Woto.

Talōw a nok hatig, nēk tin ni-tintin nakis vitwag.
When I take off tomorrow, you'll prepare some grilled food for me.

(4) announces the beginning of a new action;hence and then; immediately after, suddenly.

Kēy hatig hag tō wuh mat kē.
Suddenly they began to hit him to death. [lit. They stood up and hit him...]

Kē ni-hatig hag ni-vap van hiy kēy wo “…”
At that moment, he said to them "..." [lit. He stood up and said..]

Kē wo “Nok gengen!” Kē ni-hatig hag nen tō ni-gengen.
He said to himself "Let's eat!" And he immediately began to eat [lit. He stood up and ate].

[ Cftig. ]

hatig hag  intransitive verb. do something suddenly (a new action).

hag [1]

hatig

Kēy hatig hag nen, tō gengen.
[lit. they stood up and ate] Then they began to eat.
hawhaw  (na-hawhaw) [nahawhaw] noun. <Mus> noun derived from vb haw.

(1) the manly step typical of the no-yon̄yep dance, reserved to initiated men. Holding a sacred cycad palm (ne-m̄el) as a token of his rank, the dancer moves his elbows up and down, while frantically twisting his body and lifting his knees high with each step.

(2) the Spirit of the Dancer: a sacred pattern in traditional pictural art of the Banks Is, representing a vertical symmetrical figure. Both on top and bottom, an anthropomorphic character raises his arms, recalling the typical attitude of the na-hawhaw dancer. This design used to be represented in the men's club house (na-gmel). Nowadays, it is still occasionally represented on dancing headdresses, or on tattoos.

na-tmatwoywoy

hay1   [haj] dir. in

Ant: yow ‘dehors’

(1) inside, inwards (with or without movement).

Ige lōqōvēn et-vanvan te hay le-gmel non ige tam̄an.
Women cannot go into the men's house.

Dō tig bat hay lo-m̄olm̄ol en!
[Let's go in standing...] Let's go into the shade!

Iqet e kal bat hay lelo mitig en.
Iqet crept inside the coconut.

Hēn̄ēn bat lok tog nē-sēm hay le-tbey.
Put the money back into the basket.

(2) towards the island's interior: either approaching an island if one is at sea, or climbing uphill if one is on land.

hay hēyēt / lē-tqē
up there [lit. inside] in the garden

hay lō-tōti bē
up there [lit. inside] at the source of the stream

Dōyō vēykal n̄a hay a lu-wutwut alge gēn.
We're going to climb up this mountain [lit. inside].

hay Wōvet
up there [lit. inside] in the Wôvet area

hay la-Man̄go
up there [lit. inside] in the Mango area

hay lē-vēthiyle
up there [lit. inside] on the beach

Rastētē ni-van me, ni-hō kal hay me nen tō ni-vay kal hay me.
Rastêtê draws near, paddles towards the island [lit. enters paddling], then (on the beach) walks towards the interior.

(3) used to designate an island that appears to be higher and/or more isolated.

hay Aya
in the islet of Aya

Ige to-M̄otlap van lok se hay Apnōlap.
The Mwotlavians returned to Vanua-lava.

[ Mota sarodraw into’. ]

hay2   [haj] transitive verb.

(1) tear; cut or rip by tearing with one's hands.

mhay ‘déchiré’

Lep no-yomtig vitwag, hay woy, ba galeg na-tamn̄a aē.
You take a coconut palm, tear it in two to make a mat.

(2) break, put an end to.

hay mamayge

(3) reap ‹water Colocasia taro› by pulling it; harvest ‹taro›.

ko

tveg

Kēy hay ne-qet, gil ni-hnag, van yow me, wuh no-qo.
They reaped taro, picked yams, and killed pigs.

[ Mota sare. ]

hay3   [haj] intransitive verb. come to an end, end (evoke death).

Kēy hew nēk tō nō-mōkhe ni-hay.
They poison you, and you render your last breath.
hay4   (na-hay) [nahaj] noun. <Techn> "scareline for fishing": a kind of giant vine used for group fishing (gey_hay).

qen ‘filet’

tēleg na-hay
make a scareline for fishing

qoy sey na-hay
roll up the vine (to place it neatly on the ground)

ige ba-hay
scareline fishermen

hēwhēw hay
dip the vine into the water

yoweg na-hay
tighten the vine (under water)

ni-qti hay
the end of the scareline (the extremity which first dips into the water)

lok goy na-hay
tie the scareline (the vine circles the whole reef, with each end lying on the beach)

wēhēy na-hay
gradually pull the vine towards the beach, tightening the grip on the fish

Nō-mōmō mo-gon lelo hay.
The fish is trapped inside the vine.

[ Mota saroa string of coco-nut fronds used in shooting fish’. ]

La pêche collective à la liane (na-hay).
hayhay vagal  [hajhaj βaɣal] noun. <Bot> lit. “for wagin war” : a white-flowered plant (Malvaceae), bsl. Waetbrum. Sida rhombifolia. ◈ Anth. This plant is shown to indicate a clash (vēhyu), especially about land-ownership.

hay [2] ‘déchirer’

vagal

haytēyēh   [hajtɪjɪh] attr. that corresponds exactly (to s.th).

(1) that corresponds to something else, hence equal, equivalent, similar, analagous.

Kōyō haytēyēh vēlēs.
They are exactly alike, it's exactly the same.

(2) that corresponds to a need hence sufficient, adequate, enough.

Nō-mōmō mal haytēyēh.
We already have enough fish.

Nē-bē et-haytēyēh te.
There's not enough water.

Gēn et-haytēyēh te so gēn so wuh kē !
We are not sufficiently strong to beat him.

Nēk tē-gēy vēh, kemem may haytēyēh!
Go away, there are enough of us already!

(3) respectful of conventions, hence correct, suitable, good.

Et-haytēyēh te nen.
That's not done, it's not good (to act like that).
haytēyēh   transitive verb. suffice, suit ‹s.o.›.

Et-haytēyēh te dōyō.
There's not enough for us both.
haytēyēh   (na-hayhaytēyēh) noun. correspondence, analogy, resemblance.

[ Mota sarita. Mwesen tatērēs. ]

haytēyēh so  expr. you should; it is time.

Haytēyēh so dō m̄ōl qelen̄.
It's time we got away from here.

Ba n-ep ta-lal lap qele nen bi-wik vōyō, tō haytēyēh so na-lēt so ni-m̄adeg.
The fire will continue to burn for two weeks: you should make sure there is enough wood.
hayveg  [hajβɛɣ] intransitive verb.

(1) go in/inside, enter.

Syn: kal bat

hayveg hay l-ēm̄yon̄
go into the church

Hayveg me!
Come in (here)!

No-qo ma-hayveg lelo tēqē hinag nonmem.
A pig got into our yam garden.

(2) join a (hiy) group, take part in a group activity.

Nok so hayveg hiy ige be-geyhay en.
I want to join the fishing group.

(3) go inside the mouth, hence form a complete circle.

Nē-lēw nonon mal kalō, mal hayveg.
His dog tooth has already come out and gone back in (it's made a complete circle).

[ Mota sarovagto enter, draw into’. Cf. Mtp hay1. ]

he1   [] transitive verb. pick ‹an edible fruit›.

vēl

Nok so he ta gan intik wōy vēvet.
I'm going to pick four for my son.

he sey
[pick gather] pick a large quantity of fruit, and gather them up
he~2   (°na-he~) [nahɛ] -.

(1) name

Syn: hah

(2) reputation, fame.

Syn: yoyo~

Picasso, na-han ne-ketket.
Picasso is a famous man [his name is high].

[ Mota <°ná sasá-. PNCV sasa-i. POc *asa.  *qasan. ]

he~3   (°na-he~) [nahɛ] -. <Ethn>

(1) literary tale, myth, song whose main subject is ‹s.o., s.th›.

na-he plēn
the song of the plane

(2) prestigious ode, composed in honour of ‹s.o.› by a professional poet.

Nēk ne-myōs so nok so tow na-he: nēk van tēy me nē-sēm, so ti na-he me hiy no.
If you want me to compose your ode, then bring me some money (nē-sēm): that way you 'order' (ti) your song.

[ Cfhe~1 (?).  eh (?). ]

he hiy  [hɛ hij] transitive verb. catch hold of ‹s.th› high up and bring it down.

Syn: lep hiy

Nēk te-he hiy vēh me na-gasel sal tō alge en?
Could you bring down that knife that's hooked up there?
hel  [hɛl] transitive verb.

(1) cut ‹s.th› in two with a blade slowly pulling it towards the body (opp. tot, cut with a blade in a downward movement).

Kēy lep nē-phog tō hel susu.
They take the meat and cut it into small strips.

(2) circumcise ‹s.o›.

Et-hel te nēk!
You're not even circumcised!
hel bēlag  [hɛl ᵐbɪlaɣ] ~ hel nē-mlag  intransitive verb. <Danse> lit. “cut (?) [like a] Rail” : designates a specific dance step, consisting of kicking one's feet backwards, one after the other, in a cloud of dust.

Na-rap en, qe so ne-hel-bēlag non ige qagqag !
Hip-hop is a bit like the White man's hel-bēlag!
heleg  [hɛlɛɣ] adv. just, only, exclusively: restrictive form associated with predicates.

lower register: vēlēs

Kōyō haytēyēh heleg.
It's exactly the same thing.
helm̄ēt  [hɛlŋ​͡mʷɪt] adv.

(1) (do V) stopping half way.

Yogyogveg nonon mi-tig helm̄ēt a metehal.
His servant stopped in the middle of the road.

(2) (do V) partly, incompletely.

Kē me-se helm̄ēt ēwē.
He sang halfway (he stopped halfway through the song).
hep   [hɛp] adj.

(1) in excess, over the limit.

wotig-hep
[Standing beyond] middle finger

(2) bigger than, more than.

Ne-ketket nan en, ne-hep a nē-lē gōh en.
The size (of the monster) was bigger than this cave.
hep   adv.

(1) (v) beyong the limit.

Tog vanvan hep na-n̄ye mey gēn.
You're not allowed to go beyond / go further than that cape over there.

tan̄tan̄ hephep
[touch overstep] touch someone else's property

(2) (be P) more than.

Ni-lwo hep den mey t-anoy.
It's much bigger than yesterday's.
het  [hɛt] adj. bad

Ant: itōk

Ant: ‘bon’

(1) bad; not to be done.

no-yoy het
bad news

Nok et-ak te na-hap mey ne-het hiy nēk.
I didn't do anything wrong to you.

(2) immoral, bad.

Ba na-magtō nan, kē itōk si kē ne-het?
What about that old woman, is she nice or nasty?

(3) poor quality; in bad condition, out of order.

Na-mtek ne-het.
I've got bad eyesight [my eyes are bad].

(4) in bad health, poorly.

(5) ugly.

het   (ne-het) noun. evil.

Tateh het nan.
There's nothing wrong with that.

[ PNCV <°s(a)áti. POc *saʔa-ti.  *saqatbad’. ]

hew1   [hɛw] transitive verb. <Ethn> poison with magic, bewitch to kill; put a spell on ‹s.o.›.

ol ‘faire une offrande magique’

Syn: manheg

n-et hewhew

Kē ni-vēl na-gayte gengen nagay e kē ni-hew kēy aē.
hew2   [hɛw] transitive verb.

(1) pluck a bird's ‹feathers, n-ili~›.

(2) pluck the feathers of ‹a bird›, esp. in cooking.

hewhew nu-tutu
pluck a chicken
hey1   [hɛj] intransitive verb. shine
hey2   [hɛj] transitive verb. wear

hey lō

hey3   [hɛj] intransitive verb. sharpened, pointed.
hey lō  transitive verb. remove ‹clothing›.

hey [2]

‘à travers’

heyaw  [hɛjaw] transitive verb. carry ‹s.th› on one's shoulders (without any stick), fl.e.g. ‹a child›.

h[e]ye~  (na-hye~) [nahjɛ] -. 1s: na-hye-k 3s: na-hya-n

(1) place for ‹s.th›, space for ‹activity›.

Syn: t[e]no~

le-hye muwumwu mino
at my place of work

na-hye galgal m̄aya
theatre [place for acting]

na-hye kikik wōm̄ēl
football ground

(2) ‹s.o's› place of residence or of work.

Syn: teno~

No le-hyek en.
I was at my office.

(3) ‹s.o's, esp. head of family's› property, composed of family homes, and public area (na-tnepnō) separating them; by ext. private properties, including personal possessions and wives.

vōnō ‘espace habité’

(4) "domain ‹of a Spirit›": refers to each grade of the secret society hierarchy system (halgoy); heye~) of a particular Spirit (cf. tamat).

na-mlak le-hye ēvēp
[adornments of the domaine of n-ēvēp] identification of the n-ēvēp Spirit

na-sas le-hye matvēvet
[croton of the Matvēvet domain] Croton leaves, identification of the Four-Eyed Spirit (Mat-vēvet)

[ PNCV *zaravillage clearing’. ]

h[e]ye-tmat  (na-hye-tmat) [nahjɛtmat] noun. <Ethn> hierarchical grade within the secret society (na-halgoy), reserved to initiated men (lēs).

Nēk mu-wuh goy na-yaw van le-hye-tmat mino.
You sacrificed a piglet (hermaphrodite, yaw) in order to attain my sacred grade.
heylō   [hɛjlʊ] transitive verb.

(1) fully accomplish ‹s.th›, go through.

(2) fully accomplish ‹the nō-sōq initiatory ordeal›, lit. go through ‹the initiatory house na-gmel›.

Kē me-heylō na-gmel qele ino.
He has accomplished the initiatory 'house' just like me.
heylō   adv. through.

‘enlever (un habit)’

higher register: vaywēg

(1) through ‹s.th›, through.

“Ne-m̄yayay” en, so nēk t-et heylō vēh.
"Transparent", that means you can see through it.

(2) completely, fully, thoroughly; notion of success, accomplishment.

Kē ma-van heylō na-tnon.
He won the elections. [lit. he went as far as his seat]
heylō hiy  -. by means of, on the occasion of.

Heylō van hiy na-vanvan nonmi me hiy kemem, kem tiqyo ēglal hiy so kimi hag Franis en, kimi qele ave.
Through your travels to our country, we learn more about the way you live in France.
h{ē}lol  (nē-hlol) [nɪhlɔl] noun. <Pois> reef fish, kind of wrasse without a tail. Halichoeres sp.

h{i}nag  (ni-hnag) [nihnaɣ] noun. <Bot> yam: staple food tuber, bearing a high symbolic value. Dioscorea alata.

ni-hnag bepwopwoy
yams offered at the wedding

Kēy lōslōs a lē-tqē alon tō ni-hnag ni-galeg galsi n-ēwan.
A dance is performed inside the garden so that the yams thrive.
  [] -. everyone, each one.

Hē ni-m̄on nagan, hē ni-m̄on nagan.
Everyone wrapped up his portion of food.

Hē ni-salsal nagan ēntēn, hē ni-salsal nagan ēntēn.
Each of them grilled food for their children.
hēgal  [hɪɣal] intransitive verb. feign, pretend to (hit, lapidate+), hence threaten.

gal

h[ē]gēl   [hɪɣɪl] transitive verb. decorate, embellish ‹place, village+› temporarily with leaves and coloured flowers, fl: spec. in preparation of a ceremony or festive event.

valakas ‘décoré, magnifique’

Ige lelo vōnō e kēy me-hgēl na-tno waha.
The villagers decorated/flowered the dance area.
h[ē]gēl   (na-hgēhgēl) noun. decoration.

hay na-hgēhgēl
take down [lit. tear up] the decorations, once the event is over

[ Mota sagilodecorate a place with leaves and flowers’. ]

h[ē]gēl goy  [hɪɣɪl ɣɔj] transitive verb. <Mus> end ‹a song› beautifully.

Hē so ni-hgēl goy na-hek?
Who (by his name) will embellish my song?
h[ē]gēy  (na-hgēy) [nahɣɪj] noun. nest, usual place for a large bird.

tinignig ‘nid d'un petit oiseau’

na-hgēy ne qon
a pigeon's nest

[ Mota <°sakér(i,u). Cf. Mtp sageraperch, roosting-place of birds, flying-foxes’.  hagsit’. ]

hēlat  [hɪlat] transitive verb. cut ‹the throat, dĒlo~›, behead.

lat ‘couper en deux’

Kē ni-hēlat nē-nlo m̄at en.
He cut the serpent's throat.
h[ē]lēp   [hɪlɪp] transitive verb. wash one's ‹face›.

sōwōl ‘se laver les mains’

Lep me nē-bē nok hēlēp na-ngēk aē.
Go and fetch some water so that I can wash my face.
h[ē]lēp   intransitive verb. wash one's face, freshen up.
hēlge  (nē-hēlge) [nɪhɪlɣɛ] noun. <Bot> plant name. Rhus simarubaefolia.

hēmen  [hɪmɛn] transitive verb. smell something, smell actively (opp. yon̄teg ~ m̄ōkheg 'smell passively').

Syn: qōnqōn

No-tok mē-hēmen sas no-qo.
The dog found the pig by sniffing (his trace).

[ Mota so-manput the nose to, smell’. Cf. Mtp mdi~. ]

hēn  (nē-hēn) [nɪhɪn] noun. <Bot> plant name (Rutaceae).

(1) kind of mimosa. Melicope kajewskii.

(2) another kind of rutaceae. Euodia spp.

[ Mota sina. ]

hēnhēn  (nē-hēnhēn) [nɪhɪnhɪn] noun. <Bot> plant name. Argusia argentea.

h[ē]n̄ēn  [hɪŋɪn] transitive verb. put_in_bag ; fill up
hēw   [hɪw] intransitive verb.

(1) go down.

tēqēl

hōw

Ant: vēykal

Na-lo may hēw.
The sun's already gone down.

Hēw tēqēl me!
Come down here!

(2) move in the geographical direction corresponding to hōw: to go north-west.

Nēk tē-hēw M̄otlap n̄ēh?
When will you go down to Mwotlap?

(3) grow old, lose one's vigour.

(4) digest.

hēw   transitive verb. <Techn>

(1) get down into, invest ‹s.th, s.o.'s body›.

vu*

Nu-vu kē ni-hēw na-haphap soloteg, qe so n-et, nu-bus, na-mtig…
The spirits can 'descend' into all kinds of objects: human being, cat, coconut tree...

Anoy, nu-vu het mē-hēw tō Lōlō, ba aqyig gōh mal bah lok.
Yesterday, an evil spirit had invested Lolo ('s body), but today it's all over.

(2) go down with ‹s.th›; (partic.) during group fishing (gey* hay), designates the activity of a first group moving down towards the sea dragging behind them a ‹fishing rope na-hay›; hence start rope fishing.

Kēy tē-hēw qiyig na-hay.
Today they're going to bring the rope down (i.e. they're going group fishing)

[ PNCV *sivo. POc *sipo. ]

hēw goy  [hɪwɔj] transitive verb. <Techn> in group fishing (gey hay) designates the action of the second group that goes down to the sea to pick up the end of the rope, and complete the circle by bringing it back up on the beach (the liana rope traces a huge semi-circle in the sea at this point).

Dō tog vanvan bē-hēwhēw hay ! Dō so van a bē-hēw goy.
Don't let's go and take the rope down (with the first group)! Let's go with the group that 'goes down second'.
hēy  (nē-hēy) [nɪhɪj] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, unidentified.

hēywē   [hɪjwɪ] ~ hiywē  attr.

(1) true, truthful.

Hēywē?
Is that true? Really?

Kemem nē-dēmtig so na-tmat hiyhiywē.
We thought it was a real ghost.

(2) marks agreement: 'oh, OK'; sometimes with amazement 'oh, really?'.

itōk ‘oui, d'accord’

“Na-hek Womtelo.” Wo “Oo, hēywē.”
"My name's Womtelo. – Oh, OK" [lit. Yes, really]

(3) incredible, uncanny.

Kēy gengen tō gōh, hiywē!
It's incredible how greedy they are here [lit. They eat here, truly!]

Na-m̄ya ni-ak kē a hēywē!
He burst out laughing [lit. Laughter overcame him, truly!]

Nēk m-et na-laklak en? Hiywē nowmat!
Did you see the dancing? Incredible! [lit. Dead true!]

Na-baklap hiywē!
Incredible [lit. True], that boat!
hēywē   adv. (V) truly.

No-qo e kē ma-mat hiywē.
The pig was well and truly dead.
hēywē   intransitive verb. tell the truth, be sincere.

Ant: gal ‘mentir’

Ohoo, nok hēyhēywē!
But I'm telling the truth!
hēywē   noun. veracity. only in the expression Hēywē nōnōm You're right [lit. 'true tone'].
higap  [hiɣap] adv. miss

h[i]gi~  (ni-hgi~) [nihɣi] -. <Anat> 1s: ni-hgi-k 3s: nē-hgē-n

(1) elbow.

(2) angle, corner.

(3) ridgepole, diagonal reinforcement supporting the roof structure, joining the tiebeams (na-salwolwol) to the summit (nē-qēthi~).

Syn: hyi~

Nē-hgēn vēvet, so tēntēngeg goy nē-qēthōn.
These four supports are there to support the main beam
higoy  [hiɣɔj] ~ hig goy ~   transitive verb. lit. “stop up (goy) with one's finger (hig)” :

(1) stop (a hole) with one's fingers.

goy [1] ‘(3)’

qosos

ol

No mi-hig goy nē-dēln̄ek.
I put my fingers in my ears

(2) block access to stg, physically or otherwise: hence protect sb from danger.

Ige mayanag mi-hig goy na-tmat so kē nitog leplep.
The chiefs protected the masks by preventing (the tourist) from taking them away.

(3) prevent (sb) from doing stg: bar the way, quell sb's enthusiasm.

goy1 (13)

tig goy

Kēy lak van i lak i lak en, kē ni-hig goy lok kēy.
They kept on dancing, but he interrupted them again.

(4) forbid sb verbally to do stg, in a threatening or authoritative manner: hence forbid, proscribe, ban (sb) (from doing sth: so + Prohib. / so + tavle).

gatgoy

Nok higoy kōmyō so kōmyō tele vanvan hep na-n̄ye mey gēn.
⟨tale⟩ I forbid you to go further than the headland over there.

No mi-higoy nēk, mi-hig goy nēk, Qētlas, so nēk tog vanvan tiwag mi ige be-gey-hay en !
I've already forbidden you time and time again, Qetlas, to hang around those fishermen !

ne-le higoy
hil  [hil] transitive verb.
hin̄yeg  [hiŋjɛɣ] intransitive verb. shine, illuminate, produce light.

Syn: law

Nu-qul nōnōm mi-hin̄yeg meyen.
Your lamp stayed alight all night.

nu-qul hin̄hin̄yeg
[very bright lamp] torch
hip2   [hip] attr. numerous, many, a lot, plenty.

Syn: m̄adeg

Ige m̄alm̄al hip a hip a hip.
There were loads and loads of girls!

Mela kēy mē-vēl na-gap a hip a hip.
Mélanie and the others have caught loads of crabs.

Ige susu mi-hip tō me agōh an̄qōn̄.
There were plenty of children here last night.

[ Angl. heap. ]

hit  [hit] transitive verb. transport ‹fire, n-ep› from one place to another, using a firebrand (esp. in leaves or coconut spathe).

Kē ni-yēt no-yomtig vōyō nen tō ni-van yow tō ni-hit.
She tied two coconut palms, (set light to them, and transported the fire to the beach.
hithit-ep  voi. transport fire.

hit

No-yomn̄as a nō-wōlēlē ne mitig, a hithit-ep aē en.
Spathe is the bract of the coconut tree; it is used to transport fire.
hiy1   [hij] adv. indicates that an action V is carried out following an applied movement.

(1) indicates a descending movement, from above towards the ground.

higher register: taqlun̄

taq hiy
bend over, bend down

vatiqaw hiy
kneel down, leaning forwards, prostrate oneself

at hiy
lower one's eyes

yap hiy
pull down

lep hiy
bring down (an object situated high up); (fig.) scorn, humiliate

he hiy
pick, gather

(2) indicates that the position V tends to be immobile, stable.

m̄ōl hiy
diminish, weaken

hag hiy
sit down

en hiy
lie down

Kē ni-vahyeg na-tno tamge nonon hōw, ni-en hiy van.
After spreading his mat out on the ground, he lay down on it.

tig hiy
stop still (while walking)

Kōyō van me wa tig hiy sey hōw.
They suddenly stopped walking, and stood side by side.

(3) indicates that action V is orientated, spatially or mentally, with a precise purpose.

aē [A] ‘y, là’

van [2] ‘Itif’

Tēymat qēt na-haphap van hiy kōyō nen, tō kōyō del hiy.
When they had finished their preparations, they set out [with a precise purpose in mind].

Kēytēl yem ketket hag li-siok nen tō hō hiy ēgēn.
They climbed into their boat, then started paddling [in the planned direction]

valag / gityak hiy
run [in a precise direction, to reach a personal goal]

Kē ma-van hiy me.
He came on purpose.

wow hiy
turn towards, address; covet, desire, be in love with

(4) indicates that action V is carried out in a particularly careful way, concentrating exclusively on its purpose.

Syn: van [2]

Mey yan̄fala su en ni-taq bat ba ni-yon̄teg hiy.
The little boy hid himself, and listened carefully.

et hiy
observe
hiy1   loc.

(1) establishes a direction in reference to an element already mentioned : 'over there', 'there'.

Haghag, et van hiy, me-mgaysēn kē, dēm so kē ma-mat.
While they were seated, they looked at him [looked over there], saddened at the thought he might be dead.

Lok hōw hiy !
(Put it / Stand...) a bit further over to the west!

Lēgmōqōn, hag hiy.
Can you see the village Lêgmôqôn? It's even further away to the east.

(2) continuing in the same direction, hence more, even more.

Nok so ēglal m̄ōleg van hiy no-hohole anen.
I'd like to have an even (van_hiy) clearer idea about this expression.

(3) later: happening later, either coming closer (me) or moving away (van) from the speaker.

wotwot-me-hiy
the younger brother [born after, therefore closer to the speaker (me)]

L-ēte itan, si so l-ēte mey van hiy.
Next year, or the year afterwards.

ōyēh van hiy
the day after tomorrow, some day
hiy1   -. indicates a peripheral element concerning an action.

(1) indicates the place or object to which the action applies.

bē n-ep hiy na-pyēyag
set fire to the rubbish

Lep na-gayga, tō yoweg hoyo hiy nē-vēthiyle.
You take a liana, then you stretch it out along the beach.

Kēy et-ēglal te hiy na-myam, a so tekel mayam qele ave.
They don't know anything about the world, (and do not know) what the antipodes look like.

Qētēg hiy no-totogyeg, kē ni-van hiy bahnegi.
from the first to the last (photo) [we start at the first, and go on to the last]

(2) indicates the phsychological cause of an action (by, for); the theme of a speech (about).

Ten̄-hiy-lam
Cry-over-the-Ocean (married woman missing her native land?)

(3) in the direction of; next to, at s.o.'s house.

Nēk tig hōw a-Yō, ba nēk et lok me hiy no M̄otlap agōh.
You stand up over there in Roua, and you look in my direction here, in Mwotlap.

Na-qtag ni-hal van hiy na-tvale mino.
The arrow is flying towards my enemy.

Nēk m̄ōl lok me hiy igni.
You can go back home to your husband.

Heylō van hiy na-vanvan nonmi me hiy kemem, kem tiqyo ēglal hiy so kimi hag Franis en, kimi qele ave.
Through your travels in our country, we understand more the way you live over there in France.

Tig lap hiy no!
Stay with me!

Nok van me hiy imam.
I've come from dad's house.

(4) to, Dative form. Introduces the beneficiary or addressee of verbs such as 'speak', 'give', 'buy', 'send', etc..

No mal vap van hiy imam.
I already said that to dad.

Tita no-yō ni-lep van hiy kōyō na-qtag.
Their mother gave them arrows.

Nēk so taw en, nēk suwyeg me hiy no !
Each coconut you pick, you must throw it to me!

Kēy olol van hiy nu-vu.
They make offerings to the spirits.

Nēk ak nō-sōq hiy no.
You get me to pass initiatiatory tests (nō-sōq).

[ POc *surifollow’. ]

hiy2   (ni-hiy) [nihij] noun. <Anat> bone.

Ni-hiy le-qtēg bēnēk lē-klek me-mlat.
I broke my shoulder blade [the bone of my shoulder in my back has broken]

Egoy ni-hiy nan, nēk tiple dolm̄a aē !
Be careful of the bones, you might choke yourself!

[ POc *suʀibone’. ]

h[i]yi~  (ni-hyi~) [nihji] -. <Anat>

(1)

hiy [2]

ni-hyi et
skeleton; human bones

(2) force, strength, energy.

Tateh hēyēn !
He hasn't got any strength, he's weak!

Nē-hyēn na-maymay.
He's strong [his strength is hard].

Nē-hyēn ne-mdawdaw.
He's weak [his strength is soft].

(3) [plant] thorn.

skoskoy ‘épineux’

(4) stem, central nervure.

Lep no-yomtig, hay yak nē-hyēn, tō vet na-yon.
You take a (young) coconut leaf, take out the central nervure, then you weave the leaf.

(5) dorsal fin.

dēln̄e~ ‘nageoire pectorale’

(6) ridgepole roping, diagonal reinforcement supporting the roof structure, linking the tiebeams (na-salwolwol) to the ridge beam (nē-qēthi~).

Syn: higi~

N-ēm̄ gōh, nē-hyēn vēvet.
This house has four reinforcements.

[ POc *suʀibone’. ]

h[i]yip  [hijip] transitive verb. tear off ‹tree leaves› by briskly sliding the branch through one's closed fist.

hap [1] ‘cueillir’

Kē a me-hyip na-yo bak nen en, ne-len̄ me-lep na-yo bak en, ni-qlen̄.
He tore off the banyan leaves, which the wind immediately swept away.
hiyle  [hijlɛ] loc. : 'low bush': low density bush area, situated all along the coast, and gen. used for gardening.

Hiyle en, na-tno tēqē a et-lu-wutwut te.
The 'low-bush' is the garden zone which is not on high ground.

Nok so van a hiyle so leplep gengen.
I'll go to the low-bush to find some food.

Kēy qētqēt hiyle so totot han̄, n-ēvet, tiwag mi na-gayga.
They all go to the low bush to cut timber, bamboo and vines.

[ Mota sur-lauto follow the beach’. ]

hiy + le2.

hog   [hɔɣ] transitive verb.

(1) lend ‹a hand›.

(2) hand ‹s.th› to s.o.

Kē mo-hog me nē-lētes namu.
He handed /gave me a letter for you.

(3) offer a present.

hoghog goy ‘se fiancer à’

Nok so hog van nē-vētan hiy nēk tō nēk so vah nē-tqē aē.
I want to give you a piece of land so that you can cultivate your garden.
hog   (hoghog) adj. generous, esp. in terms of food.

Kē namnan, veg kē no-hoghog.
She's very good, because she's generous [because she 'gives'].
hoghog goy  [hɔɣhɔɣ ɣɔj] transitive verb. <Ethn>

(1) [man] reserve (a woman), become engaged to (sb). During an engagement ceremony, a young man obtains exclusivity over (goy) a young woman, by offering (hog) his future parents-in-law various presents.

hoghog goy

Syn: ak goy

Syn: vatlēg goy

(2) carry out this ceremony, speaking of the members of the man's family: they go to the home of the woman's family, either in the presence of the future husband or not.

Kem so van hoghog goy Serah ēgnōn Toni.
We're off to see Serah get engaged to Toni.
hohole   [hɔhɔlɛ] intransitive verb.
hohole   (no-hohole) noun. noun derived from vb hole.

(1) language, the act of speaking.

Intik mal ēglal no-hohole.
My child can already talk.

(2) discourse, speech, declaration.

No-hohole nonon vitwag vēlēs, a so kē et bus te vanvan hōw hiy imam.
His answer is always the same, he refuses to come and see his father.

(3) word, particular term in a language.

he~ ‘nom’

Nok so ēglal m̄ōleg van hiy no-hohole anen.

(4) language.

Syn: gatgat

Syn: vap

no-hohole non Iqet

No-hohole no-yō ne-tegtegha.
They speak two different languages.

Iyē ma-vatne nēk bo-hohole to-M̄otlap?
Who taught you Mwotlap?
hohole legelge  transitive verb. speak irrespectfully to or of ‹s.o› to whom one owes respect (esp. a relative).

lege

hohole m̄aya  intransitive verb. tell funny stories, make s.o. laugh.

m̄[a]ya [B]

hole

Syn: hohole siseg

Syn: boyboy

hohōw  (no-hohōw) [nɔhɔhʊw] noun. <Bot>

(1) steam.

‘fumée’

(2) plant name. Wollastonia biflora.

[ Mota sasawui. ]

hole  [hɔlɛ] intransitive verb. talk ; speak

(1)

vap ‘dire’

Hole !
Go on, talk !

Kē ni-hohole memeh.
She's talkative [she talks too much].

(2) declare, address (sb, Dir.+ hiy). Although intransitive, may announce reported speech (wo, so).

Kē ni-hohole van hiy kē wo “Nēk van me gōh so akteg ?”
He then spoke to him (saying): “What are you doing here?”
hole boyboy  intransitive verb. lit. “talk joke” : joke with (mi) sb, make fun of sb with a little insolence or provocation.. Ethn. Used essentially in joking relations : Cf. esp.namas_boyboy, bōbō, itat. This type of relation is out of the question with wulus, qēlge~, yoqlēg, titamas and any other person calling for respect (dēmap).

hole

boyboy

hole goy  [hɔlɛ ɣɔj] transitive verb.

(1) answer, respond.

Syn: vulu

Kēy hole goy qele ave?
How did they respond?

(2) talk in such a way as to bother (sb) because of the sound of one's voice; interrupt (sb).

vōlōplōl goy

hole lō  intransitive verb.

hole

hole m̄aya  intransitive verb. be funny, tell funny stories.

hole

m̄aya

hole siseg  intransitive verb. lit. “talk play” : joke, banter.

hole

Hohole siseg ēwē !
I was only joking (don't take it seriously)!
h[o]lo~  (na-hlo~) [nahlɔ] -. <Anat> testicles

Syn: wahlo~

Syn: wōlaslas

Syn: wōtiltil

lah

Na-lah en, na-hlē ni-yēg liwo.
Elephantiasis causes the testicles to swell.

[ PNCV, POc (<°l[o]ho-) <°lasó-.  *laso. ]

h[o]yo   [hɔjɔ] adj.

higher register: malaw

(1) long, stretched out.

towol ‘large’

Na-gayga kē mas hoyo.
The rope must be very long.

Na-mtehal nonmamyō ne-hyo a ne-hyo.
Our route is still very long.

(2) tall; vertically long.

(3) long, long-lasting.

No mas dēm a ne-hyo.
I must think about it for a long time (at leisure).
h[o]yo   (hoyo) adv.

(1) lengthwise.

no-qo a nē-lwon ne-wey hoyo
a pig whose teeth have turned round a long way

Lep na-gayga, yoweg hoyo hiy nē-vēthiyle.
A liana is stretched out on the beach lengthwise.

(2) (speak) explicitly, giving details.

So van/hohole hoyo van aē…
[To go/speak at length about that] If you want me to tell you everything / If you want to know all about it / To put it clearly...
h[o]yo   (na-hyo) noun. length (opp. na-twol ‘width’).
1   [] intransitive verb. paddle

[ Mota sua. ]

2   (°na-hō) [nahʊ] noun. smoke

Na-hō, na-hō !
What a lot of smoke! (Let's get out of here!)
2   intransitive verb. smoke, produce smoke.

Na-hō mō-hō me van aē, tō no-womtig ni-tnas.
Smoke has gone on smoking, and has blackened the old coconuts.

[ Mota asu. PNCV *ʔasu. POc *qasu. ]

hōm̄  (°na-hōm̄) [nahʊŋ​͡mʷ] noun. <Pois>

(1) Blackedge Thicklip Wrasse, bsl. Tiklips blufis: reef fish, 50 cm. Hemigymnus melaptarus.

(2) parrotfish, bsl. Blufis. Scarus spp.

[ Mota saum̄a. ]

hōn  [hʊn] adv.

(1) (fish, hunt) successfully;hence catch ‹prey›.

Wō nēk ma-galeg hōn?
Did you catch something?

(2) (V) successfully; succeed in (V); manage to (V).

Nēk mi-rin̄ hōn kē?
Did you manage to phone him?

Kēy mo-sok i sok e, et-etsas hōn te kē.
They looked for it for hours, without succeeding in laying hands on him.

(3) not at all, absolutely not.

Hay le-pnō kē, tateh et hōn qal !
In the village, there's absolutely nobody.
hōw  [hʊw] dir. <Géo> down, downwards.

Ant: hag [1]

(1) down, downwards. Qualifies any action directed downwards, e.g. 'go down', 'put down', 'pour', 'fall'....

Hag hiy hōw.
Sit down!

Kē ni-at tēqēl hōw lē-bē.
He looked closely into the river bed.

No-qon ni-yow hag hōw wa kēy tit.
Each time a dove settled (hōw), they shot at it.

Kēy galeg hōw n-ep.
They made a fire [on the ground]

Visis hōw nen : na-tm̄an.
She gave birth [lit. down] to a boy.

Iqet ni-lep ni-hnag e ni-hn̄ēn hōw (lo-boyboy).
Iqet seized a yam and stuck it (into his bag) [down, because the bag was on the ground].

Kē ni-lm̄eh hōw li-qti e tō nēk mat !
He smashes your skull (with a club), and you drop dead!

Na-ptel ni-van tō ni-men, tō ni-men galsi hōw...
The bananas continued to ripen, ripen... [down, because made the branch bend]

(2) diminishing (age, number, vigour, price...).

Tō na-tkel qo liwo nen van hōw, tō ni-mat ēgēn.
And then the terrible monster began to lose his strength [to go down], and finally died.

Ige mey malig hōw, kēy tit-van te muy vēh te la-halgoy.
Those who are under (age, i.e. children) are not allowed to take part in secret ceremonies.

(3) qualifies any action leading to immobility, interruption (opp. hag1, suggesting the start of an action).

hiy [1]

Mahē ni-qōn̄ hōw nen e...
When night had fallen...

Kōyō van me wa tig hiy sey hōw.
They suddenly stopped walking, standing side by side.

Kimi hal hotog hōw, dēyē no a nok dēn̄ me.
You'll stop your boat (lie at anchor), and wait until I come and join you.

Kē wo et-bus-te hōw...
Supposing she refuses...

(4) tending towards the continuation, the end of a process.

Kē ni-van se hōw !
Continue (your story / your action...) [It's going down] !

Na-vap t-am̄ag nan ni-bah hōw gēn.
And this is how this story ends [ends down].

Na-laklak, kēy ma-yak / mē-qēt ēwē hōw !
The dancing has just finished !

(5) north-westwards, north and/or westwards (opp. hag1). Partic. in the island of Mwotlap : following the island lengthwise fromgen. following the coastline, from south-east to north-west. Between the islands: hōw refers to islands of the northwest (Roua, Ureparapara, Torres, Salomon).

Kēy togtog n̄a hōw Ayō en.
They live over there, in Roua.

Iqet ma-van hōw Avap en, so tin nō-qōn̄.
Iqet has gone to buy the Night over there, in the island of Avap [mythical island, situated towards the Torres].

Nok so van hōw M̄otlap en.
I'm going [I 'm going down] to Mwotlap.

Le-pnō vitwag, a Aplōw yeh, lok hōw me antan yeh.
It was in a village... situated before Aplôw, in other words to the west (hōw antan ‘going down') this way (me).

ige hōw en
the people from there (designates a place, village or country to the northwest...)

Imam hōw en vap me so itōk.
In any case, my father from over there (to the west) told me he agreed.

(6) indicates the same direction (northwestwards), within a close area.

Kik namun ige to-lok hōw !
Free kick for the west team (who plays to the west) !

Hag malig tog hōw !
Can you sit a little more to the west, please?

[ North-V *suw[e,o]. POc *sipo. ]

i1   ~ mi  ptc. Durat
i-2   pf. Pred
i-3   art.
ige   [iɣɛ] sb. <Gram> Human plural, referring to an indefinite group of people (opp. kēy ‘them’, referring to a definite group).

yoge

tēlge

(1) people or some people, one, others.

Nitog etet ige!
Stop looking at others!

Nēk me-mtewot en, ige aē?
When you hurt yourself, was there anyone around?

Ige tateh.
Nobody's here.

Tog vavasem hiy ige!
Don't tell anyone! [lit. don't tell people]

Iyē ma-vap tō hiy nēk? – Ige.
Who told you? – Some people.

Nēk so taq bat, ige tiple ekas nēk.
Hide yourself, someone might see you.

(2) represents the head of noun phrases of human referent, in plural.

ige qagqag wa ige mēlēmlēg
The Whites and the Blacks

ige susu wa ige lililwo
[the little ones and the big ones] children and adults

ige ta-Franis
[the people of France] the French

ige to-M̄otlap
the inhabitants of Motalava, the Motalavians

ige be-wha
[the people for music] musicians

ige bi-kikbol
footballers

ige bul son̄wul
the group of ten

ige del
[lit. 'all people'] everyone

ige geh gōh
[lit. 'people everyone here'] everyone here

ige mino
[lit. 'people mine'] my family

ige tegha
others

ige hip
a lot of people

ige yatkelgi
a few, some people

ige mey a mal van en
those who've already left
ige   art. plural article for human referent names (opp. na- ou zero for the singular).

ige welan
chiefs

ige yathithi-k
my brothers

ige lōqōvēn
women

ige mōmō
⟨animal, anthropomorphic in a story⟩ the Fish
ige bē-vēnangēn  sb.

vēne~

Syn: ige kastom

ige bē-vēnek

[  <°na ˌβanuˈa-gu. ]

igni~  [iɣni] sop. spouse
ili  (n-ili) [nili] noun. <Mer> seaweed

ili~  (n-ili~) [nili] -. <Anat>

(1) hair.

N-ēlēn na-lawlaw.
She's blond.

N-ēlēn na-sam̄sam̄.
She has soft hair (non-frizzy).

N-ēlēn na-damdam.
She has long hair (like White women).

(2) hair, coat.

il ‘poil humain’

(3) feather.

ilto

n-ili tutu
cock's feather

[ PNCV *vuluhair, feather’. POc *pulu. ]

ilil   [ilil] transitive verb. <Art>

(1) paint ‹s.th› meticulously and carefully (opp. suw), draw patterns, esp. in the art of sacred masks (na-tmat).

Syn: lem̄eh

Syn: benem

(2) paint ‹one's body›, ex. before dancing the striped costume dance (ne-m̄e).

ilil   (n-ilil) noun.

(1) painting: material, colour or aspect of a painted object.

(2) colour, even natural.

Woqse ilil!
There are plenty of colours!
il-qōn̄  (n-ilqōn̄) [nilk​͡pʷʊŋ] noun. <Zool> lit. “black hair” : small dark bat. Cf. lōslōs “bat”.

lōslōs ‘chauve-souris’

N-ilqōn̄, qe so ni-nti qeyet susu.
The n-ilqōn̄, is what you might call a baby dogfish.

N-ilqōn̄ vitwag ma-gap me hiy no: wun na-matmat mino ē-gēn, yēhē yantintik !
I've just seen a bat fly towards me: it probably means I'm going to die soon, my dear children!
imam   [imam] sb. <Parenté> father.

(1) Dad: term of address.

(2) father: term of reference.

higher register: itme~

imam   transitive verb. call someone Dad, consider someone as one's father.

Nok imam nēk, veg nēk me-lep vasgēt tō no l-ēm̄ nōnōm en.
I consider you as my father [as:lit. I "dad" you], because you offered me hospitality in your house.

[ Mota mama. PNCV *mamafather (term of address)’. ]

in1   (n-in) [nin] noun. <Mer> sea worm, greenish sea ringworm, eaten in October and November when they appear on the surface of the water. Annelides spp.

[ Mota un. ]

in2   [in] transitive verb. drink.

higher register: dolm̄eg

in nē-bē
drink water

in nō-wōh
drink coconut milk

in mah
[drink-dry]bottoms-up, drink to the last drop

in tokosm̄eg
drink too much

Dō so van in na-ga?
Are we going to drink kava?

Iyah, nēk so in te me?
Here, do you want a drink?

Itōk gēn in!
[lit. let's drink well!] Good health!

[ POc *inum. ]

in lō  [in lʊ] transitive verb.

(1) be the first guest to drink ‹s.th›, inaugurate ‹kava+›.

Toy goy nen en, tō kē ni-in lō na-ga.
At the end of his speech, he drinks the first bowl of kava.

(2) celebrate, inaugurate ‹s.th› by raising one's glass.

Gēn in lō ne-meskēt gayaq mi na-ga.
We'll inaugurate our new harpoon with some kava (i.e. drink kava to 'mark the event').
inin  (n-inin) [ninin] noun.

(1) drink. Name derived from in ‘drink'.

Kē ni-yon̄teg na-matheg bē ni-ak kē, kē ni-lep n-inin na-man e tō ni-in.

(2) strong alohol, whisky, eau-de-vie.

Syn: nē-bē maymay

inm̄eg  [inŋ​͡mʷɛɣ] transitive verb. harass ‹s.o›, harmlessly (e.g. tickle) or harmfully (e.g. harass an enemy).
inti~  [inti] sop. pikinini</