kasule lava abilo
kasule we menuko
k' [k'] -.
ka1 [ka] coord. and
(1) and. Coordinator between noun phrases.
(2) and. Coordinator between clauses.
ka2 [ka] aspect.
(1) ⦗+Realis predicate⦘ marker of Perfect aspect.
(2) ⦗+Irrealis V⦘ ….
~ka3 [(i·)ka] intransitive verb. come, towards speaker or deictic centre.
- U-ka ko!
- Come here!
(2) come from (somewhere).
- Pi-ka vele?
- Where are you coming from?
~ka4 [(i·)ka] intransitive verb. (rare) ⦗V2 in serial construction; foll. by demonstrative⦘ (do) like (this).
- U-wai ebele u-ka pon etapu!
- Don't shake your body like that!
~kae [(i·)kae] phr. question verb enquiring on a situation, or the manner of an action.
(1) ⦗dynamic reading⦘ do how?. ◈ Morph.. Probably from ~ka4 ‘do like’ + ae ‘what’.
- Kape le-kae?!
- How were they supposed to proceed?!
(2) ⦗static reading⦘ be how?.
- I-kae eo?
- How are you?
(3) ⦗V2 in serialisation, with subject agreement⦘ how?.
- A-ka a-kae? – Ni-katau anoko ni-ka.
- How did you come? – I just followed the road.
- Kape le-te le-kae?
- How could they have remained there?
kai [kai] -.
kaiawo [kaiawo] noun. smoke.
- Pon kaiawo tae, ova revo.
- That's not smoke, that's steam.
- Ei! Kaiawo pon! I-ke re, ne kulumoe re!
- Hey, look at the smoke! It's coming from over there, from that village over there!
kailape [kailape] -.
kaipa [kaipa] -.
~kamai [(i·)kamai] transitive verb. bring ‹s.th., s.o.› here, towards deictic centre. ◈ Synt.. Often the object is expressed in preceding clause, and not repeated after kamai.
- mwaliko po i-kamai tamate pon
- the man who brought the Tamate masks [to this island]
- Kupa pi-kamai monone apilaka ne pe-ko me pe-kamai i-wene tev' eo.
- We have brought here this small box, with the idea to leave it with you.
[ Pileni ka mai. ]
kangele [kaŋele] -.
kangele teuko noun.
kanikawo [kanikawo] ~ kankawo noun. <Fish> (gen) grouper. Epinephelinae spp.
kanikawo teiene -. <Fish> Yellow-edged Lyretail. Variola louti.
kanimoro [kanimoro] -.
~kanu Ⓐ [(i·)kanu] transitive verb. chew ‹s.th.›, esp. areca nut.
- Li-nge to, li-kanu buioe me puluko.
- They would suck on sugarcane, and also chew areca nuts with betel leaves.
~kanu Ⓑ intransitive verb. ⦗absol.⦘ chew areca nut.
- Li-anu ero pana ka li-kanu, ka li-moloe ne kat.
- We drink tea, we chew areca nuts, and we play cards.
[ Tik. kamu. ]
kape [kape] -.
kara [kara] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Bot> ⟨tree⟩ root.
- kara kava
- kava root
- kara boke
- banyan root
- Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe.
- To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree.
[ POc *wakaR. ]
~karau [(i·)karau] intransitive verb.
(1) ⟨plant+⟩ grow.
- Kape jebute i-karau na metae, pe ero tae.
- Taro can't grow here, because there's no water.
(2) ⦗often foll. by ~vene ‘up’⦘ ⟨child⟩ grow up, become older.
- Ini i-karau Vonovono.
- She grew up in the Reef Islands.
(3) ⟨s.o.⟩ grow stout, put on weight.
- Na oie ini ka wako, na ka i-karau wako.
- She's of a healthy size now, she has nicely put on weight.
~karem [(i·)karem] transitive verb. ⟨s.o., s.th.⟩ have, have got. ◈ Although this verb is criticised as a loanword, it is frequently heard in informal speech. The equivalent in the vernacular would involve an existential predicate, usually with ~wene.
- Ebele kuo i-karem demene.
- Genuine canoes have an outrigger.
[ Pjn garem. Eng got. ]
kasule [kasule] noun. <Bot> generic name for a number of creepers and vines.
- Kasule, li-ovei pe l-ejau ñe idi pe li-tavie.
⟨medicine leaves⟩ Some vines are useful for sick people.
kasule aulo -. lit. “hermit-crab's vine” : k.o. creeper.
kasule ijene -. k.o. creeper.
kasule lava abilo -. lit. “snake vine” : k.o. liana, ‘Great bean vine’.
kasule loubaido -. lit. “coconut-crab's vine” : k.o. creeper.
kasule loubo -. lit. “crab's vine” : k.o. creeper.
kasule moloe -. lit. “red vine” : k.o. creeper.
kasule vorobiliko -. k.o. creeper.
kasule wa-biouro -. lit. “long-fruit vine” : calabash. Crescentia cujete. ◈ Not a native tree of Vanikoro.
kasule wa-wabulubu -. lit. “round-fruit vine” : calabash.
kasule we menuko -. lit. “vine (food) for birds” : k.o. creeper.
kata [kata] -.
katabo [kataᵐbo] -.
katae [katae] -.
katau [katau] -.
~katau [(i·)katau] phr. follow
(1) join ‹s.o.› in motion or in action; follow.
- Ba-ko ba-katau ene le-le ne toloto?
- Do you guys want to join me to the lake?
(2) (fig) follow, come after ‹s.o.›.
- tili' one pe i-katau ene viri
- [my brother who follows me behind] my next brother (in age)
(3) follow ‹s.th.›.
- Kape le-tabo le-katau na kiapa ponu.
- Let's retrace our own steps again.
(4) ⦗often serialised⦘ follow ‹path, road+›; (move, walk+) along ‹place›.
- U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka.
- Just follow the road a little further up.
- I-kotu i-katau ero ponu i-ven' i-le.
- He ran along the river, all the way up.
- Li-elele kuo i-katau revo.
- They dragged the boat [following the sea] along the coast.
- Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.
- This kava bowl has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.
(5) ⦗+location⦘ (do s.th.) systematically, from ‹place› to ‹place›; (do) in every ‹place›.
- Uña toñaki van li-ka, li-ka li-dai temaka i-katau uña basakulumoe.
- Ships used to come and explore the area, going from one island to the other [lit. following islands].
- I-e idi, i-e idi, i-katau kulumoe ra ra ra ra ra ra – kulumoe moli.
- (the Ogre) ate people, dozens of people, going from one village to another [lit. following villages], on and on and on, until all the villages were empty.
- La-tabe mata ka la-lui la-do i-katau ngogoro.
- They collected tree shoots, and began to plant them everywhere in the forest [lit. following the forest].
(6) (fig) follow intellectually ‹a changing referent›; refer to, adapt to, (do s.th.) according to.
- Noma li-katau ñe metele.
⟨calendar⟩ In the old days, people would just refer themselves to [lit. follow] the moon.
(7) ⦗often serialised⦘ adapt o.'s actions+ to ‹s.o., s.th.›; hence (do) along, according to ‹s.th.›.
- Le-woi okoro awoiu le-(w)oburo i-katau.
- We pound bamboos (giving the rhythm), and then we sing along.
(8) be sufficient in quantity; enough for ‹s.o., s.th.›.
- Li-bi vongoro we teliki iote, teliki iote, i-katau dapa awoiu.
- They collected almonds for each chief, one after the other, enough for [lit. following] them all.
(9) be suitable for, suit ‹s.o., s.th.›.
- Buro pon i-katau abo ne ene!
⟨hum⟩ This song suits my blood! (=I love it!)
- Emele pon i-katau awa ene!
⟨hum⟩ This girl sure suits my desire! (=I dig her!)
kate [kate] -.
katei [katei] -.
kava [kava] noun. <Bot>
(1) kava plant. Piper methysticum.
- kara kava
- a kava root
(2) a narcotic drink made after this plant, and consumed by men on important occasions. ◈ The consumption of kava is claimed to be customary on Vanikoro. However, the fact that this is a Polynesian loanword suggests this practise was introduced in relatively times. Still today it is only drunk on rare occasions; the traditional daily drug of Vanikoro is really the areca nut (buioe).
- Dapenuo li-le ne toplau, li-anu kava. Li-anu kava awoiu, ka li-vongo viri.
- Men would go in the men's clubhouse, and drink kava. Once they had drunk kava, they would eat.
- Daviñevi wopine li-ovei pe li-anu kava.
- Old women are allowed to drink kava.
- Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.
- This kava bowl (tano*) has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.
[ Polynesian kava. ]
kava ele -. <Bot> a wild variety of kava, not suitable for drinking. Macropiper latifolium.
kava moloe -. lit. “red kava” : a reddish variety of kava, now fallen into disuse.
kava tebene -. lit. “yellow kava” : a yellowish variety of kava, now fallen into disuse.
kavale [kavale] -.
kavele [kavele] -.
kawi [kawi] -.
kaworo [kaworo] noun. <Fish> White-spotted Spinefoot. Siganus canaliculatus.
ke [ke] -.
~ke1 [(i·)ke] transitive verb. ⟨man, animal⟩ bite.
- Nara bwoe i-ke eo!
- Make sure sharks don't bite you.
- muko pe i-ke idi
- [fly that bites people] mosquito
[ (?) POc *kaRat. ]
~ke2 [(i·)ke] intransitive verb.
(1) go outside, go out; come out (of, mina).
- U-ke u-ka na!
- Come here!
(2) ⦗geocentric coordinates⦘ go from inland towards the sea; go downhill; (at sea) move away from the island, towards the ocean.
(3) (fig) come out, come to light, appear.
- Ije pwoi i-ke i-dadai.
- The pig tusk has come out and spun around.
keba [keᵐba] -.
kela [kela] -.
kengele [keŋele] noun. <Fish> Sammara squirrelfish. Neoniphon sammara.
kengetone [keŋetone] noun. <Fish>
(1) Sabre Squirrelfish. Sargocentron spiniferum.
(2) Pink Squirrelfish. Sargocentron tieroides.
kevei [kevei] -.
kia [kia] -.
kiane [kiane] -.
kiapa [kiapa] -.
kidi [kiⁿdi] -.
kidisa revo [kiⁿdisa revo] noun. <Sea> salt.
kie1 [kie] noun. <Bot> k.o. pandanus, the leaves of which are commonly used for weaving. Pandanus tectorius.
- Li-vei uie kie.
- They're weaving pandanus leaves.
[ POc *kiRe. ]
kie2 [kie] noun, obligatorily possessed.
(1) hole of ‹s.th.› dug in the ground.
- Li-ae kie tepapa i-dadai awoiu ponu, li-iu tepapa ene.
- They dug holes for the dancing boards all around (the village area), and then they buried the boards in them.
(2) (esp) grave of ‹s.o.›, sepulture.
- Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.
- When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.
- kie Laperus
- the sepulture of Lapérouse
kie tebene -. lit. “yellowed pandanus” : variety of pandanus leaves with leaves of a pale yellow colour.
kie tepapa -. lit. “hole of board” : hole buried in the ground, used as a resonator underneath the stomping board during the ngapiene dances.
kijin [kiᶮɟin] -.
kila [kila] -.
~kila1 [(i·)kila] transitive verb.
(1) call out to ‹s.o.›.
- Abu u-kila in' i-koie!
- Call him in!
- Li-si teveliko ne kulumoe, me le-kila idi le-ka le-mako.
- Someone in the village is blowing the conch, calling out to people to come and dance.
(2) invoke ‹deity›, with a prayer or curse.
- Li-la viko li-lateli, li-ka li-kila tadoe pon li-ko “Visipure! U-abu ne adawo!”
- Once they had put the sacred money down, they began to invoke their gods: “Fisipure! Come down from your clouds!”
(3) call, get ‹s.o.› on the phone or the teleradio. ◈ Vanikoro has no phone. Communication between villages, or with other islands, is done by teleradio.
- Abu ne-kila Puma!
⟨teleradio⟩ I'll try and get (the people of) Puma.
(4) ⦗followed by ~ko2⦘ call ‹s.th., s.o.› with such and such a name.
- Dapa li-kila li-ko “Beme” pe ini beme.
- They call him “Baldhead” because he's bald.
- Li-kila temaka pon li-ko “Moe ma Tadoe”.
- This place is called “Devils' Lair”.
~kila2 [(i·)kila] phr.
(1) follow, join ‹s.o., s.th.› in motion or action.
- A-ko u-ka u-kila keba?
- Would you like to join us?
(2) marry ‹s.o.›.
- Ni-kila emele pe Tetevo.
- I married a woman from Utupua.
- basavono pe da-tilu kape la-kila da
- [lit. when two people follow each other] when there is a wedding
- Nga u-romo leka, kape u-kila.
- Should you have any eye contact with your cross-cousin, you will have to marry her.
~kila emele -. lit. “join a woman” : wed, marry; be married.
- Dapa po li-kila emele, dapa wopine.
- Those who are married, the adults.
~kilase [(i·)kilase] ~ ~kilasi ~ ~klas(e,i) transitive verb.
(1) address, talk to ‹s.o.›, esp. with a formal or solemn tone; invoke.
- Li-puie li-kilasi tadoe adapa me i-somoli toñaki ie Laperusi.
- So they addressed solemnly their god, begging him to destroy the ships of Lapérouse.
(2) inform ‹s.o.› (about s.th., ñe), esp. in some length; explain, tell.
- Ini i-kilasi mwalik' iape, ñe ngaten' na po i-rom' pon.
- She told her husband about all she had seen.
- Dapa iono le-ka, kape u-kilase dapa ñei.
- When your family comes, you'll explain it all to them.
kilasi [kilasi] -.
kilo [kilo] -.
kisin [kisin] -.
kiñe [kiɲe] noun. long, thin appendage hanging from ‹s.th.› in high number.
- kiñe abo
- blades of grass
- kiñe luro
- leaflets of the coconut palm
- kiñe otovo
- long and thin leaves on the eaves of a sago thatch
- kiñe udo
- young and small bananas on a banana bunch
- kiñe tebo
- long rain drops during a shower
- [long tentacles] octopus
kiñe tamate -. the long, many fibres made of leaves, which hang down from a tamate ritual mask, by way of the Spirit's hair.
kiñe vabasa ~ kiñe viabasa -. hair, considered in its length rather than its volume.
- kiñe viabasa
- one hair
- La-katei kiñe vabasa da.
- They're pulling each other's hair!
kiñe-biouro [kiɲe·ᵐbiouro] noun. <Fish> lit. “long-tentacles” : octopus. Octopus spp.
- motomoro ie kiñe-biouro
- sucker of an octopus
kiñekiñe [kiɲekiɲe] adjective. ⟨leaf, plant⟩ pinnate. ◈ Reduplication of kiñe.
- bamele kiñekiñe
- pinnate philodendron
ko1 [ko] adv. ◈ Clause-final particle.
(1) first, as a first action.
- Mou me ne-iumu ne-le n-ioi teuko ko.
- Let me first go angling.
(2) ⦗with imperative⦘ (do) for a second: forms a polite order; hence please.
- U-ka ko!
- Come here a second!
(3) ⦗deictic use⦘ exclamatory particle pointing to the immediate context, typic. to the addressee's speech or action.
- A-tomoli ko!
- That's just a liar!
- Na bwara eo ko!
- I'm sure that's you!
- In' na nga barava tadoe ko!
- Isn't he absolutely incredible?!
~ko2 [(i·)ko] transitive verb.
(1) say ‹s.th.›, declare. Introduces direct reported speech.
- Na, piene adapa Teanu a-ko ae?
- [this, the language of Teanu, you say what?] How do you say this in Teanu?
(3) ⦗often foll. by bwara⦘ think.
(4) ⦗foll. by Irrealis clause⦘ want to.
(5) ⦗serialised after a verb of speech or thought⦘ that: equivalent of a complementiser.
~ko3 Ⓐ [(i·)ko] intransitive verb. be open.
~ko3 Ⓑ transitive verb. open ‹s.th.›.
- Ka li-ko ruene, ka li-tabo li-bono.
- They open the door, and then shut it again.
~ko4 [(i·)ko] transitive verb. wait for ‹s.o., s.th.›.
- Le-ko Bakap i-ka.
- Let's wait for Bakap (to come back).
- Mamote i-wene i-ko kia.
- He's still (lying) waiting for us.
- Kape u-ko ene mijaka nga ba-vete piene awoiu.
- Just wait a little for me, until I've talked to him.
~ko pine -. ⟨mouth, eyes, legs+⟩ lit. “open big” : be wide open. ◈ Origin of ~kopine ‘deep’.
kobe [koᵐbe] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree with hard wood; unidentified.
~koene [(i·)koene] transitive verb. put on, wear ‹clothes, hat+›.
- I-koene namolo 'none.
- She's wearing my clothes.
- mwaliko pe ka i-koene Tamate ponu
- the man who's wearing the Tamate mask
koie [koje] -.
~koioi [(i·)kojoi] transitive verb. causative of ~koie ‘enter’: cause ‹s.o., s.th.› to go in, introduce.
(1) cause ‹s.th.› to go in, hence insert, put in, pack.
- U-koioi etapu!
- Don't put it in!
(2) cause ‹s.o.› to go in, hence bring in, lead ‹s.o.› in.
- Ai' iape kape i-la men' iape i-koioi ne Toplau.
- The father would introduce his son into the Men's House.
(3) ⦗geocentric coordinates⦘ cause ‹s.th.› to go inland: take ‹s.th.› from the sea towards the shore, or from the shore towards the village.
- Dapa kula li-katei noma nuduro tilu ponu, li-koioi tetakoie, i-le i-vene ne moko taniboro.
- Some people pull the two ends of the scareline towards the shore, to a dry zone.
(4) ⦗id.⦘ cause ‹s.o.› to go inland, esp. welcome ‹travellers› on the beach and lead them inland.
- Ka li-loko dapa li-koioi. Li-koioi li-su buluko ka li-koie li-vagasi ta-koie.
- (The islanders) welcomed them inland. They lit torchlights and led them in, until they reached (the village) inland.
koiui [kojui] -.
koko [koko] -.
kokoro [kokoro] -.
kome [kome] -.
konge [koŋe] noun. <Zool> prawn, shrimp.
- Kape la-re tetaki me la-labu neido konge ne ero.
- We will set a trap to catch small shrimps in the river.
kopa [kopa] -.
~kopine [(i·)kopine] intransitive verb. deep. ◈ Etym.. From ~ko pine ‘wide open’
kopu [kopu] -.
kopuria [kopuria] -.
koro [koro] adjective.
- ovene koro
- white heron
- Vilisao tilu: iote bworo, iote koro.
- Suddenly there were two tornados: one was dark, one was white.
(2) ⟨s.o.⟩ person of white skin, European.
- emele koro
- a White woman
korone [korone] -.
kotu [kotu] -.
kovi [kovi] -.
kukubo [kukuᵐbo] -.
kula2 [kula] noun, obligatorily possessed. half of ‹s.th.›.
- Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.
- I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
kulaña [kulaɲa] ~ kula noun. half of ‹s.th.›.
- Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.
- I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
kulaña metele -. lit. “half moon” : semi-circle.
- Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.
- To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle.
kuledi [kuleⁿdi] -.
kulevelu [kulevelu] noun. <Ornith> fowl, poultry, chicken.
- kulevelu mwalikote
- [male fowl] rooster
- via kulevelu
- chicken feather
- Kulevelu ka i-ve waluluo tete.
- The fowl has laid three eggs.
- anes kulevelu
- chicken meat
kuli [kuli] -.
kulumoe [kulumoe] noun. inhabited place. ◈ Etym.. Perhaps from kula ‘several’ + moe ‘house’.
(1) (gen) hamlet, village.
- Da-tilu pe Teanu. Kulumoe iada Aneve.
- They were from Teanu island; their village was Aneve.
(2) (rare) area, zone within an island, not necessarily inhabited.
- kulumoe peini sekele
- an area for garden
(3) island as a whole.
- Ini i-te Franis, ia ebele kulumoe iape Japan.
- She lives in France, but she is actually from [lit. her genuine country is] Japan.
(5) (rare) the world.
- ne tevie kulumoe
- the other side of the world
kuo [kuo] -.
kupa [kupa] -.