A dictionary of Mwotlap (Banks Is., Vanuatu)
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mwotlap dictionary
Index h
hag goy
hag hiy
hag yoy
hag yoy
hagtin̄ goy
hal goy
hal yak
hal yak
hatig hag
hayhay vagal
haytēyēh so
he hiy
hel bēlag
hey lō
heylō hiy

h[ē]gēl goy
hēw goy
hoghog goy
hohole legelge
hohole m̄aya
hole boyboy
hole goy
hole lō
hole m̄aya
hole siseg
ha  [ha] transitive verb.

Nēk ha nē-bē van le-ketel agōh.

Am̄ag, kēy haha na-naw a le-tn̄e wotva.
hag1   [haɣ] dir. <Géo> up, upwards.

Ant: hōw

(1) up, on top. Locates an object or an action set on a vertically high spot.

hag lō-tōk
up there in the firmament

Welan e ni-tig ketket hag lo-won.
The chief stood up on his platform.

Kē ma-hag hiy hag lē-wēt n̄ey nen e, kē me-ten̄.
He sat high up on the branch of the almond tree, and began to cry.

Kōyō hag ketket hag li-siok.
They took a seat [high up] on board the canoe.

Kōyō sal hag ni-tintin dēvet nagayō.
They grilled themselves a few wild yams (lit. on top, because one places yams on top of oven stones).

(2) upwards. Qualifies most actions directed upwards, e.g. 'grow', 'get up', 'pick up', etc..

hatig hag
get up, stand up [upwards]

N-ey en ni-mlaw hag.
The tree suddenly began to grow [upwards].

Kē ni-et hag le-ptel alge en.
He looked at the top of the banana tree.

Kē me-ywu yak hag nētm̄ey en ba kē ni-whewheg kē.
She picked the child up in her arms, and began to lull him to sleep.

(3) growing (age, number, vigour, price...).

Tō kōyō bōg hag nētm̄ey e, tō kē mu-su liwo hag.
They brought their child up [lit. upwards], until he became a grownup [upwards]

(4) qualifies the start of an activity (opp. hōw, suggesting the end of an activity.

Kēy mitiy tō matyak hag.
After spending the night, they woke up [lit. the next day upwards]

Taval qōn̄ nan lok se hag en…
The next morning [lit. the next day upwards]...

Qētēg a le-mtap en! Kem a se hag en, se me en.
It starts in the morning: someone starts singing [lit. someone sings upwards] and continues.

Kēy hi yak lok se hag…
They started playing music again... ( cf. yak)

Kē ni-hēgeg n-eh hag nen…
He starts singing...

(5) south-eastwards, southwards and/or eastwards (opp. hōw). Partic. in the island of Motalava: following the island lengthwise, from west to east. Between islands: hag refers to islands to the south (Mota, Gaua, Santo, Efate…), as well as foreign countries (Australia, Europe...).

Hag en, mahē ni-myen ēgēn!
Look to the east, day's breaking!

hag Aplōw
in Valuwa, over there to the east [lit. up there]

hag Am̄eg
in Maewo, over there to the south [lit. up there]

hag Vila en
in Port Vila, over there to the south

hag Franis en
in France, over there to the south (because the international airport is in Port Vila).

N-et tēytēy-bē nonoy, kē ni-leh lok ne-len̄ en : ne-len̄ tig lō me hag Len̄yeqo en, ba ni-yip lok hōw.
Their witch changed the direction of the wind : it was blowing southwards (hag), it was South Wind (Len̄yeqo), and suddenly it began to blow northwards (hōw).

(6) indicates the same direction (south-eastwards), within a close area.

Nitog vanvan yeh lok hag!
Don't adventure too far east!

Kē ni-tanem tegha kē, na-ngon lok hag; nē-klan lok hōw.
He began to walk backwards, his face turned to the east, and his back to the west...

Et hag en!
Look this way (south-eastwards)!

Tita ave? – Hag l-ēm̄ en.
Where's mum? - In the house over there (on the south-east side).

[ POc *sake. ]

hag2   [haɣ] intransitive verb. to be sitting (opp. hag hiy ‘to sit down’).

(1) sitting; to be seated somewhere.

hag gētgēt
[sitting stiff] squatting

hag day
sit and wait (for sb, stg)

hag kēlē
to be seated backwards

hag yoyon̄
to be seated calmly

hag hiy
to sit down, to be seated

Dō ma-haghag misin meh!
We spent too long sitting down!

(2) to stay, remain somewhere (not necessarily in a seated position).

hag qaqa
to remain idle

hag qōn̄
make a picnic, spend the day somewhere [syn. tog_qōn̄]

(3) to be in a particular place.

(4) to remain immobile.

(5) to solidify, either under the impact of the cold (e.g. water into ice), or under the impact of heat ( e.g. coconut milk into cream).

hag goy  [haɣ ɣɔj] transitive verb.

(1) be seated in such a way as to bar (s.o. den) access to ‹›: hence cover, hide, keep.

Nēk ma-hag goy ni-vidio den no.
You're stopping me from watching television.

(2) be seated by the side of a ‹sick person +› to look after him/her.

Nēk haghag goy qōtō Ian veg kē mo-gom.
Sit a little while with Ian, he's sick.
hag hiy  [haɣ hij] intransitive verb. :

(1) sit down, from a standing position (opp. hag_ketket, from a lying position).

Ant: hatig

Hag hiy hōw.
Sit down.

Kem a se me en, kem tig ēwē. Van van van, n-eh ni-bah, kem hag hiy.
While we sing, we stand; and then, once the song is finished, we sit down.

(2) be in session, attend a meeting; hence [meeting] take place.

Iyē geh ni-haghag hiy bō-yōstiwag nan?
Who attends this meeting?

Art Festēvol hōw Torba en, kē ta-hag hiy ate lō-wōl agōh.
The Torba Art Festival will take place [lit. will sit] this month.

(3) settle, touch down.

Syn: yow taq

hag2 + hiy1.

hag yoy  [haɣ jɔj] intransitive verb. capsize, sink.


Na-sam ma-yak, tō ni-siok ma-hag yoy.
The float came away (from the surface), and caused the canoe to capsize.
hag yoy  intransitive verb.

yoy [1]

Na-sam ma-yak, tō ni-siok ma-hag yoy.
hagtin̄ goy  [haɣtiŋ ɣɔj] transitive verb. remain somewhere in order to take care of; look after ‹object, place›, keep watch over, attend to.

lower register: hag goy

Ignik ni-hagtin̄ goy n-ēm̄ mino, mi nē-sēm mino.
My wife is there to take care of my home and my fortune.
hah  (na-hah) [nahah] noun. name, designation.

Tiy hah nan aē.
There's a specific term for that.

[  <°na sása. ]

haha   [haha] adj. separate, far from each other.
haha   adv. separately.

Kōmyō mitimtiy tiwag, so kōmyō mitimtiy haha?
Do you sleep in the same bed, or separately?

Qōn̄magde, ige no-togtog haha.
In the village of Qeremagde, the houses are scattered about [lit. people live separately]

[ Mota sasaedifferent’. ]

hal1   [hal] intransitive verb. float

(1) float, drift.

Ne-vet ma-hal !
(The stone) is floating!

hal hotog
[float-stop still] to moor

Na-mtig ma-hal kal Alkon.
The coconut floated [float-go up] all the way to Alkon.

Ni-siok ma-hal ēwē.
The canoe drifted (i.e. we were drifting, we made no progress by rowing).

N-age nen ma-hal ēwē tō me.
This thing floated here (in the sea).

(2) float in the air,hence move in the air in a stable position: fly, glide (flopp. gap 'fly flapping wings'.

hal goy

Ne-men en n-et vēglal m̄alm̄al en, tō kē ni-hal tēqēl hōw.
As soon as he recognized the girl, the bird glided down to her [lit. he glides downwards].

Na-qtag ni-hal van hiy na-tvale mino
The arrow is flying towards my enemy.

Na-yo bak ni-hal, tō ni-qlen̄ tege yow le-mtam̄e en.
The banyan leaf flew away in the air for a while, before disappearing somewhere in the ocean.

Ne-bemyowyow ma-hal lōlō me le-ngēk.
The sparks are flying before my eyes.

(3) take off, soar up, 'fly off'.

Syn: yow

Kē ni-mtēmteg, tō ni-hal yow nen, ni-plag valag i valag e ni-qlen̄.
In a sudden panic, she took off [lit. she flew], and ran as fast as she could, until she disappeared altogether.

Kē ni-hal lege na-qyan̄ en.
[lit. he flies over the hole] He jumped over the ditch.

[ PNCV *salefloat, flow’. ]

hal2   (na-hal) [nahal] noun.

(1) route.


(2) message from outside (by road); special news..

Syn: yoy

Na-hal na-mu aē.
There's a message for you.

No mē-vētleg hōw na-hal, so ...
[song] I sent the message that ...

[ POc *salan. ]

hal goy  transitive verb. float (on the water fl:or in the air) in such a way as to bar access to ‹›.

hal [1]

halgoy ‘secret’

In̄glan, na-naw na-hal goy.
England is an island [the sea floats-blocks].

Nē-plēn ma-hal goy van na-mtelo.
The plane passes in front of the sun [lit. flies-hides the sun].

Nō-wōl ma-hal goy na-lo.
The moon passes in front of the sun.
hal yak  [hal jak] intransitive verb. jump in the air.

(1) leap up into the air, e.g. to avoid an obstacle (puddle, etc.), or to threaten one's enemy during a fight.

Syn: yow (kal)

Kēy ōl vag tēl, tō kēy hal yak, tō kēy ōl taw, tō kēy kay.
(In battle) we cry out three times, jump up in the air, let out the battle cry, and then we throw the assegai.

(2) [plane] take off.

(3) [sun] rise.

Le-ln̄oln̄o-mtap na-lo ni-hal yak tiwag mi nēk.
⟨song⟩ This morning at dawn the sun rises with you.
hal yak  intransitive verb.

yak [C]

hal yak

h[a]lat  (na-hlat) [nahlat] noun. <Bot> Devil nettle, bsl. Nangalat. Dendrocnide spp.

han  (na-han) [nahan] -. <Gram> (acts like a noun, always followed by a noun without an article).

(1) which. Interrogative followed by a noun N without an article; han is prefixed like any other noun, either with the article nA-, or with a preposition.

na-ha-n ‘son nom (fv:he~)’

na-han vōnō ?
which country ?

la-han vōnō ?
in which country ?

Kēy so se na-han eh ?
Which song do they want to sing ?

Nēk ta-van me la-han lo (= le-lo vēvēh)?
At what time will you come ?

(2) the pronoun "which one" is never translated with han, but with the periphrase mey_ave "the one where", even without a spatial value.

Nēk ne-myōs na-han gasel? = Nēk ne-myōs mey ave ?
Which knife do you want? = You want which one?
han̄  (na-han̄) [nahaŋ] noun. <Archi> pillar, main vertical post supporting the roof structure of a house.

Syn: bet


na-han̄ wōbēyih

na-han̄ yogyēn


Vētgiy na-han̄, sal n-ēvet hag aē.
We erect the pillars, then we place large bamboos on them.

Iqet mi-gin na-han̄ gōskē, ba kem kal bat a alon.
Iqet scratched this post (magically), and we all went inside.

[ Mota san̄aa fork, crotch, forked stick or post’. ]

hap2   (na-hap) [nahap] -.

(1) what, which thing? Interrogative by non-humans (opp. ‘who’), in direct or indirect questions.

Na-hap gōh?
What's this?

Nēk ne-myōs na-hap?
What do you want?

Na-ln̄e hap qele nen?
What's that sound we can hear?

Na-tmat, si na-hap?
Is that a ghost, or what?


Kem et-ēglal te so na-hap ni-ōlōl en.
We don't know what's making all that noise.

(2) what (P); whatever.

Nēk et na-hap nok galeg.
Look what I'm doing

Na-hap a no ma-vap tō van hiy nēk en, nēk mal lep qēt.
You've understood everything I said to you.

Kē so ni-vap na-hap en, ami so tatag kē.
Whatever he says (lit. he can say what], obey him.


Tateh hap alon.
There's nothing inside. [lit. there is no what]

No et-vap te hap te van hiy kē.
I didn't say anything to him [lit. I didn't tell him something]

Nēk tog hohole na-hap vitwag van hiy kē!
Don't speak to him [lit. don't tell him what]

Kē tit-ak se vēste na-hap.
He can't do anything any more.
hap2   noun. thing, concrete or abstract.

Syn: age

hapqiyig ‘quelque chose’

na-hap del

Kē ni-vēl yak na-haphap nonon, tō ni-van.
He gathered together his belongings [his things], and left.

na-haphap be-leg
marriage items (clothes, bride's veil, various accessories)

na-haphap non ige qagqag
objects of the modern world [lit. White man's things]

Nēk so et na-haphap non Iqet?
Do you want to see vestiges of Iqet? [lit. Iqet's things]

Nēk mas van heylō yatkel haphap maymay nok galeg hiy nēk.
You must first pass a few tests successfully [lit. difficult things].
hatig  [hatiɣ] intransitive verb.

(1) get up, stand up (from a lying or sitting position).

Hatig tog!
Stand up.

Kōyō matyak tō hatig.
They wake up and get up.

(2) arise, suddenly appear, rise, spread one's wings, soar.

Nē-bē ni-hatig lu-wutwut alge.
The stream has its source at the top of the mountain.

Na-bago ni-lm̄eh na-naw e tō na-naw liwo ni-hatig.
The shark (with its tail) hit the sea so hard that a huge wave (tidal wave) suddenly soared up.

Kē ni-wseg yak na-qtag namun en, nō-vōy ni-hatig.
The moment he pulled the arrow (out of the ground), out burst a volcano.

Na-may ni-hatig le-pnō nonoy!
May famine arise in their country!

(3) leave, take off.

Ami hatig qēt a Wotō!
Off you go, all of you, to Woto.

Talōw a nok hatig, nēk tin ni-tintin nakis vitwag.
When I take off tomorrow, you'll prepare some grilled food for me.

(4) announces the beginning of a new action;hence and then; immediately after, suddenly.

Kēy hatig hag tō wuh mat kē.
Suddenly they began to hit him to death. [lit. They stood up and hit him...]

Kē ni-hatig hag ni-vap van hiy kēy wo “…”
At that moment, he said to them "..." [lit. He stood up and said..]

Kē wo “Nok gengen!” Kē ni-hatig hag nen tō ni-gengen.
He said to himself "Let's eat!" And he immediately began to eat [lit. He stood up and ate].

[ Cftig. ]

hatig hag  intransitive verb. do something suddenly (a new action).

hag [1]


Kēy hatig hag nen, tō gengen.
[lit. they stood up and ate] Then they began to eat.
hawhaw  (na-hawhaw) [nahawhaw] noun. <Mus> noun derived from vb haw.

(1) the manly step typical of the no-yon̄yep dance, reserved to initiated men. Holding a sacred cycad palm (ne-m̄el) as a token of his rank, the dancer moves his elbows up and down, while frantically twisting his body and lifting his knees high with each step.

(2) the Spirit of the Dancer: a sacred pattern in traditional pictural art of the Banks Is, representing a vertical symmetrical figure. Both on top and bottom, an anthropomorphic character raises his arms, recalling the typical attitude of the na-hawhaw dancer. This design used to be represented in the men's club house (na-gmel). Nowadays, it is still occasionally represented on dancing headdresses, or on tattoos.


hay1   [haj] dir. in

Ant: yow ‘dehors’

(1) inside, inwards (with or without movement).

Ige lōqōvēn et-vanvan te hay le-gmel non ige tam̄an.
Women cannot go into the men's house.

Dō tig bat hay lo-m̄olm̄ol en!
[Let's go in standing...] Let's go into the shade!

Iqet e kal bat hay lelo mitig en.
Iqet crept inside the coconut.

Hēn̄ēn bat lok tog nē-sēm hay le-tbey.
Put the money back into the basket.

(2) towards the island's interior: either approaching an island if one is at sea, or climbing uphill if one is on land.

hay hēyēt / lē-tqē
up there [lit. inside] in the garden

hay lō-tōti bē
up there [lit. inside] at the source of the stream

Dōyō vēykal n̄a hay a lu-wutwut alge gēn.
We're going to climb up this mountain [lit. inside].

hay Wōvet
up there [lit. inside] in the Wôvet area

hay la-Man̄go
up there [lit. inside] in the Mango area

hay lē-vēthiyle
up there [lit. inside] on the beach

Rastētē ni-van me, ni-hō kal hay me nen tō ni-vay kal hay me.
Rastêtê draws near, paddles towards the island [lit. enters paddling], then (on the beach) walks towards the interior.

(3) used to designate an island that appears to be higher and/or more isolated.

hay Aya
in the islet of Aya

Ige to-M̄otlap van lok se hay Apnōlap.
The Mwotlavians returned to Vanua-lava.

[ Mota sarodraw into’. ]

hay2   [haj] transitive verb.

(1) tear; cut or rip by tearing with one's hands.

mhay ‘déchiré’

Lep no-yomtig vitwag, hay woy, ba galeg na-tamn̄a aē.
You take a coconut palm, tear it in two to make a mat.

(2) break, put an end to.

hay mamayge

(3) reap ‹water Colocasia taro› by pulling it; harvest ‹taro›.



Kēy hay ne-qet, gil ni-hnag, van yow me, wuh no-qo.
They reaped taro, picked yams, and killed pigs.

[ Mota sare. ]

hay3   [haj] intransitive verb. come to an end, end (evoke death).

Kēy hew nēk tō nō-mōkhe ni-hay.
They poison you, and you render your last breath.
hay4   (na-hay) [nahaj] noun. <Techn> "scareline for fishing": a kind of giant vine used for group fishing (gey_hay).

qen ‘filet’

tēleg na-hay
make a scareline for fishing

qoy sey na-hay
roll up the vine (to place it neatly on the ground)

ige ba-hay
scareline fishermen

hēwhēw hay
dip the vine into the water

yoweg na-hay
tighten the vine (under water)

ni-qti hay
the end of the scareline (the extremity which first dips into the water)

lok goy na-hay
tie the scareline (the vine circles the whole reef, with each end lying on the beach)

wēhēy na-hay
gradually pull the vine towards the beach, tightening the grip on the fish

Nō-mōmō mo-gon lelo hay.
The fish is trapped inside the vine.

[ Mota saroa string of coco-nut fronds used in shooting fish’. ]

La pêche collective à la liane (na-hay).
hayhay vagal  [hajhaj βaɣal] noun. <Bot> lit. “for wagin war” : a white-flowered plant (Malvaceae), bsl. Waetbrum. Sida rhombifolia. ◈ Anth. This plant is shown to indicate a clash (vēhyu), especially about land-ownership.

hay [2] ‘déchirer’


haytēyēh   [hajtɪjɪh] attr. that corresponds exactly (to

(1) that corresponds to something else, hence equal, equivalent, similar, analagous.

Kōyō haytēyēh vēlēs.
They are exactly alike, it's exactly the same.

(2) that corresponds to a need hence sufficient, adequate, enough.

Nō-mōmō mal haytēyēh.
We already have enough fish.

Nē-bē et-haytēyēh te.
There's not enough water.

Gēn et-haytēyēh te so gēn so wuh kē !
We are not sufficiently strong to beat him.

Nēk tē-gēy vēh, kemem may haytēyēh!
Go away, there are enough of us already!

(3) respectful of conventions, hence correct, suitable, good.

Et-haytēyēh te nen.
That's not done, it's not good (to act like that).
haytēyēh   transitive verb. suffice, suit ‹s.o.›.

Et-haytēyēh te dōyō.
There's not enough for us both.
haytēyēh   (na-hayhaytēyēh) noun. correspondence, analogy, resemblance.

[ Mota sarita. Mwesen tatērēs. ]

haytēyēh so  expr. you should; it is time.

Haytēyēh so dō m̄ōl qelen̄.
It's time we got away from here.

Ba n-ep ta-lal lap qele nen bi-wik vōyō, tō haytēyēh so na-lēt so ni-m̄adeg.
The fire will continue to burn for two weeks: you should make sure there is enough wood.
hayveg  [hajβɛɣ] intransitive verb.

(1) go in/inside, enter.

Syn: kal bat

hayveg hay l-ēm̄yon̄
go into the church

Hayveg me!
Come in (here)!

No-qo ma-hayveg lelo tēqē hinag nonmem.
A pig got into our yam garden.

(2) join a (hiy) group, take part in a group activity.

Nok so hayveg hiy ige be-geyhay en.
I want to join the fishing group.

(3) go inside the mouth, hence form a complete circle.

Nē-lēw nonon mal kalō, mal hayveg.
His dog tooth has already come out and gone back in (it's made a complete circle).

[ Mota sarovagto enter, draw into’. Cf. Mtp hay1. ]

he1   [] transitive verb. pick ‹an edible fruit›.


Nok so he ta gan intik wōy vēvet.
I'm going to pick four for my son.

he sey
[pick gather] pick a large quantity of fruit, and gather them up
he~2   (°na-he~) [nahɛ] -.

(1) name

Syn: hah

(2) reputation, fame.

Syn: yoyo~

Picasso, na-han ne-ketket.
Picasso is a famous man [his name is high].

[ Mota <°ná sasá-. PNCV sasa-i. POc *asa.  *qasan. ]

he~3   (°na-he~) [nahɛ] -. <Ethn>

(1) literary tale, myth, song whose main subject is ‹s.o.,›.

na-he plēn
the song of the plane

(2) prestigious ode, composed in honour of ‹s.o.› by a professional poet.

Nēk ne-myōs so nok so tow na-he: nēk van tēy me nē-sēm, so ti na-he me hiy no.
If you want me to compose your ode, then bring me some money (nē-sēm): that way you 'order' (ti) your song.

[ Cfhe~1 (?).  eh (?). ]

he hiy  [hɛ hij] transitive verb. catch hold of ‹› high up and bring it down.

Syn: lep hiy

Nēk te-he hiy vēh me na-gasel sal tō alge en?
Could you bring down that knife that's hooked up there?
hel  [hɛl] transitive verb.

(1) cut ‹› in two with a blade slowly pulling it towards the body (opp. tot, cut with a blade in a downward movement).

Kēy lep nē-phog tō hel susu.
They take the meat and cut it into small strips.

(2) circumcise ‹s.o›.

Et-hel te nēk!
You're not even circumcised!
hel bēlag  [hɛl ᵐbɪlaɣ] ~ hel nē-mlag  intransitive verb. <Danse> lit. “cut (?) [like a] Rail” : designates a specific dance step, consisting of kicking one's feet backwards, one after the other, in a cloud of dust.

Na-rap en, qe so ne-hel-bēlag non ige qagqag !
Hip-hop is a bit like the White man's hel-bēlag!
heleg  [hɛlɛɣ] adv. just, only, exclusively: restrictive form associated with predicates.

lower register: vēlēs

Kōyō haytēyēh heleg.
It's exactly the same thing.
helm̄ēt  [hɛlŋ​͡mʷɪt] adv.

(1) (do V) stopping half way.

Yogyogveg nonon mi-tig helm̄ēt a metehal.
His servant stopped in the middle of the road.

(2) (do V) partly, incompletely.

Kē me-se helm̄ēt ēwē.
He sang halfway (he stopped halfway through the song).
hep   [hɛp] adj.

(1) in excess, over the limit.

[Standing beyond] middle finger

(2) bigger than, more than.

Ne-ketket nan en, ne-hep a nē-lē gōh en.
The size (of the monster) was bigger than this cave.
hep   adv.

(1) (v) beyong the limit.

Tog vanvan hep na-n̄ye mey gēn.
You're not allowed to go beyond / go further than that cape over there.

tan̄tan̄ hephep
[touch overstep] touch someone else's property

(2) (be P) more than.

Ni-lwo hep den mey t-anoy.
It's much bigger than yesterday's.
het  [hɛt] adj. bad

Ant: itōk

Ant: ‘bon’

(1) bad; not to be done.

no-yoy het
bad news

Nok et-ak te na-hap mey ne-het hiy nēk.
I didn't do anything wrong to you.

(2) immoral, bad.

Ba na-magtō nan, kē itōk si kē ne-het?
What about that old woman, is she nice or nasty?

(3) poor quality; in bad condition, out of order.

Na-mtek ne-het.
I've got bad eyesight [my eyes are bad].

(4) in bad health, poorly.

(5) ugly.

het   (ne-het) noun. evil.

Tateh het nan.
There's nothing wrong with that.

[ PNCV <°s(a)áti. POc *saʔa-ti.  *saqatbad’. ]

hew1   [hɛw] transitive verb. <Ethn> poison with magic, bewitch to kill; put a spell on ‹s.o.›.

ol ‘faire une offrande magique’

Syn: manheg

n-et hewhew

Kē ni-vēl na-gayte gengen nagay e kē ni-hew kēy aē.
hew2   [hɛw] transitive verb.

(1) pluck a bird's ‹feathers, n-ili~›.

(2) pluck the feathers of ‹a bird›, esp. in cooking.

hewhew nu-tutu
pluck a chicken
hey1   [hɛj] intransitive verb. shine
hey2   [hɛj] transitive verb. wear

hey lō

hey3   [hɛj] intransitive verb. sharpened, pointed.
hey lō  transitive verb. remove ‹clothing›.

hey [2]

‘à travers’

heyaw  [hɛjaw] transitive verb. carry ‹› on one's shoulders (without any stick), fl.e.g. ‹a child›.

h[e]ye~  (na-hye~) [nahjɛ] -. 1s: na-hye-k 3s: na-hya-n

(1) place for ‹›, space for ‹activity›.

Syn: t[e]no~

le-hye muwumwu mino
at my place of work

na-hye galgal m̄aya
theatre [place for acting]

na-hye kikik wōm̄ēl
football ground

(2) ‹s.o's› place of residence or of work.

Syn: teno~

No le-hyek en.
I was at my office.

(3) ‹s.o's, esp. head of family's› property, composed of family homes, and public area (na-tnepnō) separating them; by ext. private properties, including personal possessions and wives.

vōnō ‘espace habité’

(4) "domain ‹of a Spirit›": refers to each grade of the secret society hierarchy system (halgoy); heye~) of a particular Spirit (cf. tamat).

na-mlak le-hye ēvēp
[adornments of the domaine of n-ēvēp] identification of the n-ēvēp Spirit

na-sas le-hye matvēvet
[croton of the Matvēvet domain] Croton leaves, identification of the Four-Eyed Spirit (Mat-vēvet)

[ PNCV *zaravillage clearing’. ]

h[e]ye-tmat  (na-hye-tmat) [nahjɛtmat] noun. <Ethn> hierarchical grade within the secret society (na-halgoy), reserved to initiated men (lēs).

Nēk mu-wuh goy na-yaw van le-hye-tmat mino.
You sacrificed a piglet (hermaphrodite, yaw) in order to attain my sacred grade.
heylō   [hɛjlʊ] transitive verb.

(1) fully accomplish ‹›, go through.

(2) fully accomplish ‹the nō-sōq initiatory ordeal›, lit. go through ‹the initiatory house na-gmel›.

Kē me-heylō na-gmel qele ino.
He has accomplished the initiatory 'house' just like me.
heylō   adv. through.

‘enlever (un habit)’

higher register: vaywēg

(1) through ‹›, through.

“Ne-m̄yayay” en, so nēk t-et heylō vēh.
"Transparent", that means you can see through it.

(2) completely, fully, thoroughly; notion of success, accomplishment.

Kē ma-van heylō na-tnon.
He won the elections. [lit. he went as far as his seat]
heylō hiy  -. by means of, on the occasion of.

Heylō van hiy na-vanvan nonmi me hiy kemem, kem tiqyo ēglal hiy so kimi hag Franis en, kimi qele ave.
Through your travels to our country, we learn more about the way you live in France.
h{ē}lol  (nē-hlol) [nɪhlɔl] noun. <Pois> reef fish, kind of wrasse without a tail. Halichoeres sp.

h{i}nag  (ni-hnag) [nihnaɣ] noun. <Bot> yam: staple food tuber, bearing a high symbolic value. Dioscorea alata.

ni-hnag bepwopwoy
yams offered at the wedding

Kēy lōslōs a lē-tqē alon tō ni-hnag ni-galeg galsi n-ēwan.
A dance is performed inside the garden so that the yams thrive.
  [] -. everyone, each one.

Hē ni-m̄on nagan, hē ni-m̄on nagan.
Everyone wrapped up his portion of food.

Hē ni-salsal nagan ēntēn, hē ni-salsal nagan ēntēn.
Each of them grilled food for their children.
hēgal  [hɪɣal] intransitive verb. feign, pretend to (hit, lapidate+), hence threaten.


h[ē]gēl   [hɪɣɪl] transitive verb. decorate, embellish ‹place, village+› temporarily with leaves and coloured flowers, fl: spec. in preparation of a ceremony or festive event.

valakas ‘décoré, magnifique’

Ige lelo vōnō e kēy me-hgēl na-tno waha.
The villagers decorated/flowered the dance area.
h[ē]gēl   (na-hgēhgēl) noun. decoration.

hay na-hgēhgēl
take down [lit. tear up] the decorations, once the event is over

[ Mota sagilodecorate a place with leaves and flowers’. ]

h[ē]gēl goy  [hɪɣɪl ɣɔj] transitive verb. <Mus> end ‹a song› beautifully.

Hē so ni-hgēl goy na-hek?
Who (by his name) will embellish my song?
h[ē]gēy  (na-hgēy) [nahɣɪj] noun. nest, usual place for a large bird.

tinignig ‘nid d'un petit oiseau’

na-hgēy ne qon
a pigeon's nest

[ Mota <°sakér(i,u). Cf. Mtp sageraperch, roosting-place of birds, flying-foxes’.  hagsit’. ]

hēlat  [hɪlat] transitive verb. cut ‹the throat, dĒlo~›, behead.

lat ‘couper en deux’

Kē ni-hēlat nē-nlo m̄at en.
He cut the serpent's throat.
h[ē]lēp   [hɪlɪp] transitive verb. wash one's ‹face›.

sōwōl ‘se laver les mains’

Lep me nē-bē nok hēlēp na-ngēk aē.
Go and fetch some water so that I can wash my face.
h[ē]lēp   intransitive verb. wash one's face, freshen up.
hēlge  (nē-hēlge) [nɪhɪlɣɛ] noun. <Bot> plant name. Rhus simarubaefolia.

hēmen  [hɪmɛn] transitive verb. smell something, smell actively (opp. yon̄teg ~ m̄ōkheg 'smell passively').

Syn: qōnqōn

No-tok mē-hēmen sas no-qo.
The dog found the pig by sniffing (his trace).

[ Mota so-manput the nose to, smell’. Cf. Mtp mdi~. ]

hēn  (nē-hēn) [nɪhɪn] noun. <Bot> plant name (Rutaceae).

(1) kind of mimosa. Melicope kajewskii.

(2) another kind of rutaceae. Euodia spp.

[ Mota sina. ]

hēnhēn  (nē-hēnhēn) [nɪhɪnhɪn] noun. <Bot> plant name. Argusia argentea.

h[ē]n̄ēn  [hɪŋɪn] transitive verb. put_in_bag ; fill up
hēw   [hɪw] intransitive verb.

(1) go down.



Ant: vēykal

Na-lo may hēw.
The sun's already gone down.

Hēw tēqēl me!
Come down here!

(2) move in the geographical direction corresponding to hōw: to go north-west.

Nēk tē-hēw M̄otlap n̄ēh?
When will you go down to Mwotlap?

(3) grow old, lose one's vigour.

(4) digest.

hēw   transitive verb. <Techn>

(1) get down into, invest ‹, s.o.'s body›.


Nu-vu kē ni-hēw na-haphap soloteg, qe so n-et, nu-bus, na-mtig…
The spirits can 'descend' into all kinds of objects: human being, cat, coconut tree...

Anoy, nu-vu het mē-hēw tō Lōlō, ba aqyig gōh mal bah lok.
Yesterday, an evil spirit had invested Lolo ('s body), but today it's all over.

(2) go down with ‹›; (partic.) during group fishing (gey* hay), designates the activity of a first group moving down towards the sea dragging behind them a ‹fishing rope na-hay›; hence start rope fishing.

Kēy tē-hēw qiyig na-hay.
Today they're going to bring the rope down (i.e. they're going group fishing)

[ PNCV *sivo. POc *sipo. ]

hēw goy  [hɪwɔj] transitive verb. <Techn> in group fishing (gey hay) designates the action of the second group that goes down to the sea to pick up the end of the rope, and complete the circle by bringing it back up on the beach (the liana rope traces a huge semi-circle in the sea at this point).

Dō tog vanvan bē-hēwhēw hay ! Dō so van a bē-hēw goy.
Don't let's go and take the rope down (with the first group)! Let's go with the group that 'goes down second'.
hēy  (nē-hēy) [nɪhɪj] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, unidentified.

hēywē   [hɪjwɪ] ~ hiywē  attr.

(1) true, truthful.

Is that true? Really?

Kemem nē-dēmtig so na-tmat hiyhiywē.
We thought it was a real ghost.

(2) marks agreement: 'oh, OK'; sometimes with amazement 'oh, really?'.

itōk ‘oui, d'accord’

“Na-hek Womtelo.” Wo “Oo, hēywē.”
"My name's Womtelo. – Oh, OK" [lit. Yes, really]

(3) incredible, uncanny.

Kēy gengen tō gōh, hiywē!
It's incredible how greedy they are here [lit. They eat here, truly!]

Na-m̄ya ni-ak kē a hēywē!
He burst out laughing [lit. Laughter overcame him, truly!]

Nēk m-et na-laklak en? Hiywē nowmat!
Did you see the dancing? Incredible! [lit. Dead true!]

Na-baklap hiywē!
Incredible [lit. True], that boat!
hēywē   adv. (V) truly.

No-qo e kē ma-mat hiywē.
The pig was well and truly dead.
hēywē   intransitive verb. tell the truth, be sincere.

Ant: gal ‘mentir’

Ohoo, nok hēyhēywē!
But I'm telling the truth!
hēywē   noun. veracity. only in the expression Hēywē nōnōm You're right [lit. 'true tone'].
higap  [hiɣap] adv. miss

h[i]gi~  (ni-hgi~) [nihɣi] -. <Anat> 1s: ni-hgi-k 3s: nē-hgē-n

(1) elbow.

(2) angle, corner.

(3) ridgepole, diagonal reinforcement supporting the roof structure, joining the tiebeams (na-salwolwol) to the summit (nē-qēthi~).

Syn: hyi~

Nē-hgēn vēvet, so tēntēngeg goy nē-qēthōn.
These four supports are there to support the main beam
higoy  [hiɣɔj] ~ hig goy ~   transitive verb. lit. “stop up (goy) with one's finger (hig)” :

(1) stop (a hole) with one's fingers.

goy [1] ‘(3)’



No mi-hig goy nē-dēln̄ek.
I put my fingers in my ears

(2) block access to stg, physically or otherwise: hence protect sb from danger.

Ige mayanag mi-hig goy na-tmat so kē nitog leplep.
The chiefs protected the masks by preventing (the tourist) from taking them away.

(3) prevent (sb) from doing stg: bar the way, quell sb's enthusiasm.

goy1 (13)

tig goy

Kēy lak van i lak i lak en, kē ni-hig goy lok kēy.
They kept on dancing, but he interrupted them again.

(4) forbid sb verbally to do stg, in a threatening or authoritative manner: hence forbid, proscribe, ban (sb) (from doing sth: so + Prohib. / so + tavle).


Nok higoy kōmyō so kōmyō tele vanvan hep na-n̄ye mey gēn.
⟨tale⟩ I forbid you to go further than the headland over there.

No mi-higoy nēk, mi-hig goy nēk, Qētlas, so nēk tog vanvan tiwag mi ige be-gey-hay en !
I've already forbidden you time and time again, Qetlas, to hang around those fishermen !

ne-le higoy
hil  [hil] transitive verb.
hin̄yeg  [hiŋjɛɣ] intransitive verb. shine, illuminate, produce light.

Syn: law

Nu-qul nōnōm mi-hin̄yeg meyen.
Your lamp stayed alight all night.

nu-qul hin̄hin̄yeg
[very bright lamp] torch
hip2   [hip] attr. numerous, many, a lot, plenty.

Syn: m̄adeg

Ige m̄alm̄al hip a hip a hip.
There were loads and loads of girls!

Mela kēy mē-vēl na-gap a hip a hip.
Mélanie and the others have caught loads of crabs.

Ige susu mi-hip tō me agōh an̄qōn̄.
There were plenty of children here last night.

[ Angl. heap. ]

hit  [hit] transitive verb. transport ‹fire, n-ep› from one place to another, using a firebrand (esp. in leaves or coconut spathe).

Kē ni-yēt no-yomtig vōyō nen tō ni-van yow tō ni-hit.
She tied two coconut palms, (set light to them, and transported the fire to the beach.
hithit-ep  voi. transport fire.


No-yomn̄as a nō-wōlēlē ne mitig, a hithit-ep aē en.
Spathe is the bract of the coconut tree; it is used to transport fire.
hiy1   [hij] adv. indicates that an action V is carried out following an applied movement.

(1) indicates a descending movement, from above towards the ground.

higher register: taqlun̄

taq hiy
bend over, bend down

vatiqaw hiy
kneel down, leaning forwards, prostrate oneself

at hiy
lower one's eyes

yap hiy
pull down

lep hiy
bring down (an object situated high up); (fig.) scorn, humiliate

he hiy
pick, gather

(2) indicates that the position V tends to be immobile, stable.

m̄ōl hiy
diminish, weaken

hag hiy
sit down

en hiy
lie down

Kē ni-vahyeg na-tno tamge nonon hōw, ni-en hiy van.
After spreading his mat out on the ground, he lay down on it.

tig hiy
stop still (while walking)

Kōyō van me wa tig hiy sey hōw.
They suddenly stopped walking, and stood side by side.

(3) indicates that action V is orientated, spatially or mentally, with a precise purpose.

aē [A] ‘y, là’

van [2] ‘Itif’

Tēymat qēt na-haphap van hiy kōyō nen, tō kōyō del hiy.
When they had finished their preparations, they set out [with a precise purpose in mind].

Kēytēl yem ketket hag li-siok nen tō hō hiy ēgēn.
They climbed into their boat, then started paddling [in the planned direction]

valag / gityak hiy
run [in a precise direction, to reach a personal goal]

Kē ma-van hiy me.
He came on purpose.

wow hiy
turn towards, address; covet, desire, be in love with

(4) indicates that action V is carried out in a particularly careful way, concentrating exclusively on its purpose.

Syn: van [2]

Mey yan̄fala su en ni-taq bat ba ni-yon̄teg hiy.
The little boy hid himself, and listened carefully.

et hiy
hiy1   loc.

(1) establishes a direction in reference to an element already mentioned : 'over there', 'there'.

Haghag, et van hiy, me-mgaysēn kē, dēm so kē ma-mat.
While they were seated, they looked at him [looked over there], saddened at the thought he might be dead.

Lok hōw hiy !
(Put it / Stand...) a bit further over to the west!

Lēgmōqōn, hag hiy.
Can you see the village Lêgmôqôn? It's even further away to the east.

(2) continuing in the same direction, hence more, even more.

Nok so ēglal m̄ōleg van hiy no-hohole anen.
I'd like to have an even (van_hiy) clearer idea about this expression.

(3) later: happening later, either coming closer (me) or moving away (van) from the speaker.

the younger brother [born after, therefore closer to the speaker (me)]

L-ēte itan, si so l-ēte mey van hiy.
Next year, or the year afterwards.

ōyēh van hiy
the day after tomorrow, some day
hiy1   -. indicates a peripheral element concerning an action.

(1) indicates the place or object to which the action applies.

bē n-ep hiy na-pyēyag
set fire to the rubbish

Lep na-gayga, tō yoweg hoyo hiy nē-vēthiyle.
You take a liana, then you stretch it out along the beach.

Kēy et-ēglal te hiy na-myam, a so tekel mayam qele ave.
They don't know anything about the world, (and do not know) what the antipodes look like.

Qētēg hiy no-totogyeg, kē ni-van hiy bahnegi.
from the first to the last (photo) [we start at the first, and go on to the last]

(2) indicates the phsychological cause of an action (by, for); the theme of a speech (about).

Cry-over-the-Ocean (married woman missing her native land?)

(3) in the direction of; next to, at s.o.'s house.

Nēk tig hōw a-Yō, ba nēk et lok me hiy no M̄otlap agōh.
You stand up over there in Roua, and you look in my direction here, in Mwotlap.

Na-qtag ni-hal van hiy na-tvale mino.
The arrow is flying towards my enemy.

Nēk m̄ōl lok me hiy igni.
You can go back home to your husband.

Heylō van hiy na-vanvan nonmi me hiy kemem, kem tiqyo ēglal hiy so kimi hag Franis en, kimi qele ave.
Through your travels in our country, we understand more the way you live over there in France.

Tig lap hiy no!
Stay with me!

Nok van me hiy imam.
I've come from dad's house.

(4) to, Dative form. Introduces the beneficiary or addressee of verbs such as 'speak', 'give', 'buy', 'send', etc..

No mal vap van hiy imam.
I already said that to dad.

Tita no-yō ni-lep van hiy kōyō na-qtag.
Their mother gave them arrows.

Nēk so taw en, nēk suwyeg me hiy no !
Each coconut you pick, you must throw it to me!

Kēy olol van hiy nu-vu.
They make offerings to the spirits.

Nēk ak nō-sōq hiy no.
You get me to pass initiatiatory tests (nō-sōq).

[ POc *surifollow’. ]

hiy2   (ni-hiy) [nihij] noun. <Anat> bone.

Ni-hiy le-qtēg bēnēk lē-klek me-mlat.
I broke my shoulder blade [the bone of my shoulder in my back has broken]

Egoy ni-hiy nan, nēk tiple dolm̄a aē !
Be careful of the bones, you might choke yourself!

[ POc *suʀibone’. ]

h[i]yi~  (ni-hyi~) [nihji] -. <Anat>


hiy [2]

ni-hyi et
skeleton; human bones

(2) force, strength, energy.

Tateh hēyēn !
He hasn't got any strength, he's weak!

Nē-hyēn na-maymay.
He's strong [his strength is hard].

Nē-hyēn ne-mdawdaw.
He's weak [his strength is soft].

(3) [plant] thorn.

skoskoy ‘épineux’

(4) stem, central nervure.

Lep no-yomtig, hay yak nē-hyēn, tō vet na-yon.
You take a (young) coconut leaf, take out the central nervure, then you weave the leaf.

(5) dorsal fin.

dēln̄e~ ‘nageoire pectorale’

(6) ridgepole roping, diagonal reinforcement supporting the roof structure, linking the tiebeams (na-salwolwol) to the ridge beam (nē-qēthi~).

Syn: higi~

N-ēm̄ gōh, nē-hyēn vēvet.
This house has four reinforcements.

[ POc *suʀibone’. ]

h[i]yip  [hijip] transitive verb. tear off ‹tree leaves› by briskly sliding the branch through one's closed fist.

hap [1] ‘cueillir’

Kē a me-hyip na-yo bak nen en, ne-len̄ me-lep na-yo bak en, ni-qlen̄.
He tore off the banyan leaves, which the wind immediately swept away.
hiyle  [hijlɛ] loc. : 'low bush': low density bush area, situated all along the coast, and gen. used for gardening.

Hiyle en, na-tno tēqē a et-lu-wutwut te.
The 'low-bush' is the garden zone which is not on high ground.

Nok so van a hiyle so leplep gengen.
I'll go to the low-bush to find some food.

Kēy qētqēt hiyle so totot han̄, n-ēvet, tiwag mi na-gayga.
They all go to the low bush to cut timber, bamboo and vines.

[ Mota sur-lauto follow the beach’. ]

hiy + le2.

hog   [hɔɣ] transitive verb.

(1) lend ‹a hand›.

(2) hand ‹› to s.o.

Kē mo-hog me nē-lētes namu.
He handed /gave me a letter for you.

(3) offer a present.

hoghog goy ‘se fiancer à’

Nok so hog van nē-vētan hiy nēk tō nēk so vah nē-tqē aē.
I want to give you a piece of land so that you can cultivate your garden.
hog   (hoghog) adj. generous, esp. in terms of food.

Kē namnan, veg kē no-hoghog.
She's very good, because she's generous [because she 'gives'].
hoghog goy  [hɔɣhɔɣ ɣɔj] transitive verb. <Ethn>

(1) [man] reserve (a woman), become engaged to (sb). During an engagement ceremony, a young man obtains exclusivity over (goy) a young woman, by offering (hog) his future parents-in-law various presents.

hoghog goy

Syn: ak goy

Syn: vatlēg goy

(2) carry out this ceremony, speaking of the members of the man's family: they go to the home of the woman's family, either in the presence of the future husband or not.

Kem so van hoghog goy Serah ēgnōn Toni.
We're off to see Serah get engaged to Toni.
hohole   [hɔhɔlɛ] intransitive verb.
hohole   (no-hohole) noun. noun derived from vb hole.

(1) language, the act of speaking.

Intik mal ēglal no-hohole.
My child can already talk.

(2) discourse, speech, declaration.

No-hohole nonon vitwag vēlēs, a so kē et bus te vanvan hōw hiy imam.
His answer is always the same, he refuses to come and see his father.

(3) word, particular term in a language.

he~ ‘nom’

Nok so ēglal m̄ōleg van hiy no-hohole anen.

(4) language.

Syn: gatgat

Syn: vap

no-hohole non Iqet

No-hohole no-yō ne-tegtegha.
They speak two different languages.

Iyē ma-vatne nēk bo-hohole to-M̄otlap?
Who taught you Mwotlap?
hohole legelge  transitive verb. speak irrespectfully to or of ‹s.o› to whom one owes respect (esp. a relative).


hohole m̄aya  intransitive verb. tell funny stories, make s.o. laugh.

m̄[a]ya [B]


Syn: hohole siseg

Syn: boyboy

hohōw  (no-hohōw) [nɔhɔhʊw] noun. <Bot>

(1) steam.


(2) plant name. Wollastonia biflora.

[ Mota sasawui. ]

hole  [hɔlɛ] intransitive verb. talk ; speak


vap ‘dire’

Hole !
Go on, talk !

Kē ni-hohole memeh.
She's talkative [she talks too much].

(2) declare, address (sb, Dir.+ hiy). Although intransitive, may announce reported speech (wo, so).

Kē ni-hohole van hiy kē wo “Nēk van me gōh so akteg ?”
He then spoke to him (saying): “What are you doing here?”
hole boyboy  intransitive verb. lit. “talk joke” : joke with (mi) sb, make fun of sb with a little insolence or provocation.. Ethn. Used essentially in joking relations : Cf. esp.namas_boyboy, bōbō, itat. This type of relation is out of the question with wulus, qēlge~, yoqlēg, titamas and any other person calling for respect (dēmap).



hole goy  [hɔlɛ ɣɔj] transitive verb.

(1) answer, respond.

Syn: vulu

Kēy hole goy qele ave?
How did they respond?

(2) talk in such a way as to bother (sb) because of the sound of one's voice; interrupt (sb).

vōlōplōl goy

hole lō  intransitive verb.


hole m̄aya  intransitive verb. be funny, tell funny stories.



hole siseg  intransitive verb. lit. “talk play” : joke, banter.


Hohole siseg ēwē !
I was only joking (don't take it seriously)!
h[o]lo~  (na-hlo~) [nahlɔ] -. <Anat> testicles

Syn: wahlo~

Syn: wōlaslas

Syn: wōtiltil


Na-lah en, na-hlē ni-yēg liwo.
Elephantiasis causes the testicles to swell.

[ PNCV, POc (<°l[o]ho-) <°lasó-.  *laso. ]

h[o]yo   [hɔjɔ] adj.

higher register: malaw

(1) long, stretched out.

towol ‘large’

Na-gayga kē mas hoyo.
The rope must be very long.

Na-mtehal nonmamyō ne-hyo a ne-hyo.
Our route is still very long.

(2) tall; vertically long.

(3) long, long-lasting.

No mas dēm a ne-hyo.
I must think about it for a long time (at leisure).
h[o]yo   (hoyo) adv.

(1) lengthwise.

no-qo a nē-lwon ne-wey hoyo
a pig whose teeth have turned round a long way

Lep na-gayga, yoweg hoyo hiy nē-vēthiyle.
A liana is stretched out on the beach lengthwise.

(2) (speak) explicitly, giving details.

So van/hohole hoyo van aē…
[To go/speak at length about that] If you want me to tell you everything / If you want to know all about it / To put it clearly...
h[o]yo   (na-hyo) noun. length (opp. na-twol ‘width’).
1   [] intransitive verb. paddle

[ Mota sua. ]

2   (°na-hō) [nahʊ] noun. smoke

Na-hō, na-hō !
What a lot of smoke! (Let's get out of here!)
2   intransitive verb. smoke, produce smoke.

Na-hō mō-hō me van aē, tō no-womtig ni-tnas.
Smoke has gone on smoking, and has blackened the old coconuts.

[ Mota asu. PNCV *ʔasu. POc *qasu. ]

hōm̄  (°na-hōm̄) [nahʊŋ​͡mʷ] noun. <Pois>

(1) Blackedge Thicklip Wrasse, bsl. Tiklips blufis: reef fish, 50 cm. Hemigymnus melaptarus.

(2) parrotfish, bsl. Blufis. Scarus spp.

[ Mota saum̄a. ]

hōn  [hʊn] adv.

(1) (fish, hunt) successfully;hence catch ‹prey›.

Wō nēk ma-galeg hōn?
Did you catch something?

(2) (V) successfully; succeed in (V); manage to (V).

Nēk mi-rin̄ hōn kē?
Did you manage to phone him?

Kēy mo-sok i sok e, et-etsas hōn te kē.
They looked for it for hours, without succeeding in laying hands on him.

(3) not at all, absolutely not.

Hay le-pnō kē, tateh et hōn qal !
In the village, there's absolutely nobody.
hōw  [hʊw] dir. <Géo> down, downwards.

Ant: hag [1]

(1) down, downwards. Qualifies any action directed downwards, e.g. 'go down', 'put down', 'pour', 'fall'....

Hag hiy hōw.
Sit down!

Kē ni-at tēqēl hōw lē-bē.
He looked closely into the river bed.

No-qon ni-yow hag hōw wa kēy tit.
Each time a dove settled (hōw), they shot at it.

Kēy galeg hōw n-ep.
They made a fire [on the ground]

Visis hōw nen : na-tm̄an.
She gave birth [lit. down] to a boy.

Iqet ni-lep ni-hnag e ni-hn̄ēn hōw (lo-boyboy).
Iqet seized a yam and stuck it (into his bag) [down, because the bag was on the ground].

Kē ni-lm̄eh hōw li-qti e tō nēk mat !
He smashes your skull (with a club), and you drop dead!

Na-ptel ni-van tō ni-men, tō ni-men galsi hōw...
The bananas continued to ripen, ripen... [down, because made the branch bend]

(2) diminishing (age, number, vigour, price...).

Tō na-tkel qo liwo nen van hōw, tō ni-mat ēgēn.
And then the terrible monster began to lose his strength [to go down], and finally died.

Ige mey malig hōw, kēy tit-van te muy vēh te la-halgoy.
Those who are under (age, i.e. children) are not allowed to take part in secret ceremonies.

(3) qualifies any action leading to immobility, interruption (opp. hag1, suggesting the start of an action).

hiy [1]

Mahē ni-qōn̄ hōw nen e...
When night had fallen...

Kōyō van me wa tig hiy sey hōw.
They suddenly stopped walking, standing side by side.

Kimi hal hotog hōw, dēyē no a nok dēn̄ me.
You'll stop your boat (lie at anchor), and wait until I come and join you.

Kē wo et-bus-te hōw...
Supposing she refuses...

(4) tending towards the continuation, the end of a process.

Kē ni-van se hōw !
Continue (your story / your action...) [It's going down] !

Na-vap t-am̄ag nan ni-bah hōw gēn.
And this is how this story ends [ends down].

Na-laklak, kēy ma-yak / mē-qēt ēwē hōw !
The dancing has just finished !

(5) north-westwards, north and/or westwards (opp. hag1). Partic. in the island of Mwotlap : following the island lengthwise fromgen. following the coastline, from south-east to north-west. Between the islands: hōw refers to islands of the northwest (Roua, Ureparapara, Torres, Salomon).

Kēy togtog n̄a hōw Ayō en.
They live over there, in Roua.

Iqet ma-van hōw Avap en, so tin nō-qōn̄.
Iqet has gone to buy the Night over there, in the island of Avap [mythical island, situated towards the Torres].

Nok so van hōw M̄otlap en.
I'm going [I 'm going down] to Mwotlap.

Le-pnō vitwag, a Aplōw yeh, lok hōw me antan yeh.
It was in a village... situated before Aplôw, in other words to the west (hōw antan ‘going down') this way (me).

ige hōw en
the people from there (designates a place, village or country to the northwest...)

Imam hōw en vap me so itōk.
In any case, my father from over there (to the west) told me he agreed.

(6) indicates the same direction (northwestwards), within a close area.

Kik namun ige to-lok hōw !
Free kick for the west team (who plays to the west) !

Hag malig tog hōw !
Can you sit a little more to the west, please?

[ North-V *suw[e,o]. POc *sipo. ]

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