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A dictionary of Teanu (Vanikoro, Solomon Islands)
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Mtp–Fr–Eng

Mtp–Eng–Fr

Mtp–Eng

Mtp–Fr

Tea–Eng–Fr

Tea–Eng

teanu dictionary
Index
**kula1
Franisi
Paeu
Paiu
Popokia
~a1
a-2
abia
abiaini
abigo
abilo
abilo peini revo
abo1
abo2
abu1
~abu2
~abu3
~abu4
~abui
ada1
ada2
adapa1
adapa2
adawo
adieA
adieB
ae1
~ae2
aele
aero1
aero2
aero we anive
aero we anive
aeve
~ago
ai-
aiaA
aiaB
~aiae
aidi1
aidi2
aipa1
aipa2
~aiu
~aiu momobo
~ajau
ajekele
~aka1
~aka2
akapa1
akapa2
~ako
ale
~ali1
~ali2
Alvaki
amjakaA
amjakaB
Amo
amoso
amuko
amwaliko
ane
anesi
Aneve1
~aneve2
angede
angede ovene
angede ovene
anive
anluko
anoko
~anu
anuele
anuele anaero
anuele tukuteleu
apali
apilaka
~apilo
~apilo sekele
~apini
~apinu
apono
aremo
~arevo
~asai
asodo
ata
atavono
ate
atero
~atevo
~atili
~ativi
~atui
~au1
~au2
aulo
ava1
~ava2
ava saba
ava saba
ave
~avi
~avi1
avie
aviro
~avo1
~avo2
avtebe
awa
awene
awis
awisi
awo
awoiuA
awoiuB
awoiuC
awoiuD
aña
añawo
añaña
ba1
ba2
ba-3
balawe
bale
bamele
bamele kiñekiñe
Banie
bara
baro
basa1
basa2
basa3
basakulumoe
basavono
baudo
bauluko
bauro
bava aele
bavede
bavolo
bavolo we Tangalo
be1
be2
be mata
bea
bea ave
bebenuro
~bei
~bei bete
beiuko
bele
bele mwa
bele voro
belebale
belemele
benuro
beteA
beteB
~betei
beve
bevoko
bi
~bi1
~bi2
bilibiro
bimole
biouro
bisa
~bisi
blateno
~bo1
~bo2
boe
boe baro
boe temiao
bogo
boke
bokoe
bonge
~bonoA
~bonoB
boro1
boro2
boroboro
boso
~botongoA
~botongoB
botu
bou
~bu1
~bu2
bu-3
~bubu
buia
buia luro
buioe
bulateno
bulengi
buluko
buluko ie tadoe
buluwowo
bune
bunero
buro1
buro2
buro bula
buro bula okoro
bute
bwara
bwogo
bworo
da1
~da2
dada
~dadai
~dai
damala
dameliko
dapa
dapa gete
dapa noma
daviñevi
davuduko
dekele
delesa
demene
demo
dere
dere mie boe
dere wablubu
dero
deruobe
devele
~di
die
die i-meli
die moso
digo
dingobe1
dingobe2
~do1
~do2
~do3
doko
dowene
duduko
~e
ea
ebel' ini
ebele
ebele ngapiene
ebele pieneA
ebele pieneB
ebieve1
ebieve2
ebo
eda
ei
~ejau
~ekeke
~eketele
~ekili
ekuo
ela
elela
~elele
elene
eluro
emele
enaka
ene
enga
engaenga
engaiote
~engi
enone
en’
eo
epele
epu
ere
eria
ero
ero pana
etapu
ete
ete ie kengele
etelo
etengi
etera
eva
evele
evero
evero moloe
ewe
gae
gea
gete
gilita
go
Honiara
~i1
i-2
ia1
ia2
~ia3
~ia4
iaba
iada
iadapa
iae
iaero
iaidi
iaipa
iakapa
iakia
iamela
iape
iawo
idi
idi abia
ie1
ie2
iebe
iepiene
iero
iero peini revo
Iglan
ije
ije b(w)oe
ije p(w)oi
ika
i-katau-teve
iliro
ilo
ilo we uvilo
ilui
imaluo
ini
io
ioi
~ioi teuko
iolulu
iono
iopon
iote
ioti
ise
iu1
~iu2
iui
iuko
iula
iula teuko
iumi
iumu
iune
iunido
iunubo
iupa
iura
iuro
ive
jeboro
jeboro moloe
jebute
jokoro
k'
ka1
ka2
~ka3
~ka4
~kae
kai
kaiawo
kailape
kaipa
~kamai
kangele
kangele teuko
kanikawo
kanikawo teiene
kanimoro
~kanuA
~kanuB
kape
kara
~karau
~karem
kasule
kasule aulo
kasule ijene
kasule lava abilo
kasule loubaido
kasule loubo
kasule moloe
kasule vorobiliko
kasule wa-biouro
kasule wa-wabulubu
kasule we menuko
kata
katabo
katae
katau
~katau
kate
katei
kava
kava ele
kava moloe
kava tebene
kavale
kavele
kawi
kaworo
ke
~ke1
~ke2
keba
kela
kengele
kengetone
kevei
kia
kiane
kiapa
kidi
kidisa revo
kie1
kie2
kie tebene
kie tepapa
kijin
kila
~kila1
~kila2
~kila emele
~kilase
kilasi
kilo
kisin
kiñe
kiñe tamate
kiñe vabasa
kiñe-biouro
kiñekiñe
ko1
~ko2
~ko3A
~ko3B
~ko4
~ko pine
kobe
~koene
koie
~koioi
koiui
koko
kokoro
kome
konge
kopa
~kopine
kopu
kopuria
koro
korone
kotu
kovi
kukubo
kula2
kulaña
kulaña metele
kuledi
kulevelu
kuli
kulumoe
kuo
kupa
l-
l'
~la
~la aele
~la aele
~la i-avo
~la ~lui
~la ~mini
~la ngatene
~la ~teli
~la ~teli
labaro
labiouA
labiouB
labiou tae
labu
lai
~laiainiA
~laiainiB
~laiaini piene
laioi
laiui
lakule
lale
~lanasu
langasuo
langatene
langiro
Laperusi
laro
lateli
lava
lava abilo
lava abilo
lavalu
lavatunu
laviakome
laviko
le
~le
~le iune
~le moli
~le ne revo
lea
lebie
lebwogo
ledi
~ledi
lege
leibo
leka
lekele
leku
lema
~lemoli
lengi
lepu
leve
levene
leñe
li
li-kila idi
~loko
lokoie
lokoudo
longe
longo
loroA
loroB
loro ie añawo
loro ie añawo
lotoko
loubaido
loubo
loubo antebe
loubo kilo
louboaido
~lovei
lovia
lovia vono
Lovono
lu
~lu1
~lu2
~lu bete
~lu bete
~lubiA
~lubiB
~lui
~lui nuduro
lukilo
lukilo vekai
lupo
luro
lusa
ma1
ma2A
ma2B
~ma3
mabere
mabui
mabukaia
mada uko
mada uko
~madau
~made
madele
maga
maga voko
mai
~maili1
~maili2
maiuko
maiuko
mak
~mako
makoe
makone
makui
makumoso
malangune
mali
maliawo
maluo
mam
mama1
mama2
mamabe
mamakoe
mamdeuko
mame
~mamei
mamote
mamuli
mana
mana luro
mana vilo
mane
manoko
maro
masa
masabuko
mata1
mata2
~mata3
mata bute
mata diro
mata i-katau
mata luro
mata piene
matagese
mataiko
matamulue
matamulue vao
matarone
mataña
mate
matiki
Matiki Bwogo
Matiki Moro
mave
mawene
mañoka
me
mebeli
~medeA
~medeB
medigo
mediro
megilo
melevele
~meli
melia
meliko
memia1
memia2
memia peini iawo
men' ie anuele
men' ie anuele
~mene
menu
menuko
mere
metae
~mete
metei
metele
meteliko
~metelu
metene
mevele
meviko
meviko lekele
meñeviro
miabolo
mibile
mijaka
mikae
miko
mimione
mina
minga
mini
~mini ngapiene
miro
misilo
mjaka
mnate
mo
~mo
~mo korone
~mo ~mabui
~mo pine
~mo susuko
mobo
moboe
moboro
mobosigie
moe
moe ie ave
moe ma tadoe
moioe
mokavase
moko
moko
moko taniboro
mokoiu
mol
moliA
moliB
moloe
moloe'
molongo
mom
moma
momobo
momoso
monone
moro1
moro2
moro abia
moro peini pwa motono
moso1
moso2
moso3
mote
motoe
motomoro
motono
motoro
mou
mouro1
mouro2
moworo
mubo
mubule
~mui
mukae
muko
mule
~mumu
mumule
mwa
mwadoe
mwaeleA
mwaeleB
~mwagali
mwagete
mwaliko
mwalikote
mwasu
mwatagete
mwoe
na
na1
na2
na3
nabe
nadikete
naka ruene
namolo
namuko
nanana
nara
nate
nati
nava
ne
nebe1
nebe2
nedemo
neido
neido kulevelu
nene
~nene1
~nene2
nengele
netebe
nga
ngabe
ngago
ngaiñe
ngaliko
Ngama
ngamuli
nganae
ngapiaga
ngapiene
ngapwae
ngasune
ngaten' ae
ngatene
ngatene abia
~nge
ngele
ngilo
ngiro
ngogoro
ni
nidilo
nieti
Niteni
no
nom'le
nomaA
nomaB
nomaC
noma
nomapu
nomianu
nomlemlesu
nomo
nomole
nom’ ole
none1
none2
nubuko
nubule
nuduro1
nuduro2
n’ adieA
n’ adieB
n’ adieC
o
oburo
odo
oe
oi
oie
oko
oko mwaliko
oko woko
okoro
okoro aplaka
okoro moli
okoro mulusa pine
olawo
ole
ole
~oma
on
on menuko
one
ono
onole
onoro
onoro woro
opogo
opola
otovo
otovo kangilo
otovo kotekote
ou
~ou
ov
ova
ovei
ovene
ovene boro
ovene koro
pa
pakare
palapu
panaA
panaB
pana
panade
panavono
~papa
~pape
pati
pe
pe i-kae?
pe li-womanga
pe noma
pei
~pei1
~pei2
peini
peko
pele
penok
penuo
pepane
pi
pie
piene
piene adapa Tetawo
piene akapa
piliki
pine
pinoe
piote
po
poi
pon
pongo
~ponoA
~ponoB
ponu
~pu1
~pu2
pua
puie
puluko
puma
punuo
~punuoA
~punuoB
puo
puro
pusi
pwa
pwalau
pwama
pwelele
ra
re1
~re2
~re i-wene
rema
revo
ro
roe tebene
rom
romo
ro’2
ruene
sa
saba
~sabisi
sabu
sadie
~sai1A
~sai1B
~sai2
~sai ñe
sakoro
~saliA
~saliB
samame
same
samuko
samuko bonoro
samwaele
sava
se
sebei
sekele
semame
si
sibenge
sibowa
sikoke
silva
sipule
sivene
sodo
somoli
somu
~songai
sopu
soso
sowi
su
~su1
~su2
~sube
subuko
sukuro
suli
sune
susukoA
susukoB
susukoC
susuko
ta1
~ta2
~ta3
tabau
tabe
~tabe
~taboA
~taboB
~tabulu
tadoe
tae
tai
takalamu
take
tako
takoie
takole
takulalevioe
takuo
taluaito
tamate
tamava
tamwaleko
tamwaliko
tamwalikose
tamwase
tangake
tangalo
tangavisi
tangteala
tanlavaki
tano
tanoe
tanoma
tatawoe
tate
tau
taugo
tavake
tavali
tavea
tawo1
tawora
taña
te1
te2
~te3
-te4
~te moli
~te teve
tealongo
Teanu
tebekuma
tebelia
tebene
teblebe
tebo1
tebo2
tedele
teiene
teili
teipu
teiu
tekate
tekilikili
tekipa
tekume
tekumete1
tekumete2
tekupie
telakia
telango
telau
tele1
tele2
telepakau
~teli
~teli mama
~teli utele
teliki
telini
telupe
telupe bale
temaka
temamene
temotu
temounu
temuo
teno
tenuro
ten’gale
tepakare
tepakola
tepao
tepapa
tepuke
tero
teta
tetake
tetaki
tetaula
tetawene
tetawene peini nuduro
Tetawo
tete
~tetele
~tetele
tetevo
teuko
tev'
teva
tevalvalo
teve1
~teve2
teveliko
tevie
teviri
teviumu
tiame
tiave
tiba
tieli
tili
tilio
tilu
tilupo
to
to1
to2
~to3
to moro
~tobo1A
~tobo1B
~tobo2
toe1
~toe2
tololoa
tolotai
toloto
tomo
tomoe
tomoli
tomona
tomoro
tomwoe
tone
tongobe
tongolukilo
toplau
topola
totokaleA
totokaleB
toulo
touro
tove
tovokowo
toñaki
tren
tu
tuku
tuo
~u
ua
ua bale we Ginio
ua vilo
ubi
udo
udo pe i-ako
udo pe li-vo
udo vaiene
udo vakaero
udo we tadoe
~udu
ui
uie
uie baliñoe
uko
uku1
~uku2
ule
ule uie wopine
uluko
uo1
uo2
upa
urene
utaugo
utedie
utele
uvilo
uña
uñe
va
vabasa
~vagasi
~vai
vaiene
vakaboro1
vakaboro2
vakaero
~valangia
vana
vangana
Vanikoro
Vanuatu
pe i-ve
vaoA
vaoB
vao
vasango
ve
~ve1
~ve2A
~ve2B
vebe
vebe mata diro
vede
~vei
veiebe
veiko
vekai
vele
velei
velesebe
velia
veluko
ven
vene
vengela
vese
vese ma
vese ngele
vese piene
vesengele
vesepiene
~vesuA
~vesuB
~vesu bavede
vete
~vete
~vete piene
veve
vewo
vi
~vi1
~vi2
~vi nuduro
via
viabasa
~viaene
viane
viapwene
vidi
vidiko
viji
viko
vili1
~vili2
vilimoe
vilisao
Vilisao
vilisi
vilitoe
vilo
vilo peini melevele
vilsao
~vilu
vinoe
vio
vioe
vioe die
vioe peini revo
viri
viro
visiboko
visone
vitoko
vivilo
viñ'
viñeA
viñeB
viñe anuele
viñe basa
viñevi
viñi
vo
~vo1
~vo2
~vo3
~vo4
~vo mwa tanoe
vodo
voko
voko mwaele
vokoiu
vongo
~vongo
vongoro
vonila
Vono2
vono1
voro1
voro2
voro beve
voro menuko
voro moloe
votei
votobo
votoko
vovo
vovoie
wa
~wabe
wabeiu
wablei
waga
wai
~wai1
~wai2A
~wai2B
waiero
waiero peini vono
waini
waivo
waka
wako
wali
walukoA
walukoB
waluko ote
wamabo
wamitaka
wamtake
~wamuA
~wamuB
~wamu piene
wapio
wapono
wasi
~wasu
~wate1
~wate2
~wate tepapa
waviliro
wavilo
wañaka
we2
we i-kae?
webwe
wele
welero
~wene
~wene moli
~wene moli
~wene teve
~wete
~wete mama
~wete otovo
wido
wik
wo
~wo1
~wo2
~wo3
~wo4
~woi
~woi okoro
woiote
~wokobe
woku
woloko
wolowolo
~womanga
wonone
wonone
wopine
woubo
wowo1
~wowo2
~wowo3
~wowo4
woworo
xxx
Ñivale
ña
ñe
ñei
ñepe
ñi
ñoko
**kula1   [kula] qtf. a few, some.
Franisi  [Franisi] -.
Paeu  [Paeu] -.
Paiu  [Paiu] -.
Popokia  [Popokia] -.
~a1   [(i·)a] intransitive verb. ⟨body⟩  tremble with fear; feel very uncomfortable.

~ekilikili ‘tremble’

Ebel' en' i-a.
I'm terrified!
a-2   [a(i)·] ~ ai-  personal subject prefix. you: second singular realis prefix. tu. Morph.. Becomes ai- before a vowel, or some monosyllabic roots.

A-tomoli!
You're lying!

K' a-tab' a-mui?
Have you forgotten again?
abia  [aᵐbia] adv.

(1) many, a lot of; numerous.

engaenga ‘various’

Ant: amjaka ‘few’

Ne ngogoro uña menuko abia, ka pe-romo p-ajau!
There are many animals in the woods, be careful!

Abia tamwase!
There are too many!

(2) all, every.

kiapa abia na
all of us here
abiaini  [aᵐbiaini] adjective. thick.

Ant: meñeviro

Abiaini tamwase.
It's too thick.
abigo  [aᵐbiᵑgo] noun. <Bot> k.o. plant. Acalypha grandis.

abilo  [aᵐbilo] noun. snake. serpent.

Abilo pon i-ovei pe i-somoli mwaliko.
This kind of snake can be harmful.
abilo peini revo  -. <Sea> lit. “snake of the sea” : seasnake. Laticauda semifasciata.

abilo

abo1   [aᵐbo] noun. grass. herbe.

kiñe abo
blades of grass
abo2   [aᵐbo] noun. <Anat> blood. sang.

Abo peini ma i-udu.
His blood was dripping from his hand.

Buro pon i-katau abo ne ene!
⟨hum⟩ This song suits my blood! (=I love it!)
abu1   [aᵐbu] mod.

(1) ⦗preceding imperative verb⦘ marks polite order: ‘please’. Cognate with the conative prefix bu-1.

Abu bai-aiu ba-vio me ne-rom!
Could you please stand up and let me have a look there?

Ab' u-leng' i-ka.
Listen to me for a second.

(2) ⦗used alone⦘ encouragement towards action: ‘come on’.

O, abu, kaipa! Pe-ka p-atui botu 'none!
Come on, you all! Come and check out my boat!
~abu2   [(i·)aᵐbu] intransitive verb. go down. descendre. Synt.. Often in serialisation.

Ant: vene

(1) ⦗physical motion⦘ go down, esp. from inland towards the sea.

I-sabu i-abu ne ero.
He fell down in the river.

Kuo ponu i-atili i-abu i-le.
The canoe slid all the way down (to the sea).

(2) (fig) subside, slow down.

Pana iawo i-abu mijaka.
The flames (of the fire) have died down a little.

O, tae, la-wañaka iada ka i-abu i-wene.
That's all right, their dispute has gone down now.
~abu3   [(i·)aᵐbu] transitive verb.

(1) hit, strike. cogner.

~wete

Ka vitoko kape i-abu tanoma ini, ia i-abu i-kovi.
He almost hit her face, luckily he missed her.

Vilisao i-abu toñaki pon.
The ships were struck by a tornado.

Dapa kula li-abu revo, me le-labu namuko.
The others slap the water, in order to (scare and) catch the fish.

(2) kill, slay, murder ‹s.o.›. tuer.

Syn: ~apini

Pon tadoe? Pon tepakola? Kape i-abu idi?
Is he a devil, a giant? Does he kill people?

Nga po idi le-sune ngele kape i-te, pon kape l-abu.
If they found somebody around, they would kill him.

(3) kill ‹animal›, hence hunt, fish+.

Mobo kape le-lui nuduro me l-abu namuko.
Tomorrow we'll carry the scareline to get some fish.

(4) play ‹musical instrument› using hands.

~vi [1] ‘blow’

li-abu gita
play the guitar

Ngele i-abu?
⟨music⟩ Who's playing?
~abu4   [(i·)aᵐbu] transitive verb. wash ‹clothes+› with water, esp. vigorously. laver.

~aka [2] ‘wash gently’

Kape n-abu lusa ene ne iaero.
I'm gonna wash my shirt in the river.
~abui  [(i·)aᵐbui] transitive verb. take ‹s.th.› down.

abu [2]

Pi-ka pi-abui ngatene upa pi-ko me p-ajau toñaki iote.
We took our tools down (from the ship) and brought them to build another boat.
ada1   [aⁿda] pos. their: form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with a 3 dual possessor (see da).

mama ada
their taro pudding

buioe ada
their areca nut (for them to chew)

ngaten' ada
their food/their *affaires*
ada2   [aⁿda] pos. their: form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a 3 dual possessor (see da).

et' ada
their mother (of them two)

tili' ada
their brother (of them two)
adapa1   [aⁿdapa] pos. their: form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with a 3 dual possessor (see da).

avtebe me vongoro adapa
their taro and almonds

Li-ejau none pine adapa ne kulumoe.
They are preparing a huge meal for the villagers.

monone adapa
their chest

ngaten' adapa
their food, their belongings

piene adapa Teanu
the language of (the people of) Teanu
adapa2   [aⁿdapa] pos. their: form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a 3 plural possessor (see dapa).

et' adapa
their mother

gi' adapa
their uncle

dapa tieli adapa
their brothers / their friends
adawo  [aⁿdawo] noun. (gen) cloud. nuage.

ioti ‘rain cloud’

adawo beve
white cloud

adawo boroboro
dark, rainy cloud
adie   [aⁿdie] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat>

(1) (arch) ⟨s.o.⟩  back.

Syn: utedie

(2) rear part of ‹s.th.›.

Syn: viri

La-koie Teanu la-koie ne Adie Vono.
They came on shore on Teanu via the rear side of the island.
adie   adv. (rare) afterwards, then. More commonly preceded with a preposition ne.

n' adie

Adie, pi' iape ini i-ka, i-atevo iepiene peini noma.
Then her grandfather came in and told her a story.
ae1   [ae] int.

(1) what?. quoi. Sometimes longer form nganae*, from ngaten' ae.

A-vete a-ko ae?
What did you say?

Na, piene adapa Teanu a-ko ae?
How is this called in Teanu? [lit. this, in Teanu language, you say what?]

Na toñaki ae na?
What sort of ship is this?

(2) ⦗between pauses⦘ hesitation marker used when looking for one's words, espec. before a noun.

vele

Enga ini iote li-ko, ae, Takole.
It also had another name, (what is it?) Takole.
~ae2   [(i·)ae] transitive verb. digcreuser.

(1) hollow out; remove stuff from ‹wood+›.

Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.
This kava bowl has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.

I-bo kuo awoiu, i-ae lema.
Once he had cut out the canoe, he began to hollow out its inner part.

(2) dig a hole in ‹ground›.

Li-mabui li-ae tanoe, wako ka li-lateli teve.
They quietly dug a hole in the ground, and put (the treasure) there.

(3) dig ‹hole› in s.th..

Li-ae kie.
They're digging a grave.

(4) dig out, harvest ‹yam, taro›.

Na uo kula kupa ka pi-ae.
These are a few yams we just dug out.

Pe-le, p-ae none! P-ae jebute, me pe-tau me p-e!
Go and dig out some food! Dig out some taros you can cook and eat!
aele  [aele] ~ ale  voi. <Anat> ⟨s.o.⟩  lower limb: leg, foot.

Loubo iote i-ke vidiviko ne ale ene.
A crab has bitten my toe.

[ POc *qaqe (?). ]

aero1   [aero] noun.

(1) fence, hedge. barrière.

aero pe idi li-ejau i-dai mane
the fence erected around the dancing area

(2) (esp) fence around pen, in a farm; hence pen.

Aero iupa i-vio vitoko na.
Our (pig) pen is very close.

(3) (gen) limit, border.

(4) (hence) district, area, territory.

aero iadapa Teanu
the territory of the Teanu tribe

[ POc *qaRa. ]

aero2   [aero] noun. <Sea>

(1) (gen) seashell of any form.

Le-le ne touro li-odo aero?
Shall we go to the reef and look for some shells?

(2) (esp) bivalve shell, traditionally used as an instrument to grate (~lu) coconut flesh or scrape the skin of tubers.

[ POc *kaRi. ]

aero we anive  [aero we anive] noun. <Sea> lit. “shellfish for dugong” : small cowrie shell used as traditional money in some areas of Melanesia, though not in Vanikoro. Conus musicus ceylanensis.

Li-ia aero.
scrape cone shells to make cowries
aero we anive  -. <Sea> lit. “shellfish for dugong” : small cowrie shell used as traditional money in some areas of Melanesia. Conus musicus ceylanensis.

anive

aeve  [aeve] noun.

(1) the sun. soleil.

Aeve pana!
The sun's hot!

Aeve ka i-vene labiou awoiu.
The sun has long risen already.

(2) (esp) the sun in its course, insofar as it is taken as reference to assess the time of the day.

Aeve ka i-tavali. ~ Aeve ka i-le.
[The sun has gone down] it is late afternoon.

(3) (hence) hours on the clock.

Aeve ka tivi na? — Aeve ka tili.
[lit. How many suns?] What time is it now? — It's five o'clock.
~ago  [(i·)aᵑgo] transitive verb.

(1) spear ‹fish+›.

Syn: ~wete

U-la tepao u-ago ñe namuko pon.
You spear the fish with a harpoon.

Ni-ago namuko i-kovi.
I speared a fish but it escaped.

(2) shoot ‹s.o., s.th.› using bow and arrow; hence hunt.

Syn: ~wete

La-le lai-ago telupe?
Shall we go pigeon-hunting?
ai-  [ai·] personal subject prefix. you: variant of a- (2sg Realis prefix) before a vowel or certain monosyllabic roots.

Ai-ovei Cindy?
Do you know Cindy?

Ka ai-ve?
Have you given birth?
aia   [aia] noun, kinship. <Kin>

(1) father. père. The symmetrical term is menu (pl. dameliko) or apali.

ai' one
my father

aia
your father

(2) classificatory father: any male member of the parental generation (F, FB, FZH…) except the maternal uncle (MB = gea).

aia   intj. lit. “father!” : affectionate address term, used by an elderly person, to a young man who has children — including to his own son. Sometimes a child's name is mentioned.

Awis pine, aia!
Thanks a lot, my dear! [lit. father!]

Mobo wako, ai' ie Womtelo!
Good morning, father of Womtelo!
~aiae  [(i·)aiae] intransitive verb. ⟨s.th.⟩  be difficult. difficile.

Ant: ~wene moli ‘easy’

Piene adapa i-wen' moli, i-aiae tae!
Your language is easy, it's not difficult.

Li-vete piene ñi i-aiae, ia li-lengi wako.
They speak it with difficulty, but they understand it well.

Ni-romo viko i-aiae teve ene.
Money is an issue for me.
aidi1   [aiⁿdi] pos. form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with an impersonal possessor (idi ‘people’).

Na tanoe aidi abia.
This land belongs to everyone.

Noma li-lanasu idi ne kula none aidi, we viñe buioe aidi.
In the olden days, black sorcery would make use of someone's leftover food, or of their leftover betel nut.
aidi2   [aiⁿdi] pos. form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with an impersonal possessor (idi ‘people’).

Et' aidi li-odo uko ñe basa damiliko iadapa.
The mums are searching for lice in their children's hair.
aipa1   [aipa] pos. your: form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with a 2 plural possessor (see kaipa*).

Pi-valangia nganae aipa ponu?
What are you guys carrying?

Ka vitoko kape le-mui piene aipa.
They will soon forget your language.
aipa2   [aipa] pos. your: form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a 2 plural possessor (see kaipa*).

Pie aipa li-atevo i-ka?
Did you hear them from your grandparents?
~aiu  [(i·)aiu] intransitive verb.

(1) stand up, get up.

vio ‘stand’

Ka u-aiu!
Stand up!

Abu bai-aiu ba-vio me ne-rom!
Could you please stand up and let me have a look there?

(2) depart, leave a place, take leave.

Idi abia ne kulumoe li-aiu li-le li-langatene ne sekele.
All the villagers have left to go and work in their gardens.

P-aiu pe-wo pe-le ne ngogoro!
Get up and run away to the bush!

Ngiro Palapu i-ka ka li-aiu li-ke li-pwalau i-le Iura.
As soon as the northern wind began to blow, they left [Vanikoro] and set off to sail southwards.
~aiu momobo  -. lit. “get up in the morning” : wake up.

~aiu

Dapa li-aiu momobo li-vongo adapa.
They woke up in the morning and took their breakfast.
~ajau  [(i·)aᶮɟau] transitive verb. do, make: variant of ~ejau*.
ajekele  [aᶮɟekele] noun. rubbish, refuse, garbage.

Ni-bo ajekele mina mevele 'none.
I have collected rubbish from my front yard.

Kape le-loko ajekele le-iui ne revo.
They're going to gather rubbish and throw it in the sea.
~aka1   [(i·)aka] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨wind⟩  blow strongly. souffler.

~vi ‘blow gently’

Ngiro i-aka.
The wind is (blowing) strong.

Nanana i-aka tamwase.
Today it's blowing very hard. (viz. the wind)

(2) awa ‘neck, mind’⟩  be angry (at s.o., ñe). The phrase awa ini i-aka ‘he's angry’ has given rise to a verb ~wañaka* ‘be angry’.

Awa ene i-aka (ñe eo).
[lit. my neck/mind is blowing hard (at you)] I am angry at you.

Awa eo i-aka ñe ene etapu!
Don't be angry at me!
~aka2   [(i·)aka] transitive verb. wash ‹s.th.› gently, rinse with water. laver.

~abu [4] ‘wash energetically’

Ni-aka okoro ne ero.
I washed the knife in the river.

Kape n-aka basa ene.
I'm gonna wash my face.
akapa1   [akapa] noun. our: form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with a 1st inclusive plural possessor (kiapa).

Dapa Tukupie li-koie li-te ne tanoe akapa Vanikoro ponu.
Tikopians have settled on our land of Vanikoro.
akapa2   [akapa] pos. our: form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a 1st inclusive plural possessor (kiapa).

Pi' akapa dapa li-atevo nga pon.
That's what our ancestors used to say.
~ako  [(i·)ako] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨hair⟩  blond.

Noma, viabas' ene i-ako.
I used to have blond hair.

(2) ⟨plant⟩  become yellowish as a result of growing.

(3) (esp) ⟨banana⟩  be ripe and sweet. mûr.

moso ‘ripe’

udo pe i-ako
⟨type of banana⟩ ripe bananas
ale  [ale] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat> leg

aele

~ali1   [(i·)ali] transitive verb. pick ‹areca nuts, buioe› by climbing on the tree. cueillir.

Lai-au jebute, la-kidi puluko ada, lai-ali buioe ada, la-kamai ponu.
They went to harvest some taros, pinch off some betel leaves, pick some areca nuts, and came back.
~ali2   [(i·)ali] transitive verb. cast ‹a net, pele›. lancer.

Kape u-ali pele po a-labu ponu?
Will you be casting that net you're holding?
Alvaki  [alfaki] locative. name of a small island close to Utupua (Tetevo).

amjaka   [amᶮɟaka] adjective. (rare) diminutive: small, in small quantity; few.

apilaka ‘little’

none aidi mijaka
food for just a few people

Li-ejau aña none mijaka.
We cook a little (bit of) food.

N-atevo iepiene amjaka peini Laperus.
I'll tell a short story about Lapérouse.
amjaka   ~ mijaka ~ mjaka  adv. (comm) a little bit.

U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka.
Just follow the road a little further up.

Ni-ovei mijaka ponu.
I only know that little bit.

Kap' ne-langatene mijaka.
I'm going to work a little.

I-te i-labiou mijaka.
He's been here for quite long.
Amo  [amo] noun. Sir, Mr: abbreviation of amoso ‘old man’.
amoso  [amoso] noun. old man: a respectful term. vieux.

momoso ‘old woman’

Ai-ovei Amoso Lavalu?
Do you know Mr Lavalu?

[ POc *matuqa. ]

amuko  [amuko] noun. <Sea>

(1) seaweed.

(2) crushed seaweed, traditionally used as a protective varnish and insect repellent on wood.

Li-bi vilo li-la ñe amuko.
They carved some wood and applied seaweed varnish to it.
amwaliko  [amʷaliko] noun. variant of mwaliko.

mwaliko

ane  [ane] noun. <Sea> sea urchin.

anesi  [anesi] ~ anes  noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat> ⟨animal+⟩  flesh, meat. viande.

anes kulevelu
chicken meat

anes poi
pork meat

anes namuko
fish meat

anes mwaliko
⟨rare⟩ human flesh
Aneve1   [aneve] locative. name of an ancient village in Teanu island.

Da-tilu pe Teanu. Kulumoe iada Aneve.
They were from Teanu island; their village was Aneve.
~aneve2   [(i·)aneve] transitive verb. sweep ‹place, s.th.› with a broom. balayer.

Li-aneve lema mwoe, ka maro.
They sweep inside the house, and outside too.
angede  [aŋeⁿde] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) footprint, tracks left by ‹man, animal› on the ground. empreinte.

angede ene
my footprints

angede vao
tracks of wild pig

angede kulevelu
tracks of chicken

angede* ovene
tracks of heron; writing

(2) relic, remains, vestiges of ‹s.th.›; traces left by ‹s.o.›, esp. in the landscape.

angede Upeire
traces left (in the landscape) by Upeire the mythical ogress
angede ovene  [aŋeⁿde ovene] noun.

(1) (fig) lit. “tracks of heron” : writing, letters of alphabet. lettre.

(2) written message, letter, email.

Minga kape le-sune angede ovene po Laperus i-si ponu.
One day someone will find the message which was written by Lapérouse.

Awisi pine peini angede ovene ai-akasi i-ka.
Many thanks for the email you sent to me.
angede ovene  -. lit. “Heron's tracks” : written signs or letters; letter, message.
anive  [anive] noun. <Sea> dugong. dugong. Dugong dugon.

Ni-rom anive iote pine ni-sai ñe kuo 'none ne.
I saw a large dugong, I thought it was (as big as) my canoe.
anluko  [anluko] noun. <Fish> Sweetlip Emperor. Lethrinus miniatus.

anoko  [anoko] noun.

(1) road, path on land.

Vilo iote pine i-sabu ne anoko.
There's a large tree fallen across the road.

A-ka a-kae? – Ni-katau anoko ni-ka.
How did you come? – I just followed the road. (I walked)

U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka.
Just follow the road a little further up.

(2) (abstr) path, route, itinerary.

Nga ne bogo, le-romo i-katau vangana kanmoro iu, li-ovei li-ejau anoko iadapa.
⟨sailing ships⟩ At night, they would follow the shining stars, and thus recognise their itinerary.
~anu  [(i·)anu] transitive verb. drink.

Awa ini i-ko i-anu laro.
He'd like to drink a fresh coconut.

Li-anu kava awoiu ka li-vongo viri.
We first drink kava, and then have dinner.

Li-anu ero pana ka li-kanu, ka li-moloe ne kat.
We drink tea, we chew areca nuts, and we play cards.
anuele  [anuele] noun. <Sea> turtle, esp. sea turtle. tortue. Cheloniidae spp.

viñe anuele
turtle shell (often cut into various ornaments)
anuele anaero  -. <Sea> Hawksbill turtle. Eretmochelys imbricata.

anuele

anuele tukuteleu  -. <Sea> Green turtle. Chelonia mydas.

anuele

apali  [apali] noun. child, young person.

Syn: menu

E, apali! U-ka ko!
Hey, child! Come here!

Basavono pon ene mamote apali.
At that time, I was still a child.
apilaka  [apilaka] ~ aplaka ~   adjective. smallOnly with singular nouns. Plural form is suppletive wamtaka.

Ant: pine

(1) small in size, little.

okoro aplaka
a small knife

toñaki apilaka
a small boat

monone aplaka
a small box

basakulumoe iote aplaka
a little island

Oie ini aplaka.
[her size is small] She is slim.

(2) small in age, young.

men' iaba aplaka
our small baby

emele aplaka
[lt. a small woman] a young girl

Mwasu iote apilaka
the younger Mwasu
~apilo  [(i·)apilo] voi. make, create ‹s.th.›.

Syn: ~ejau

Li-apilo vekai wamtaka.
They made small puddings.

Dama noma vana li-apilo tenuro.
People in the past used to make coconut-string ropes.

Li-apilo toñaki.
They built a ship.
~apilo sekele  -. lit. “make garden” : prepare ‹garden› for cultivation, cultivate.

~apilo

Li-apilo sekele i-le li-teli avtebe.
They prepared their gardens, and then planted their taros.
~apini  [(i·)apini] transitive verb. kill ‹s.o.›, destroy ‹a group of people›. tuer.

~abu [3] ‘hit, kill’

Vilisao i-lubi kuo ka i-apini idi.
The tornado spun the ship and killed everybody.
~apinu  [(i·)apinu] intransitive verb. cook, prepare dinner.

Noma, li-apinu ne mwoe.
In the old days, cooking was done inside the house.

moe pe li-apinu ene
kitchen [lit. house where one cooks]
apono  [apono] noun. hurricane, cyclone. ouragan.

ngiro ‘wind’

melevele ‘disaster’

Apono i-somoli otovo peini mwoe iupa.
The hurricane damaged the roof of our house.
aremo  [aremo] noun. rainbow. arc-en-ciel.

~arevo  [(i·)arevo] transitive verb. break into pieces, shatter, destroy ‹s.th.›.

Syn: ~panade ‘split’

Vilisao i-ka i-arevo toñaki pon kula tilu na.
The tornado split the ship into two halves.

Li-arevo uo.
They have destroyed the cairn.
~asai  [(i·)asai] transitive verb.

(1) sew ‹clothes+›. coudre.

li-asai lusa idi
sew a shirt

(2) ⦗medic.⦘ stitch up ‹wound›.

Ni-woi basa ene li-asai.
I banged by head, and it was stitched up.
asodo  [asoⁿdo] noun. <Zool> bat. chauve-souris. Chiroptera spp..

lekele ‘flying-fox’

Uña asodo dapa li-avo ne bonge.
Bats hang in caves.
ata  [ata] noun, obligatorily possessed. soul, spirit of ‹s.o.› insofar as it can be separated from the body.

Ata ini kape i-le ne Popokia.
⟨abode of the Dead⟩ His soul will travel to Popokia.

Nga u-le, ata tadoe kap' i-ejau bas' eo mumule.
If you go there, the (evil) spirit of Ghosts can make your head go crazy.

[ POc *qatasoul, spirit’. ]

atavono  [atavono] noun. <Zool> lit. “land spirit (?)” : k.o. black lizard.
ate  [ate] adp. for good, forever.

Ka li-te ka li-te ate.
They stayed there, and stayed forever.
atero  [atero] noun. fallow garden.
~atevo  [(i·)atevo] transitive verb. narrate, tell ‹story›.

iepiene ‘tale’

Li-atevo iepiene pe noma ka li-oburo.
We tell old stories and we sing songs.

Pi' akapa dapa li-atevo nga pon.
That's the story our ancestors used to tell.
~atili  [(i·)atili] intransitive verb. slide along a surface. glisser.

Kuo pine ponu i-atili i-abu i-le.
The huge canoe was sliding down (on the rollers).
~ativi  [(i·)ativi] vrfl. ⦗reflexive construction⦘ put on special clothes, dress up.

Da viñevi li-ativi dapa ñe tekume.
The women dressed up with 'tekume' clothes.
~atui  [(i·)atui] transitive verb.

(1) make effort upon ‹s.th.›, have a go at ‹s.th. difficult›.

Pe-ka p-atui botu 'none!
Come and have a go at (lifting) my boat!

(2) ⦗no object⦘ try hard.

I-atui i-atui: tae! i-tabo i-le.
He tried on and on, with no success, and went back.

(3) ⦗+ Subord. petry unsuccessfully, hence fail, not manage to do s.th..

Ebele ene aña ini tae tamwase, ka ni-atui pe ni-aiu.
My body has no strength, I can hardly get up.
~au1   [(i·)au] transitive verb.

(1) pluck out ‹s.th.› by pulling it out.

li-au via kulevelu
pluck children feathers

(2) (esp) remove ‹water taro+› by plucking it out; hence harvest.

Li-au basa kava iune.
They pulled out a head of kava.

Pi-romo uie i-maili pine, ka pi-au.
⟨taros⟩ When its leaves have grown big, it's time to harvest them.

Vono i-sodo li-le li-au jebute.
In the morning they went to harvest some (water) taros.
~au2   [(i·)au] transitive verb. wrap ‹s.th.› with a leaf or equivalent.

Kape li-au ñe uie baudo.
We will wrap (the food) with baudo leaves.

U-au ñe pepa.
Wrap it in paper.
aulo  [aulo] noun. <Zool> hermitcrab, a small crustacean that lodges inside inside shells. Pagurus spp.
ava1   [ava] noun. <Ornith>

(1) ⟨bird+⟩  wings.

(2) ⟨fish⟩  side fins.

U-toe dekele namuko, ava ka wabasa mina.
You cut off the fish's tail, side fins and head.
~ava2   [ava] intransitive verb. <Ornith> ⟨bird+⟩  fly.

Menuko ka i-ava.
The bird has flown away.
ava saba  -. lit. “frigate wings” : name of a traditional geometrical design (tetawene), whose shape is reminiscent of open wings.

ava [1]

ava saba  -. lit. “frigate wings” : name of a traditional geometrical design (tetawene), whose shape is reminiscent of open wings.

saba

ave  [ave] noun. <Ins> spider.
~avi  [(i·)avi] transitive verb. remove ‹several objects› by picking them one by one. enlever.

Li-avi visiboko ñe aviro.
You remove the oven stones with the tongs.

Awoiu pon li-avi otovo.
Then they took off all the sago leaves.
~avi1   [(i·)avi] transitive verb. effeuiller.

li-avi otovo
avie  [avie] noun. <Bot> Malay_appleSyzygium malaccense.

[ POc *kapika. ]

aviro  [aviro] noun. tongs, esp. long wooden tongs used to manipulate the hot stones of the oven (awene) while cooking. pince.

~avi

Li-avi visiboko ñe aviro.
You remove the oven stones with the tongs.
~avo1   [(i·)avo] transitive verb. <Naut>

(1) be hanging in the air. suspendu.

Uña asodo dapa li-avo ne bonge.
Bats hang in caves.

(2) be located above.

Telau i-avo boso iawo.
The cupboard is located above the fire.

(3) ⟨head⟩  lit. “head is hanging in the air” : feel dizzy.

Basa ene i-avo.
⟨drinking kava⟩ I'm feeling dizzy.

(4) ⟨boat+⟩  float, stay afloat (fl:vs. sink).

Toñaki ka i-avo ka i-tab' i-le.
The ship remained afloat, and began its way back.

(5) (hence) be anchored somewhere.

Ant: ~tavea ‘drift’

~avo2   [(i·)avo] transitive verb. husk ‹coconuts›. décortiquer.

ekuo pe li-avo luro
a stick used to husk coconuts
avtebe  [afteᵐbe] noun. (formal) taro. taro. Colocasia esculenta. ◈ Formal synonym of jebute.

Li-apilo sekele i-le li-teli avtebe.
Once they had prepared the gardens, they planted taros.
awa  [awa] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat>

(1) throat.

Awa ene i-meli.
I have a sore throat.

(2) the seat of feelings, the ‘heart’. Grammatical subject of certain predicates referring to feelings.

Awa* ene i-su.
[my throat is blocked] I am sorry.

Awa* ene i-aka.
[my throat blows] I am angry.

Awa ene motoro ñe piene pe a-viñ' ene.
[my throat/mind is heavy…] I give a lot of consideration to your words.

(3) (esp) ⦗+object NP, or object clause⦘ the seat of will and desire. The combination of awa with ~viaene* ‘hit’, and/or with ~ko ‘say’, results in the meaning ‘want, like’.

Awa ene i-viaene tamwase!
[my neck/mind hits it!] I absolutely love it!

Awa kupa i-viane pi-ko u-le u-romo tadoe akapa.
[our neck/mind hits says you go and see…] We'd like you to go and meet our god.

(4) (hence) will, desire.

Emele pon i-katau awa ene!
⟨hum⟩ This girl sure suits my desire!

(5) ideas, thoughts.

~vodo ‘think’

Ka ni-la awa eo.
I understand what you mean.

Awa ini engaiote.
[her neck/mind is different] She doesn't have the same point of view.

Awa ini abia.
He has lots of ideas.
awene  [awene] noun. traditional stone oven. A pit is dug in the ground of the kitchen, filled with cooking stones (visiboko). Once the fire (iawo) has heated these stones, the food (none) is placed on them so as to be cooked (~apinu) or baked (~vai).

Li-mali iawo ne lema awene, semame añaña longe.
We light a fire inside the stone oven, using small bits of firewood.

Emel' iote i-le i-wowo revo i-ka i-sabisi se awene.
A woman went to draw saltwater, and brought it back to pour it above the oven.
awis  [awis] intj. thanks
awisi  [awisi] intj. thanks
awo  [awo] noun. lime, used when chewing areca nut (buioe), in combination with betel leaves (puluko). chaux.

~kanu

awoiu   [awoiu] pred.

(1) ⟨s.th.⟩  end, finish, be over. finir.

Syn: katae

Mobo ngapiene awoiu.
Tomorrow, the festival will be over.

Ka awoiu pon ta.
⟨closing formula⟩ (the story) it's over.

Ra awoiu.
It went on and on, until it finished.

Li-langatene i-le i-le i-le, ebieve iote awoiu.
They worked on and on, for a whole month. [lit. and a month finished]

(2) (fig) ⟨s.o.⟩  be finished, be doomed.

Na kape dapa iakapa awoiu na ta!
Now our people will be doomed!
awoiu   aspect. <Gram> ⦗after a verb⦘ Complete aspect.

Dapa li-koie ne lema kuo awoiu nao.
They had finished climbing on board.

Li-iu tepapa i-dai awoiu, blateno ka li-toe li-kamai.
Once they had buried the planks in circle, they brought in the ritual pole.
awoiu   coord. ⦗between two clauses; or beginning a new clause⦘ afterwards, then.

Syn: n‘ adie

La-wamu i-wene pon, awoiu da ka la-tab' la-ka.
So they hid it somewhere, and then they came back.
awoiu   qtf. ⦗linked with plural pronoun⦘ all, everybody.

Li-womanga dapa awoiu.
⟨following pronoun⟩ They fed them all.

Kiapa abia ponu na bwara awoiu ne sekele, nanana.
⟨floating quantifier⟩ All of us here, we were all in our gardens, earlier today.

Kupa ka pi-le awoiu ne temotu tilu pon tae.
⟨floating⟩ We did not all go to the two small islands. (i.e. Some stayed on the mainland)
aña  [aɲa] noun.

(1) piece, bit of ‹food+›.

añaña ‘small bits’

aña mana luro
a bit of rice

Li-ejau aña none mijaka.
We cook a little (bit of) food.

(2) taste of ‹s.th.›.

Aña wako tadoe!
[Taste is terribly good] This is absolutely delicious!

None ne aña tamwaleko.
[this food, taste is bad] This food doesn't taste good.

(3) noise of ‹s.th.›.

mama ‘sound’

aña ruene pe li-ko
the noise of a door being slammed

Li-viane tepapa me aña ini.
They jump on the (dancing) boards for the sound it makes.

(4) (fig) strength, energy of ‹s.o.›.

Ebele ene aña ini tae tamwase, ka ni-atui pe ni-aiu.
My body has no strength, I can hardly get up.
añawo  [aɲawo] noun. <Sea> whale. baleine. Balaenidae spp.

añaña  [aɲaɲa] noun, obligatorily possessed. small bits of ‹s.th.›. Morph.. Reduplication of aña, with pluralising and diminutive effect.

Li-mali iawo semame añaña longe.
We light a fire with small bits of firewood.
ba1   [ᵐba] intj. ⦗following a question word⦘ discourse particle, expressing the speaker's surprise or disbelief.

Na ngaten' ae ba?
Hey what (the hell) is this?!
ba2   [ᵐba] noun.

(1) ⟨plant⟩  stem, stalk.

ba vilo
flower stem

Ka ba wopine ponu!
Look at those huge (taro) stalks!

(2) ⟨crab⟩  large claw.

kukubo

ba-3   [ᵐba(i·)] ~ bai-  personal subject prefix.

(1) 1st exclusive Dual prefix, whether realis or irrealis: the two of us.

keba

(2) 2nd person Dual prefix, whether realis or irrealis: you two.

kela

balawe  [ᵐbalawe] noun. <Bot> pineapple. ananas. Ananas sativus.

Ni-ta ñe balawe.
I cut up a pineapple.
bale  [ᵐbale] noun. <Bot> breadfruit (Moraceae). Artocarpus altilis.

mata bale
sprout of breadfruit tree

vese bale
breadfruit seeds

uie bale
breadfruit leaves

U-bi bale u-toe u-ajau tepwoe.
You pick some breadfruit, cut it, and make dried-breadfruit with it.

lavatunu peini bale
breadfruit pudding

[ POc *baReko. ]

bamele  [ᵐbamele] noun. <Bot> philodendron, k. o. large-leaved vine that grows up and wraps around trees. Epipremnum spp.

bamele kiñekiñe  -. <Bot> lit. “pinnate philodendron” : k.o. philodendron with pinnate leaves. Epipremnum pinnatum.

bamele

Banie  [ᵐbanie] locative. Banie
bara  [ᵐbara] adv. variant of bwara.
baro  [ᵐbaro] noun. <Bot> petiole of coconut tree.

boe baro
[coconut-petiole shark] hammerhead shark
basa1   [ᵐbasa] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat> headtête.

(1) ⟨animal, hum⟩  head.

Syn: wabasa

Basa ene i-meli.
My head aches.

via-basa
[hair of head] hair

(2) ⟨hum⟩  head, mind, as the seat of intelligence.

Basa tae!
[No head!] You mindless!

Dapa damala, basa dapa wako.
White people are clever. [their head is good]

(3) ⟨plant⟩  head, root.

basa kava
a head of kava

(4) ⟨boat⟩  front part, prow.

Syn: noma

Syn: teviumu

(5) prominent part of ‹s.th.›.

[ POc *batu. ]

basa2   [ᵐbasa] noun. mountain. montagne.

Basa iupa re po i-wen' iu re, enga ini Popokia.
That mountain of ours up over there is called Popokia.
basa3   [ᵐbasa] adjective. ⟨blade+⟩  blunt, dull. émoussé.

Ant: metene

basakulumoe  [ᵐbasakulumoe] noun. island
basavono  [ᵐbasavono] noun. moment
baudo  [ᵐbauⁿdo] noun. <Bot> k.o. leafy tree, unidentified.

Kape li-au ñe uie baudo.
We will wrap (the food) with XXX leaves.
bauluko  [ᵐbauluko] noun. <Bot> coconut_palm

luro

bauro  [ᵐbauro] noun. <Ornith> Common Noddy. Anous stolidus.

bava aele  [ᵐbava aele] noun. <Anat> foot.
bavede  [ᵐbaveⁿde] noun. <Fish> Tnm: amnala

(1) ⟨ship⟩  sail. voile.

Li-vesu* bavede
hoist the sail; hence sail

Li-bu bavede
furl the sail

Li-re bavede
release the sail

Dapa noma, li-ovei pe li-loko uie woubo pe le-vei bavede peini.
People before used to weave sails out of pandanus leaves.

(2) ⦗by analogy of shape⦘ butterflyfish. Chaetodontidae spp.

bavolo  [ᵐbavolo] noun. <Fish> Blacktail Snapper. Lutjanus fulvus.

bavolo we Tangalo  -. <Fish> lit. “Tangalo's bavolos” : Humpback red snapper. Lutjanus gibbus.

bavolo

be1   [ᵐbe] noun. ashes.
be2   [ᵐbe] ptc. discourse particle, of unclear meaning.

Metae kape ne-vete, susuko metae ka ni-tabo ni-mui be!
I can't tell you, it wouldn't be accurate, and besides I've forgotten it all!
be mata  [ᵐbe mata] noun. long antennae found on certain ritual headdresses (tamate), representing the Spirit's eyes.

mata ‘eye’

Noma, mata pon, be mata pon! Tilu.
⟨mythical times⟩ In the olden days, eyes were on two antennae.
bea  [ᵐbea] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) ⟨man, animal⟩  guts, bowels, intestine. intestins.

sa ‘belly’

tedele ‘faeces’

bea namuko
fish bowels

U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.
You scrape off the scales, and then gut it [lt. remove its guts].

(2) ⟨spider⟩  silk secreted by ‹spider›; hence spider web, cobweb.

Syn: moe ie ave ‘spider house’

bea ave
a cobweb
bea ave  -. lit. “spider's excretion” : spider silk; spider web.

ave

bebenuro  [ᵐbeᵐbenuro] noun. <Fish> Humphead Wrasse. Cheilinus undulatus.

~bei  [(i·)ᵐbei] transitive verb.

(1) cover ‹s.th., s.o.›, esp. with (ñe) s.th. heavy.

Li-bei ñe uie vilo kula.
We cover (the food) with a few leaves.

Li-iu dapa li-bei dapa ñe voko li-ko nga uo.
They would bury them and cover them with stones, it was like a cairn.

(2) walk on ‹s.th.›, squash ‹s.th.› with o.'s foot.

(3) (gen) squash, crush, destroy ‹s.th.›.

U-bei i-metelu i-wene ne mataiko ponu!
⟨invocation to a god⟩ Squash (this ship) and let it sink in this very gulf!

(4) (fig) trample on ‹law, ethics, taboo›, infringe.

nuduro

Ka i-bei nuduro.
[trample on a taboo] He has infringed the law.
~bei bete  [(i·)ᵐbei ᵐbete] voi.

(1) (periphr) lit. “squash mats” : lay down, sleep.

Nanana kape le-bei bete vele?
Where shall we sleep [lit. squash mats] tonight?

(2) (euph) a funeral ceremony taking place in the house of a recently dead person. Anth. Relatives gather in the house and sit for a whole night…

beiuko  [ᵐbeiuko] adjective. hard, sturdy.

Ant: pwelele

bele  [ᵐbele] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) ⟨man, animal⟩  skin. peau.

bele* voro
skin of stingray; grater

(2) ⟨vegetable+⟩  skin.

bele udo
banana skin

Li-la uo li-ta bele mina.
They're peeling off the skin of yams.

(3) ⟨tree⟩  bark.

Li-kai bele dero.
tear off the bark of the kaori tree
bele mwa  [ᵐbele mʷa] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat> lit. “skin of mouth” : lips. lèvres.
bele voro  [ᵐbele foro] noun. lit. “skin of stingray” : traditional sander, made of the rough skin of a stingray (voro2).

belebale  [ᵐbeleᵐbale] noun. <Bot> common fern. Pteridophyta. ◈ Etym.. Literally ‘skin of breadfruit’, probably due to the honeycomb aspect of fern leaves.

bokoe ‘tree fern’

belemele  [ᵐbelemele] noun. ‘almond shelf’: a shelf made of woven bamboo, hanging high over the fireplace in the kitchen, used for storing canarium almonds (vongoro) while they dry. *grille* de bambou tressé sur laquelle on pose de la nourriture pour la préserver ou la cuire.

Li-bi vongoro li-kamai, li-loko i-vene ne belemele li-sabisi li-maliawo boso.
They picked almonds and brought them home, poured them all up on the almond shelf; then they lit a fire underneath.

Mwalik' iape i-ven' i-la vongoro ne belemele i-abu i-vo.
Her husband climbed to take some almonds down from the shelf, and began crushing them.
benuro  [ᵐbenuro] noun. <Bot> k.o. creeping vine, probably. Mikania micrantha.

bete   [ᵐbete] voi. mat.

bete peini uie kie
mat made of pandanus leaves

bete peini uie luro
mat made of coconut leaves

li-vei bete
weave a mat

li-bu bete
fold a mat

li-lu bete
roll a mat (to put it away)
bete   noun, obligatorily possessed. ⟨s.o.⟩  bed.

Okoro 'naka i-wene ne pwa bete ene.
My knife is under my bed.
~betei  [(i·)ᵐbetei] intransitive verb. ⟨clam madele close, shut itself.

Madele i-betei.
The giant clam has shut itself.
beve  [ᵐbeve] adjective. white, bright (opp. bworo ‘dark’).

Syn: koro ‘white’

adawo beve
a white cloud
bevoko  [ᵐbevoko] noun. <Fish> Striped bristle tooth, a fish. Clenochaelus striatus.
bi  [ᵐbi] -.
~bi1   [(i·)ᵐbi] transitive verb. pick ‹fruit› from its tree. cueillir.

Li-bi bale
pick breadfruit

Li-bi balawe
pick pineapple

Li-bi vongoro
collect Canarium almonds

U-le u-bi avie, me u-kamai, me le-sai ñe kava.
Go pick some Malay apples, and bring them so we can eat out the taste of kava.
~bi2   [(i·)ᵐbi] vti. fan (s.o., s.th., ñe). éventer.

teili ‘a fan’

U-la teili u-bi ñ' eo.
Just take a fan and fan yourself.

I-bi ñe iawo.
She fanned the fire.
bilibiro  [ᵐbiliᵐbiro] ~ bilbiro  noun. <Bot> Sea hearse tree (Hernandiaceae). Hernandia nymphaefolia.

[ POc *biRibiRi. ]

bimole  [ᵐbimole] noun. <Fish> Red bass snapper. Lutjanus bohar.
biouro  [ᵐbiouro] adjective. long
bisa  [ᵐbisa] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat> shoulder.
~bisi  [(i·)ᵐbisi] intransitive verb. be surprised (by s.th., ñe), be astonished. étonné.

Syn: ~eketele

Ni-bisi tamwalikose ñei!
I'm very surprised by this.

Nana ene ka ni-bisi pe li-romo i-le nga idi abia Tukupie ponu na li-ka Vanikoro ponu.
And today I am astonished at how many Tikopian people are coming to Vanikoro.
blateno  [ᵐblateno] ~ bulateno  noun. <Ethn> ritual pole. During ngapiene celebrations, dancers stomp on wooden boards (~wate tepapa) which are laid out in a circle around a high wooden pole (blateno). From that pole hang large amounts of fruit. At the end of the celebration season, the pole is brought down and the fruit are distributed to the participants.. mât.rituel.

Blateno, oie vilo pe li-padi me kape le-woi ne to mane, me tepapa i-dai.
The “blateno” is a wooden pole that is painted and erected in the middle of the village area, where it is surrounded by stomping boards.

Li-iu tepapa i-le awoiu, li-vesu bulateno i-vio.
Once they had laid out the dancing boards, they erected the ritual pole.

I-vio ka li-wabeiu ñe moboro teva, me blateno i-vio, susuko, ne to.
They used four rattan canes as props, so that the pole could stand firmly in the middle.
~bo1   [(i·)ᵐbo] transitive verb. collect, gather, heap up ‹s.th.›. rassembler.

~wapio ‘gather’

Waiero li-bo voko i-wapio.
The waves have piled up the stones together.

Ni-bo ajekele mina mevele 'none.
I have collected rubbish from my front yard.
~bo2   [(i·)ᵐbo] transitive verb. carve ‹wood›, to give it a specific shape or sharpen it. tailler.

~toe ‘cut, chop’

Li-bo kuo.
make [carve] a canoe

Li-bo digo.
cut out house beams

Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.
To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle.
boe  [ᵐboe] ~ bwoe  noun. <Fish> (gen) shark. Carcharhiniformes spp.
boe baro  -. <Fish> lit. “coconut-petiole shark” : hammerhead shark. Sphyrnidae spp.

boe

boe temiao  -. <Fish> Whitetip Reef Shark. Triaenodon obesus.

boe

bogo  [ᵐboᵑgo] noun. night

bwogo

boke  [ᵐboke] noun. <Bot> banyan tree. Ficus spp.

kara boke
banyan roots

[ POc *ᵐbaᵑga. ]

bokoe  [ᵐbokoe] noun. <Bot> tree fern. Cyathea spp.

bonge  [ᵐboŋe] noun. cave, in a rock or cliff, typically on the coast.

Uña asodo dapa li-avo ne bonge.
Bats hang in caves.

Li-pinoe li-dai ra ra awoiu, li-tabo li-le ne bonge ma dapa.
⟨dancing Spirits⟩ They dance on and on, until they return to their cave home.
~bono   [(i·)ᵐbono] intransitive verb. be shut. fermé.

~su ‘blocked’

Ant: ~ko [3]

Mataruene i-bono.
The door is shut.
~bono   transitive verb. shut ‹door+›.

Ant: ~ko [3]

Ka li-ko ruene, ka li-tabo li-bono.
They open the door, and then shut it again.
boro1   [ᵐboro] noun. <Fish> Quoy's Parrotfish. poisson-perroquet. Scarus blochi.

[ POc *bʷoseScarus sp.’. ]

boro2   [ᵐboro] ~ bworo  adjective. black. noir.
boroboro  [ᵐboroᵐboro] adjective. dark

boro ‘black’

boso  [ᵐboso] -. under
~botongo   [(i·)ᵐbotoŋo] transitive verb. ⟨s.o.⟩  interpose (s.th., oneself) between A and B, so as to prevent A (typically an agentive participant in motion) from reaching B (typically a static target). bloquer. Synt.. The grammatical object is sometimes A (yielding meanings such as ‘stop, prevent’), sometimes B (yielding meanings such as ‘protect, take care’).

(1) block, stand in the way of ‹s.th.›.

U-botongo ero etapu, u-sali!
Stop blocking the water (with your hands), let it go!

(2) stop, prevent ‹s.o.› from doing s.th. (me or nara +Irr.); forbid.

Li-botongo ene me ne-le.
They're preventing me from going there.

U-botongo ini nara kape i-koie ne moe.
Make sure he doesn't come inside the house.

(3) ⦗object non-sg⦘ separate ‹people› from each other.

Ka ni-aiu ni-vio ni-botongo da.
⟨two men fighting⟩ So I rose and separated them.

(4) impede access to ‹s.th.›.

Vilisao i-botongo se mataiko ponu.
The tornado was blocking the passage.

(5) ⦗serialised after posture V⦘ be in a position that blocks access to ‹s.th.›, whether deliberately or not, to impede access to ‹s.o., s.th.›; hence (sit+) on ‹s.th.›; (sit+) besides or with ‹s.o., s.th.› as a way to protect.

Bara ba-te ba-botongo okoro ponu.
I'm afraid you may be sitting on my knife.

Van' ni-wene ni-botongo nara kape le-punuo ñi.
[I lie I block it] I sleep on (my money) so nobody can steal it.

I-te i-botongo menu.
She’s sitting with the baby (to look after him).

(6) protect ‹s.o., s.th.› from a potential danger.

Dapa li-woi nuduro ne touro, me i-botongo temaka.
They put up taboo signs on the seashore, to protect the area (from poachers).

(7) (hence) take care of, look after ‹s.o., s.th.›.

Dapa Paiu li-botongo dapa France.
The villagers of Paiou were looking after the French.

Kupa pi-kamai monone ne pe-ko me u-botongo.
We brought this chest for you to look after.

Ni-la piene ono me ne-botongo ne-mini kaipa.
I’m recording your language so I can take care of it for you.

U-botongo men' one!
Take care of my kid!

(8) (esp) ⦗reflexive construction⦘ take care of ‹o.s.›, be cautious.

U-botongo eo u-ejau!
⟨reflexive construction⟩ Take good care of yourself!

(9) ⦗serialised after action V⦘ do s.th. in favour of ‹s.o.›.

Ni-vet' piene ni-botongo eo.
I stood up for you. [lit. I spoke I protected you]
~botongo   (botongo) adv. (rare) ⦗after verb⦘ (do s.th.) so as to cover, close, protect+.

Li-dai ñe vilo li-asai botongo.
We wrap it around a stick and tie it with a stitch [lit. stitch cover].
botu  [ᵐbotu] noun. boat
bou  [ᵐbou] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree. Premna corymbosa (?).

~bu1   [(i·)ᵐbu] intransitive verb. die, pass away. mourir.
~bu2   [(i·)ᵐbu] transitive verb. <Naut>

(1) fold or roll ‹s.th. flexible: cloth, leaf+›. rouler.

Ni-bu bete ene me ne-lui.
I've rolled my mat to take it away.

U-bu namolo iono.
Fold your clothes away.

(2) (esp) furl ‹sail, bavede›.

Bavede iada ka la-bu.
They furled the sails.
bu-3   [ᵐbu-] personal subject prefix. conative prefix, presenting action as tentative. Combines especially with verbs in order sentences.

[ See  abu1. ]

~bubu  [(i·)ᵐbuᵐbu] transitive verb. plait
buia  [ᵐbuia] noun. <Anat> testicles.

Li-la buia pwoi.
castrate a pig

buia loubaido
[testicles of c.c.] **greasy appendix** of a coconut crab
buia luro  -. germinated coconut; sprout ball formed inside such a coconut.

buia

buioe  [ᵐbuioe] noun.

(1) Areca palm, a tree. Areca catechu.

tapaia* buioe
wooden platform made of Areca planks

(2) (esp) areca nut, as commonly chewed (~kanu). Synt.. Takes the Food possessive classifier (enaka).

li-ali buioe
pick areca nuts (by climbing)

La-la buioe ada me puluko ada.
They took their areca nuts, together with their betel leaves.

[ POc *buaq. ]

bulateno  [ᵐbulateno] -.

blateno

bulengi  [ᵐbuleŋi] -. :

bu- + lengi.

buluko  [ᵐbuluko] noun.

(1) ⟨tree⟩  gum.

buluko peini vongoro
gum of Canarium tree

buluko peini dero
gum of kaori tree

(2) candle or torch, traditionally made with kaori gum.

Li-su buluko.
They lit their torches.

(3) (gen) lamp, light.

Buluko ie ngele ponu?
Whose flashlight is that?

[ POc *bulut. ]

buluko ie tadoe  -. lit. “torch of Gods” : volcano.

buluko

buluwowo  [ᵐbuluwowo] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree (Euphorbiaceae). Macaranga tanarius.

bune  [ᵐbune] noun. <Ornith> Green-winged Ground Dove. Chalcophaps indica.

telupe ‘pigeon’

[ POc *bunefruit dove’. ]

bunero  [ᵐbunero] noun. batfish. platax. Platax sp..

[ POc *bunaR. ]

buro1   [ᵐburo] noun. <Bot> Tamanu tree. tamanu. Calophyllum inophyllum.

Lekele i-nge ua buro.
Flying-foxes chew tamanu fruits.

[ See PEO *bakuRaCalophyllum sp.’. ]

buro2   [ᵐburo] noun. <Mus> song. chant.

~oburo ‘sing’

utele buro
beginning of a song

Buro i-viane dapa ka li-le.
As they walked, they were suddenly moved by a (beautiful) song.
buro bula  -. lit. “song of?” : song about ‹s.th., s.o.›; song designed for ‹s.th.›.

buro bula Teulu
the song of the wind Teulu

buro bula Tamate
song for the Spirit Masks
buro bula okoro  -. <Mus> lit. “song of bamboos” : song genre, meant to accompany on the sound of pounded bamboos.

buro [2]

~woi okoro ‘pounding bamboos’

bute  [ᵐbute] noun. taro. taro. Colocasia esculenta. ◈ More commonly referred to as jebute*.

sekele bute
taro garden

Li-au bute.
harvest taro (by pulling on it)
bwara  [ᵐbʷara] adv. maybe
bwogo  [ᵐbʷoᵑgo] noun. night

[ POc *ᵐboŋi. ]

bworo  [ᵐbʷoro] adjective. black

boro

da1   [ⁿda] personal pronoun. third dual independent pronoun. 3:du.
~da2   [(i·)ⁿda] transitive verb.

(1) go past, cross ‹s.th., s.o.›. dépasser.

Li-da dapa ne anoko.
They crossed [lit. went past] each other on the road.

Li-da noma re i-ka.
They came here rounding the cape over there.

(2) ⦗after a first adjectival or verbal predicate⦘ exceed, surpass ‹s.th., s.o.› in doing s.th., hence do s.th. better or be more than. Forms comparative structures.

Ini bwara biouro i-da eo.
She's probably taller than you. [she's tall she surpasses you]
dada  [ⁿdaⁿda] noun. <Sea> jellyfish.

~dadai  [(i·)ⁿdaⁿdai] transitive verb. surround

~dai

~dai  [(i·)ⁿdai] intransitive verb. surpass
damala  [ⁿdamala] noun. Whiteman
dameliko  [ⁿdameliko] noun. childrenSuppletive plural of menu or apali.

menu

datilu meliko
dapa  [ⁿdapa] ~ dap’  personal pronoun. <Gram>

(1) ⦗subject, object or possessor⦘ anaphoric third plural pronoun, referring to a group of people already mentioned in discourse. 3pl.

Dapa li-madau.
⟨subject⟩ They were scared.

Ni-ovei dapa.
⟨object⟩ I know them.

Li-pei dapa.
⟨reflexive⟩ They were rejoicing [themselves].

kie dapa
⟨possessor of dependent noun⟩ their graves

enga dapa
their names

(2) (rare) generic plural pronoun: people, generic ‘they’. Sem.. In this meaning, dapa is less common than idi, the impersonal 3pl pronoun, which is always non-anaphoric (‘people’).

Syn: idi

dapa ne kulumoe
people in the village (villagers)

(3) ⦗appellative⦘ people! guys!.

Ei! Dapa! Na toñaki ae na?
Hey, people! What sort of ship is that?

Ebel' ini me, dapa!
This is excellent, guys!

(4) ⦗foll. by Noun⦘ plural marker.

Syn: uña

dapa teliki
the chiefs

dapa et’ iape
his mothers

(5) ⦗foll. by NP modifier⦘ in the absence of a noun head, dapa serves as head in a plural NP with human reference: people, those (who)+.

dapa kula
⟨+quantifier⟩ some people

dapa abia
many people

dapa bworo
⟨+adjective⟩ Black people

dapa wopine
[the great/old ones] grown men; authorities; ancestors

dapa Teanu
⟨+locative⟩ the people of Teanu

dapa Iura
Vanuatu people

dapa noma
⟨+adverb⟩ people of the past, ancestors

dapa peini toñaki pon
⟨+linker⟩ the people on that ship

dapa po li-kila emele
⟨+relative clause, subject⟩ those who are married

dapa pe uña teliki li-lamini tanoe se dapa
⟨+relative clause with resumptive⟩ those who were given some ground by the authorities

(6) ⦗+possessor ie‹s.o.›’s people: relatives, family; community.

dapa ie mwaliko po i-bu
the family of the person who died

dapa enone
my people, my relatives

Dapa iakapa ka awoiu!
Our people are doomed!

[ See  da. ]

dapa gete  [ⁿdapa ᵑgete] noun. ⦗plural of mwatageteyoung unmarried boys, typic. male teenagers.

toplau

Kape pe-loko dapa gete enone, da meliko viñevi, pe-lui ne moe re.
We'll take my boys and my girls, and lead them to that house over there.

Dapa gete le-wabe, le-lui tev' dapa li-anu.
The young men fill up (the cups) and give them to (the elders) for them to drink.

Teliki, samame dap' wopine, dapa gete, ne toplau; da viñevi, ne mwoe.
The chief, together with elders and young boys, can go in the men’s club (toplau); but women stay in their houses.
dapa noma  -. lit. “those before” : the people of the past, the ancestors.

noma [C]

Syn: wopine

Dapa noma, li-ovei pe li-vesu bavede.
Our ancestors used to sail.
daviñevi  [ⁿdaviɲevi] noun. women

datilu viñevi

da meliko viñevi
davuduko  [ⁿdavuⁿduko] noun. <Bot> k.o. leafy plant (Polypodiaceae). Microsorum punctatum.

dekele  [ⁿdekele] noun. <Anat> ⟨animal⟩  tail.

Nga u-katei namuko iote, u-toe dekele mina.
If you catch a fish, you must cut off its tail.
delesa  [ⁿdelesa] noun. petal

delesa mana vilo
a flower petal
demene  [ⁿdemene] noun. <Techn> outrigger of a canoe.

Po ka li-bo ebele kuo awoiu, kape le-toe demene peini na ta.
Once the hull of the canoe is finished, it's time to cut its outrigger.

[ POc *saman. ]

demo  [ⁿdemo] noun. night.

nedemo

[ POc *dodom. ]

dere  [ⁿdere] noun. <Fish> k.o. tuna. Thunnus sp..
dere mie boe  -. <Fish> lit. “shark-smelling tuna” : Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel. Scomberomorus commerson.

dere

dere wablubu  -. <Fish> lit. “round tuna” : k.o. bonito fish. Thunnus sp..

dere

dero  [ⁿdero] noun. <Bot> kauriAgathis australis.
deruobe  [ⁿderuoᵐbe] noun. <Fish> halfbeak, garfish. Hemirhamphus spp.

devele  [ⁿdevele] noun. <Ethn> knife
~di  [(i·)ⁿdi] transitive verb.

(1) cut off, prune ‹tree›.

(2) shave ‹beard›.

U-di vagumia eo ko!
Shave your beard!
die  [ⁿdie] phr. bone
die i-meli  -. ⟨pregnant woman⟩  lit. “painful bones” :

die

die moso  -. <Anat> lit. “big (?) bone” : spine.
digo  [ⁿdiᵑgo] noun. <Techn> beam
dingobe1   [ⁿdiŋoᵐbe] ~ digobe  noun. <Ornith> White-collared Kingfisher. Halcyon chloris.

[ POc *sikop. ]

dingobe2   [ⁿdiŋoᵐbe] ~ digobe  noun. <Fish> Blackeye thicklip. Hemigymnus melapterus.
~do1   [(i·)ⁿdo] transitive verb. plant ‹trees›. planter.

Li-do bale
plant a breadfruit

Li-do balawe
plant a pineapple

Li-do mana vilo
plant flowers

La-tabe mata ka la-lui la-do i-katau ngogoro.
⟨kaori tree⟩ They collected shoots, and began to plant them around the island.

~do2   [(i·)ⁿdo] transitive verb. swallow. avaler.

U-romo nga die, nara kape u-do i-abu.
Beware the bones, you might swallow them.

[ POc *dolom. ]

~do3   [(i·)ⁿdo] transitive verb. scrape off ‹fish scales, ngava› when scaling a fish.

U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.
You scrape off the scales, and then gut it.
doko  [ⁿdoko] noun. <Bot> Dragon plum (Anacardiaceae). Dracontomelon dao.

[ POc *raqu(p). ]

dowene  [ⁿdowene] noun. <Fish> Pompano. pompaneau. Trachinotus sp..

duduko  [ⁿduⁿduko] noun. mirror
~e  [(i·)e] transitive verb. eat
ea  [ea] -.
ebel' ini  -. lit. “its body” : wonderful! great! fabulous!. Intensifier me.

ebele

Ebel' ini me!
That's wonderful!

Emele iape, ebel' ini!
His wife is gorgeous!
ebele  [eᵐbele] intj. body. corps.

(1) ⟨man, animal⟩  body.

Ebele ene pana.
[my body is hot] I feel hot.

Leka, kape u-labu ebele ini metae.
With your (opp.-sex) cross-cousin, you are not allowed any body contact.

Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.
When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.

Li-romo po dapa ebele dapa tae.
[We can't see their bodies] These creatures are invisible.

(2) ⟨s.th.⟩  major constituting element; structure, core.

ebele moe
the structure of the house

ebele kuo
canoe hull

(3) real, genuine, true, actual; authentic version of ‹s.th.›.

Ebele kuo i-karem demene.
Genuine canoes have an outrigger.

Dapa wopine iupa na li-ovei ebel' ini.
Our elders know what the real (language) should be.

Ini i-te Franis, ia ebele kulumoe iape Japan.
She lives in France, but she is actually from [lit. her genuine country is] Japan.

(4) ⦗exclamatory⦘ beautiful.

Ebele kuo me!
What a beautiful boat!

(5) meaning.

(6) example.

ebele ngapiene  -. lit. “body of festival” : end of the festival.

Ini i-ko kape i-viane ebele ngapiene, i-ko: nga nanana, mobo ngapiene awoiu.
He said they would hit the end of the festival, that it would end the next day.
ebele piene   [eᵐbele piene] noun.

(1) ⦗always predicate⦘ lit. “real speech” : true words, the truth. vrai.

~tako ‘speak the truth’

Ene ni-lengi ñe taña ene, ka ebele piene, ene ni-le ene.
I heard it with my own ears. It's the truth, I believe it.

(2) ⦗foll. by NP⦘ true, real, genuine; specific.

Ebele piene uo tae.
This is not real yam.

Ebele piene sekele peini jebute upa i-wene ne tevie.
We have a genuine water-taro garden on the other side.
ebele piene   intj. really! An expression of surprise.

Ebele piene?
Really?!

O, ebele piene, mwalik' iote i-bu!
Oh, really! Someone is dead!
ebieve1   [eᵐbieve] noun. <Bot> Indian coral tree. Erythrina indica.

ebieve2   [eᵐbieve] noun. yearly season, year. Etym.. This noun is metonymically named after the yearly flowering of the Erythrina flower (ebieve1).

ne to ebieve
in the middle of the year

ebieve 2005
in 2005

ebieve iote k' awoiu ponu
last year

Ebieve iono tivi?
[how many are your years?] How old are you?
ebo  [eᵐbo] noun. <Fish> Spotted unicorn fish. Naso brevirostris.

eda  [eⁿda] -.
ei  [ei] intj. hey
~ejau  [(i·)eᶮɟau] transitive verb. make
~ekeke  [(i·)ekeke] intransitive verb. laugh. rire.

Awoiu, menu ka i-re tengiro, ka i-ekeke.
The child stopped crying, and laughed.
~eketele  [(i·)eketele] intransitive verb. be surprised, taken by surprise; startle. sursauter.

Ni-ko ni-ejau eo u-eketele.
I wanted to surprise you. [lit. to make you startle]
~ekili  [(i·)ekili] intransitive verb. tremble
ekuo  [ekuo] noun. various forms of wooden stick, with various usages. bâton.

ekuo pe li-avo luro
a stick used to husk coconuts

ekuo pe li-wete ñe tanoe
a digging stick [stick used to spear the ground]
ela  [ela] noun, obligatorily possessed. branch
elela  [elela] noun. branches
~elele  [(i·)elele] transitive verb. drag
elene  [elene] noun. clearing
eluro  [eluro] noun. <Ornith> Barn Owl. hibou. Tyto alba.

emele  [emele] noun. woman
enaka  [enaka] -.
ene  [ene] -.
enga  [eŋa] noun, obligatorily possessed. name
engaenga  [eŋaeŋa] -.
engaiote  [eŋaiote] -.
~engi  [(i·)eŋi] transitive verb. kiss ‹s.o.›. embrasser.

Ni-ko ni-engi eo.
I want to kiss you.
enone  [enone] -.
en’  [en’] personal pronoun. elided form of ene ‘1sg pronoun’.
eo  [eo] -.
epele  [epele] -.
epu  [epu] noun, kinship. <Kin> Originally an address term.

Syn: pie

(1) grandparent; anybody from the grandparent generation, whether male or female (FF, FM, MF, MM, MMZ, MMB…).

epu iape
his/her grandfather

(2) grandchild; anybody from the grandchild generation, whether male or female (SC, DC+).

ere  [ere] -.
eria  [eria] -.
ero  [ero] -.
ero pana  -. lit. “hot water” : tea or coffee.
etapu  [etapu] -.
ete  [ete] noun, kinship. <Kin>

(1) mother, Mum. mère.

et' one
my mother

ete
your mother

(2) classificatory mother: any female member of the preceding generation (M, MZ, MBW, FZ, FBW). The symmetrical term is menu (Pl. dameliko) or apali.

ete ie kengele  -. <Fish> lit. “mother of kengele” : Silverspot squirrelfish. Sargocentron caudimaculatum.

kengele

etelo  [etelo] noun. <Ornith>

(1) Brown Booby. Sula leucogaster.

(2) ascidian, k.o. marine invertebrate. Ascidiacea spp.

etengi  [eteŋi] -.
etera  [etera] -.
eva  [eva] noun. <Ornith> Swamp Harrier. Circus approximans.

evele

evele  [evele] noun. <Ornith> Peregrine Falcon. faucon. Falco peregrinus.

eva

evero  [evero] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, unidentified.

evero moloe  -. <Bot> lit. “red evero” : k.o. tree (Acanthaceae). Pseuderanthemum carruthersii.

evero

ewe  [ewe] -.
gae  [ᵑgae] -.
gea  [ᵑgea] noun, kinship. <Kin> 1s: gi' one 2s: gea 3s: gi' iape

(1) uncle: mother's brother (MB). oncle. I call my uncle's wife my mother (ete).

(2) ⦗ego male⦘ nephew, niece (ZC): child of o.'s sister. I call my nephew's wife my daughter-in-law (uku).

(3) ⦗ego male⦘ nephew, niece (MBDC): child of o.'s female cross-cousin leka.

gete  [ᵑgete] noun. boy. garçon. Element found in several compounds: mwatagete ‘boy (sg.)’, dapa gete ‘boys (pl.)’, mwagete ‘boy's clubhouse’.
gilita  [ᵑgilita] -.
go  [ᵑgo] -.
Honiara  [Honiara] -.
~i1   [(i·)i] intransitive verb. call out with high-pitched voice, typic. in order to reach out to a distant or invisible person in the bush. crier.

Ni-le ne ngogoro n-i, ia ni-lengi ngele i-laiaini tae.
As I was walking in the forest, I called out, but I heard nobody reply.
i-2   personal subject prefix.

(1) Realis 3rd singular mood prefix.

(2) Irrealis 3rd singular mood prefix.

ia1   [ia] intj. exclamatory particle used when handing s.th. to s.o.: ‘here you are’.

Ia! Okor' ono!
Here you are! This is your knife.
ia2   [ia] coord. but. mais.
~ia3   [(i·)ia] transitive verb.

(1) rub intensely ‹s.th.› so as to alter its shape; file ‹s.th.›.

li-ia aero
file shells (to make shell-money)

(2) light ‹fire, iawo› by rubbing wooden sticks together.

~maili [2] ‘light fire’

Li-ia iawo ñe vilo.
We light fire with (pieces of) wood.
~ia4   [(i·)ia] transitive verb. remove ‹guts of fish+›.

bea ‘guts’

U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.
You scrape off the scales, and then gut it [lt. remove its guts].
iaba  [iaᵐba] -.
iada  [iaⁿda] -.
iadapa  [iaⁿdapa] -.
iae  [iae] -.
iaero  [iaero] noun.

(1) river. rivière.

ero ‘water’

iaero Paiu
the river Paiou

Ni-lebie ne iaero.
I bathed in the river.

ne pwama iaero
on the river bank

al' ero ne iaero
the river mouth [lit. foot]

(2) the Milky Way.

iaidi  [iaiⁿdi] -.
iaipa  [iaipa] -.
iakapa  [iakapa] -.
iakia  [iakia] -.
iamela  [iamela] -.
iape  [iape] -.
iawo  [iawo] -.
idi  [iⁿdi] -.
idi abia  -. lit. “people all” : everybody.

abia

idi abia ne kulumoe
everyone in the village

Na tanoe aidi abia.
⟨possessor⟩ This land belongs to everyone.
ie1   [ie] noun. <Fish> dolphin. dauphin. Delphinidae spp.

ie2   [ie] clf. ⦗foll. by NP⦘ default possessive classifier for alienable possession. de.

enone

iebe  [ieᵐbe] noun. <Bot> k.o. fern. Pteridophyta spp.

iepiene  [iepiene] -.
iero  [iero] noun. <Bot> She-oak. Casuarina. Casuarina equisetifolia.

wowo iero
the top of the Casuarina tree

[ POc *aRu. ]

iero peini revo  -. <Sea> lit. “Casuarina of the sea” : branching tree coral. Gorgonaceae spp.

iero

Iglan  [iᵑglan] -.
ije  [iᶮɟe] noun. <Anat> ⟨man, animal⟩  tooth, teeth.

Ije ene i-makoe.
I have a broken tooth.
ije b(w)oe  -. shark tooth, tradit. used as a razor.

ije

ije p(w)oi  -. pig tusk.

ije

Ije pwoi i-ke i-dadai.
The pig tusk has come out and spun around.
ika  [ika] -.
i-katau-teve  -. lit. “he follows after” : second-born, in a group of siblings.

~katau

makumoso ‘firstborn’

iliro  [iliro] noun. <Bot> Polynesian apple (Anacardiaceae). Spondias. S. dulcis.

[ POc *quRis. ]

ilo  [ilo] noun. <Bot> Sea almond tree. Terminalia. Terminalia catappa.

ilo we uvilo  -. lit. “Terminalia for rats” : variety of Terminalia not suitable for consumption. Terminalia littoralis.

ilo

ilui  [ilui] -.
imaluo  [imaluo] -.
ini  [ini] -.
io  [io] -.
ioi  [ioi] -.
~ioi teuko  -. lit. “throw the fishing-line” : go fishing, go angling.

teuko

Kape ne-ioi teuko ko.
But first let me go fishing.
iolulu  [iolulu] noun. thunder.

megilo ‘lightning’

iono  [iono] -.
iopon  [iopon] -.
iote  [iote] -.
ioti  [ioti] noun. dark cloud carrying rain.

adawo ‘cloud’

ise  [ise] -.
iu1   [iu] adv. up, above. en_haut.
~iu2   [(i·)iu] transitive verb. bury ‹s.th., s.o.› in the ground. enterrer.
iui  [iui] -.
iuko  [iuko] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree. Burckella obovata.

iula  [iula] noun. <Techn>

(1) rope of ‹s.th.›: creates compounds referring to types of rope.

(2) chain of ‹ship›, to which the anchor (tetaula) is attached; hence anchor.

iula tepuke
anchor of a canoe

iula toñaki
anchor of a ship

Iula toñaki ponu, ene ni-romo ñe mata ene.
That (ship) anchor, I have seen it with my own eyes.
iula teuko  -. fishing line, string used for angling.

iula

iumi  [iumi] -.
iumu  [iumu] -.
iune  [iune] -.
iunido  [iuniⁿdo] noun. <Bot>

(1) nettle tree, a toxic plant (Urticaceae). ortie. Dendrocnide spp.

(2) ⦗by analogy⦘ Diodon or Porcupine fish, a toxic fish. Diodon holacanthus.

iunubo  [iunuᵐbo] -.
iupa  [iupa] -.
iura  [iura] -.
iuro  [iuro] -.
ive  [ive] pred. why?. Morph.. 3sg form of the interrogative verb ~ve.

~ve [1]

jeboro  [ᶮɟeᵐboro] noun. <Bot> Wild basil (Lamiaceae). Ocimum gratissimum.

jeboro moloe  -. <Bot> lit. “red basil” : red variety of Coleus. Solenostemon spp.

jeboro

jebute  [ᶮɟeᵐbute] ~ jiebute  noun. native taro. taro. Colocasia esculenta. ◈ Etym.. Contraction of die ~ jie ‘sucker’ and bute* ‘taro’.

Syn: avtebe

li-au jebute
harvest taro (by pulling on it)

Jebute ka moso.
The taros are ripe.

Kape jebute i-karau na metae, pe ero tae.
Taros can't grow here, due to lack of water.
jokoro  [ᶮɟokoro] noun. <Mus> name of various artefacts made of bamboo. Etym.. From jie okoro.

(1) bamboo rod, of any usage.

Ni-toe jokoro iote me susuko me ngasune semame jokoro iote.
I cut a bamboo rod to the same length as the other one.

Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.
I measured the bamboo rod to be one fathom and a half.

(2) (esp) fishing rod.

Kape le-la teuko ne jokoro me le-katei ñe namuko.
We'll take a fishing rod and go angling.

(3) bamboo water-carrier.

jokoro peini ero
bamboo for freshwater

(4) bamboo used as a stamping tube.

Le-la jokoro me le-woi, me le-mako.
We'll take bamboos and pound them (on the ground) for the dances.

jokoro pe li-woi
[lit. bamboos to be stamped] stamping tube

(5) bamboo flute; fl:esp. Pan pipe. An instrument recently introduced from islands further west (esp. Malaita).

jokoro pe li-vi
[lit. bamboos to be blown] Pan pipe

(6) bamboo organ: a large panpipe-shaped instrument made of bamboos tied together. An instrument recently introduced from islands further west (esp. Malaita). The sound is produced by striking (~abu) the mouth of each tube with a beater made of wood or plastic.

jokoro pe li-abu
[lit. bamboos to be struck] bamboo organ

Dameliko kape li-abu jokoro.
The kids will play the bamboo organ.

[ See  okoro. ]

k'  [k'] -.
ka1   [ka] coord. andet.

(1) and. Coordinator between noun phrases.

(2) and. Coordinator between clauses.

ka2   [ka] aspect.

(1) ⦗+Realis predicate⦘ marker of Perfect aspect. Perf.

(2) ⦗+Irrealis V⦘ .

~ka3   [(i·)ka] intransitive verb. come, towards speaker or deictic centre. venir.

(1) come.

U-ka ko!
Come here!

(2) come from (somewhere).

Pi-ka vele?
Where are you coming from?
~ka4   [(i·)ka] intransitive verb. (rare) ⦗V2 in serial construction; foll. by demonstrative⦘ (do) like (this). comme.

~kae ‘do how’

U-wai ebele u-ka pon etapu!
Don't shake your body like that!
~kae  [(i·)kae] phr. question verb enquiring on a situation, or the manner of an action. faire_comment.

(1) ⦗dynamic reading⦘ do how?. Morph.. Probably from ~ka4 ‘do like’ + ae ‘what’.

Kape le-kae?!
How were they supposed to proceed?!

(2) ⦗static reading⦘ be how?.

Syn: ~ve [1]

I-kae eo?
How are you?

(3) ⦗V2 in serialisation, with subject agreement⦘ how?.

Syn: kavele

Syn: ngapwae ‘how’

A-ka a-kae? – Ni-katau anoko ni-ka.
How did you come? – I just followed the road.

Kape le-te le-kae?
How could they have remained there?
kai  [kai] -.
kaiawo  [kaiawo] noun. smoke. fumée.

iawo ‘fire’

Pon kaiawo tae, ova revo.
That's not smoke, that's steam.

Ei! Kaiawo pon! I-ke re, ne kulumoe re!
Hey, look at the smoke! It's coming from over there, from that village over there!
kailape  [kailape] -.
kaipa  [kaipa] -.
~kamai  [(i·)kamai] transitive verb. bring ‹s.th., s.o.› here, towards deictic centre. apporter. Synt.. Often the object is expressed in preceding clause, and not repeated after kamai.

Ant: ~lui ‘take away’

mwaliko po i-kamai tamate pon
the man who brought the Tamate masks [to this island]

Kupa pi-kamai monone apilaka ne pe-ko me pe-kamai i-wene tev' eo.
We have brought here this small box, with the idea to leave it with you.

[ Pileni ka mai. ]

kangele  [kaŋele] -.
kangele teuko  noun.
kanikawo  [kanikawo] ~ kankawo  noun. <Fish> (gen) grouper. mérou. Epinephelinae spp.

kanikawo teiene  -. <Fish> Yellow-edged Lyretail. Variola louti.

kanimoro  [kanimoro] -.
~kanu   [(i·)kanu] transitive verb. chew ‹s.th.›, esp. areca nut. mâcher.

~nge

Li-nge to, li-kanu buioe me puluko.
They would suck on sugarcane, and also chew areca nuts with betel leaves.
~kanu   intransitive verb. ⦗absol.⦘ chew areca nut.

Li-anu ero pana ka li-kanu, ka li-moloe ne kat.
We drink tea, we chew areca nuts, and we play cards.

[ Tik. kamu. ]

kape  [kape] -.
kara  [kara] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Bot> ⟨tree⟩  root. racine.

kara kava
kava root

kara boke
banyan root

Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe.
To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree.

[ POc *wakaR. ]

~karau  [(i·)karau] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨plant+⟩  grow. croître.

~ta [3]

Kape jebute i-karau na metae, pe ero tae.
Taro can't grow here, because there's no water.

(2) ⦗often foll. by ~vene ‘up’⦘ ⟨child⟩  grow up, become older.

Syn: pine

Ini i-karau Vonovono.
She grew up in the Reef Islands.

(3) ⟨s.o.⟩  grow stout, put on weight.

oie

Na oie ini ka wako, na ka i-karau wako.
She's of a healthy size now, she has nicely put on weight.
~karem  [(i·)karem] transitive verb. ⟨s.o., s.th.⟩  have, have got. Although this verb is criticised as a loanword, it is frequently heard in informal speech. The equivalent in the vernacular would involve an existential predicate, usually with ~wene.

Ebele kuo i-karem demene.
Genuine canoes have an outrigger.

[ Pjn garem. Eng got. ]

kasule  [kasule] noun. <Bot> generic name for a number of creepers and vines.

Kasule, li-ovei pe l-ejau ñe idi pe li-tavie.
⟨medicine leaves⟩ Some vines are useful for sick people.

[ See  ule. ]

kasule aulo  -. lit. “hermit-crab's vine” : k.o. creeper.

kasule

kasule ijene  -. k.o. creeper.

kasule

kasule lava abilo  -. lit. “snake vine” : k.o. liana, ‘Great bean vine’.

kasule

Syn: lava abilo

kasule loubaido  -. lit. “coconut-crab's vine” : k.o. creeper.

kasule

kasule loubo  -. lit. “crab's vine” : k.o. creeper.

kasule

kasule moloe  -. lit. “red vine” : k.o. creeper.

kasule

kasule vorobiliko  -. k.o. creeper.

kasule

kasule wa-biouro  -. lit. “long-fruit vine” : calabash. Crescentia cujete. ◈ Not a native tree of Vanikoro.

kasule

Syn: kasule wa-wabulubu

kasule wa-wabulubu  -. lit. “round-fruit vine” : calabash.

kasule

Syn: kasule wa-biouro

kasule we menuko  -. lit. “vine (food) for birds” : k.o. creeper.

kasule

kata  [kata] -.
katabo  [kataᵐbo] -.
katae  [katae] -.
katau  [katau] -.
~katau  [(i·)katau] phr. followsuivre.

(1) join ‹s.o.› in motion or in action; follow.

Syn: ~kila [2]

Ba-ko ba-katau ene le-le ne toloto?
Do you guys want to join me to the lake?

(2) (fig) follow, come after ‹s.o.›.

tili' one pe i-katau ene viri
[my brother who follows me behind] my next brother (in age)

(3) follow ‹s.th.›.

Kape le-tabo le-katau na kiapa ponu.
Let's retrace our own steps again.

(4) ⦗often serialised⦘ follow ‹path, road+›; (move, walk+) along ‹place›.

U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka.
Just follow the road a little further up.

I-kotu i-katau ero ponu i-ven' i-le.
He ran along the river, all the way up.

Li-elele kuo i-katau revo.
They dragged the boat [following the sea] along the coast.

Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.
This kava bowl has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.

(5) ⦗+location⦘ (do s.th.) systematically, from ‹place› to ‹place›; (do) in every ‹place›.

Uña toñaki van li-ka, li-ka li-dai temaka i-katau uña basakulumoe.
Ships used to come and explore the area, going from one island to the other [lit. following islands].

I-e idi, i-e idi, i-katau kulumoe ra ra ra ra ra ra – kulumoe moli.
(the Ogre) ate people, dozens of people, going from one village to another [lit. following villages], on and on and on, until all the villages were empty.

La-tabe mata ka la-lui la-do i-katau ngogoro.
They collected tree shoots, and began to plant them everywhere in the forest [lit. following the forest].

(6) (fig) follow intellectually ‹a changing referent›; refer to, adapt to, (do s.th.) according to.

Noma li-katau ñe metele.
⟨calendar⟩ In the old days, people would just refer themselves to [lit. follow] the moon.

(7) ⦗often serialised⦘ adapt o.'s actions+ to ‹s.o., s.th.›; hence (do) along, according to ‹s.th.›.

Le-woi okoro awoiu le-(w)oburo i-katau.
We pound bamboos (giving the rhythm), and then we sing along.

(8) be sufficient in quantity; enough for ‹s.o., s.th.›.

Li-bi vongoro we teliki iote, teliki iote, i-katau dapa awoiu.
They collected almonds for each chief, one after the other, enough for [lit. following] them all.

(9) be suitable for, suit ‹s.o., s.th.›.

Buro pon i-katau abo ne ene!
⟨hum⟩ This song suits my blood! (=I love it!)

Emele pon i-katau awa ene!
⟨hum⟩ This girl sure suits my desire! (=I dig her!)
kate  [kate] -.
katei  [katei] -.
kava  [kava] noun. <Bot>

(1) kava plant. Piper methysticum.

kara kava
a kava root

(2) a narcotic drink made after this plant, and consumed by men on important occasions. The consumption of kava is claimed to be customary on Vanikoro. However, the fact that this is a Polynesian loanword suggests this practise was introduced in relatively times. Still today it is only drunk on rare occasions; the traditional daily drug of Vanikoro is really the areca nut (buioe).

Dapenuo li-le ne toplau, li-anu kava. Li-anu kava awoiu, ka li-vongo viri.
Men would go in the men's clubhouse, and drink kava. Once they had drunk kava, they would eat.

Daviñevi wopine li-ovei pe li-anu kava.
Old women are allowed to drink kava.

Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.
This kava bowl (tano*) has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.

[ Polynesian kava. ]

kava ele  -. <Bot> a wild variety of kava, not suitable for drinking. Macropiper latifolium.

kava

kava moloe  -. lit. “red kava” : a reddish variety of kava, now fallen into disuse.

kava

kava tebene  -. lit. “yellow kava” : a yellowish variety of kava, now fallen into disuse.

kava

kavale  [kavale] -.
kavele  [kavele] -.
kawi  [kawi] -.
kaworo  [kaworo] noun. <Fish> White-spotted Spinefoot. Siganus canaliculatus.

ke  [ke] -.
~ke1   [(i·)ke] transitive verb. ⟨man, animal⟩  bite. mordre.

Nara bwoe i-ke eo!
Make sure sharks don't bite you.

muko pe i-ke idi
[fly that bites people] mosquito

[ (?) POc *kaRat. ]

~ke2   [(i·)ke] intransitive verb.

(1) go outside, go out; come out (of, mina). sortir.

U-ke u-ka na!
Come here!

(2) ⦗geocentric coordinates⦘ go from inland towards the sea; go downhill; (at sea) move away from the island, towards the ocean.

teta-ke ‘seawards’

(3) (fig) come out, come to light, appear.

Ije pwoi i-ke i-dadai.
The pig tusk has come out and spun around.
keba  [keᵐba] -.
kela  [kela] -.
kengele  [keŋele] noun. <Fish> Sammara squirrelfish. Neoniphon sammara.

kengetone  [keŋetone] noun. <Fish>

(1) Sabre Squirrelfish. Sargocentron spiniferum.

(2) Pink Squirrelfish. Sargocentron tieroides.

kevei  [kevei] -.
kia  [kia] -.
kiane  [kiane] -.
kiapa  [kiapa] -.
kidi  [kiⁿdi] -.
kidisa revo  [kiⁿdisa revo] noun. <Sea> salt.

revo ‘sea’

kie1   [kie] noun. <Bot> k.o. pandanus, the leaves of which are commonly used for weaving. pandanus. Pandanus tectorius.

Syn: woubo

vede

Li-vei uie kie.
They're weaving pandanus leaves.

[ POc *kiRe. ]

kie2   [kie] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) hole of ‹s.th.› dug in the ground. trou.

moboe ‘hole’

Li-ae kie tepapa i-dadai awoiu ponu, li-iu tepapa ene.
They dug holes for the dancing boards all around (the village area), and then they buried the boards in them.

(2) (esp) grave of ‹s.o.›, sepulture.

Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.
When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.

kie Laperus
the sepulture of Lapérouse
kie tebene  -. lit. “yellowed pandanus” : variety of pandanus leaves with leaves of a pale yellow colour.

kie [1]

kie tepapa  -. lit. “hole of board” : hole buried in the ground, used as a resonator underneath the stomping board during the ngapiene dances.

tepapa

kie

kijin  [kiᶮɟin] -.
kila  [kila] -.
~kila1   [(i·)kila] transitive verb.

(1) call out to ‹s.o.›. appeler.

Abu u-kila in' i-koie!
Call him in!

Li-si teveliko ne kulumoe, me le-kila idi le-ka le-mako.
Someone in the village is blowing the conch, calling out to people to come and dance.

(2) invoke ‹deity›, with a prayer or curse.

Li-la viko li-lateli, li-ka li-kila tadoe pon li-ko “Visipure! U-abu ne adawo!”
Once they had put the sacred money down, they began to invoke their gods: “Fisipure! Come down from your clouds!”

(3) call, get ‹s.o.› on the phone or the teleradio. Vanikoro has no phone. Communication between villages, or with other islands, is done by teleradio.

Abu ne-kila Puma!
⟨teleradio⟩ I'll try and get (the people of) Puma.

(4) ⦗followed by ~ko2call ‹s.th., s.o.› with such and such a name.

Dapa li-kila li-ko “Beme” pe ini beme.
They call him “Baldhead” because he's bald.

Li-kila temaka pon li-ko “Moe ma Tadoe”.
This place is called “Devils' Lair”.
~kila2   [(i·)kila] phr.

(1) follow, join ‹s.o., s.th.› in motion or action. suivre.

~katau ‘follow’

A-ko u-ka u-kila keba?
Would you like to join us?

(2) marry ‹s.o.›.

Ni-kila emele pe Tetevo.
I married a woman from Utupua.

basavono pe da-tilu kape la-kila da
[lit. when two people follow each other] when there is a wedding

Nga u-romo leka, kape u-kila.
Should you have any eye contact with your cross-cousin, you will have to marry her.
~kila emele  -. lit. “join a woman” : wed, marry; be married.

Dapa po li-kila emele, dapa wopine.
Those who are married, the adults.
~kilase  [(i·)kilase] ~ ~kilasi ~ ~klas(e,i)  transitive verb.

(1) address, talk to ‹s.o.›, esp. with a formal or solemn tone; invoke.

~votei

Li-puie li-kilasi tadoe adapa me i-somoli toñaki ie Laperusi.
So they addressed solemnly their god, begging him to destroy the ships of Lapérouse.

(2) inform ‹s.o.› (about s.th., ñe), esp. in some length; explain, tell.

Syn: ~viñi

Ini i-kilasi mwalik' iape, ñe ngaten' na po i-rom' pon.
She told her husband about all she had seen.

Dapa iono le-ka, kape u-kilase dapa ñei.
When your family comes, you'll explain it all to them.
kilasi  [kilasi] -.
kilo  [kilo] -.
kisin  [kisin] -.
kiñe  [kiɲe] noun. long, thin appendage hanging from ‹s.th.› in high number.

kiñe abo
blades of grass

kiñe luro
leaflets of the coconut palm

kiñe otovo
long and thin leaves on the eaves of a sago thatch

kiñe udo
young and small bananas on a banana bunch

kiñe tebo
long rain drops during a shower

kiñe-biouro*
[long tentacles] octopus
kiñe tamate  -. the long, many fibres made of leaves, which hang down from a tamate ritual mask, by way of the Spirit's hair.

kiñe

kiñe vabasa  ~ kiñe viabasa  -. hair, considered in its length rather than its volume.

kiñe

kiñe viabasa
one hair

La-katei kiñe vabasa da.
They're pulling each other's hair!
kiñe-biouro  [kiɲe·ᵐbiouro] noun. <Fish> lit. “long-tentacles” : octopus. poulpe. Octopus spp.

motomoro ie kiñe-biouro
sucker of an octopus
kiñekiñe  [kiɲekiɲe] adjective. ⟨leaf, plant⟩  pinnate. Reduplication of kiñe.

bamele kiñekiñe
pinnate philodendron
ko1   [ko] adv. Clause-final particle.

(1) first, as a first action.

Mou me ne-iumu ne-le n-ioi teuko ko.
Let me first go angling.

(2) ⦗with imperative⦘ (do) for a second: forms a polite order; hence please.

abu

U-ka ko!
Come here a second!

(3) ⦗deictic use⦘ exclamatory particle pointing to the immediate context, typic. to the addressee's speech or action.

A-tomoli ko!
That's just a liar!

Na bwara eo ko!
I'm sure that's you!

In' na nga barava tadoe ko!
Isn't he absolutely incredible?!
~ko2   [(i·)ko] transitive verb.

(1) say ‹s.th.›, declare. Introduces direct reported speech. dire.

Na, piene adapa Teanu a-ko ae?
[this, the language of Teanu, you say what?] How do you say this in Teanu?

(2) .

(3) ⦗often foll. by bwarathink.

(4) ⦗foll. by Irrealis clause⦘ want to.

(5) ⦗serialised after a verb of speech or thought⦘ that: equivalent of a complementiser.

~ko3   [(i·)ko] intransitive verb. be open. ouvert.
~ko3   transitive verb. open ‹s.th.›.

Ka li-ko ruene, ka li-tabo li-bono.
They open the door, and then shut it again.
~ko4   [(i·)ko] transitive verb. wait for ‹s.o., s.th.›. attendre.

Syn: rema

Le-ko Bakap i-ka.
Let's wait for Bakap (to come back).

Mamote i-wene i-ko kia.
He's still (lying) waiting for us.

Kape u-ko ene mijaka nga ba-vete piene awoiu.
Just wait a little for me, until I've talked to him.
~ko pine  -. ⟨mouth, eyes, legs+⟩  lit. “open big” : be wide open. Origin of ~kopine ‘deep’.

kobe  [koᵐbe] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree with hard wood; unidentified.
~koene  [(i·)koene] transitive verb. put on, wear ‹clothes, hat+›. porter.

I-koene namolo 'none.
She's wearing my clothes.

mwaliko pe ka i-koene Tamate ponu
the man who's wearing the Tamate mask
koie  [koje] -.
~koioi  [(i·)kojoi] transitive verb. causative of ~koie ‘enter’: cause ‹s.o., s.th.› to go in, introduce.

(1) cause ‹s.th.› to go in, hence insert, put in, pack.

U-koioi etapu!
Don't put it in!

(2) cause ‹s.o.› to go in, hence bring in, lead ‹s.o.› in.

Ai' iape kape i-la men' iape i-koioi ne Toplau.
The father would introduce his son into the Men's House.

(3) ⦗geocentric coordinates⦘ cause ‹s.th.› to go inland: take ‹s.th.› from the sea towards the shore, or from the shore towards the village.

Dapa kula li-katei noma nuduro tilu ponu, li-koioi tetakoie, i-le i-vene ne moko taniboro.
Some people pull the two ends of the scareline towards the shore, to a dry zone.

(4) ⦗id.⦘ cause ‹s.o.› to go inland, esp. welcome ‹travellers› on the beach and lead them inland.

~wokobe

Ka li-loko dapa li-koioi. Li-koioi li-su buluko ka li-koie li-vagasi ta-koie.
(The islanders) welcomed them inland. They lit torchlights and led them in, until they reached (the village) inland.
koiui  [kojui] -.
koko  [koko] -.
kokoro  [kokoro] -.
kome  [kome] -.
konge  [koŋe] noun. <Zool> prawn, shrimp. crevette.

Kape la-re tetaki me la-labu neido konge ne ero.
We will set a trap to catch small shrimps in the river.
kopa  [kopa] -.
~kopine  [(i·)kopine] intransitive verb. deep. profond. Etym.. From ~ko pine ‘wide open’
kopu  [kopu] -.
kopuria  [kopuria] -.
koro  [koro] adjective.

(1) white.

beve

ovene koro
white heron

Vilisao tilu: iote bworo, iote koro.
Suddenly there were two tornados: one was dark, one was white.

(2) ⟨s.o.⟩  person of white skin, European.

Syn: damala

emele koro
a White woman
korone  [korone] -.
kotu  [kotu] -.
kovi  [kovi] -.
kukubo  [kukuᵐbo] -.
kula2   [kula] noun, obligatorily possessed. half of ‹s.th.›. demi.

kulaña

Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.
I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
kulaña  [kulaɲa] ~ kula  noun. half of ‹s.th.›. demi.

Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.
I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
kulaña metele  -. lit. “half moon” : semi-circle.

kulaña

Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.
To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle.
kuledi  [kuleⁿdi] -.
kulevelu  [kulevelu] noun. <Ornith> fowl, poultry, chicken. poule.

kulevelu mwalikote
[male fowl] rooster

via kulevelu
chicken feather

Kulevelu ka i-ve waluluo tete.
The fowl has laid three eggs.

anes kulevelu
chicken meat
kuli  [kuli] -.
kulumoe  [kulumoe] noun. inhabited place. Etym.. Perhaps from kula ‘several’ + moe ‘house’.

temaka ‘place’

(1) (gen) hamlet, village.

Da-tilu pe Teanu. Kulumoe iada Aneve.
They were from Teanu island; their village was Aneve.

(2) (rare) area, zone within an island, not necessarily inhabited.

vono ‘district’

kulumoe peini sekele
an area for garden

(3) island as a whole.

Syn: basa kulumoe

(4) country.

Ini i-te Franis, ia ebele kulumoe iape Japan.
She lives in France, but she is actually from [lit. her genuine country is] Japan.

(5) (rare) the world.

ne tevie kulumoe
the other side of the world
kuo  [kuo] -.
kupa  [kupa] -.
l-  [l(i·)] -.
l'  [l'] -.
~la  [(i·)la] voi. take ‹one thing› (vs. ~loko, ‘take several things’). prendre.

(1) take ‹s.th.› with o.'s hands, grab, carry.

~labu

~lui

Nganae pe kape le-la tae.
They didn't need to carry anything.

(2) (esp) ⦗often first verb in serialisation⦘ take ‹s.th.› in order to use it or move it. Serves to introduce a new participant in a situation, often an instrument or a theme, even when no actual ‘grabbing’ event is referred to..

Abu u-la kangele teuko u-kamai!
[take a fishhook & bring it] Please bring a fish-hook!

Li-la ruene li-tabo li-bono.
[they ‘take’ the door and shut it] They shut the door again.

U-la teili u-bi ñ' eo.
[take a fan and fan yourself] Fan yourself with a fan!

Ai' iape kape i-la men' iape i-koioi ne Toplau.
The father would introduce his son into the Men's House [lit. would ‘take’ his son and introduce him].

(3) ⦗switch-subject serialisation⦘ forms causative constructions with motion or posture verbs.

li-la i-avo
[they take it hangs] they hang s.th.

li-la i-abu
[they take it goes down] they put s.th. down

li-la i-koie
[they take it enters] they put s.th. in

Vilo pe i-bu, ni-la enga ene i-wene ñei.
I left my name on a dead tree. [lit. I ‘took’ my names it was left there]

Nobwogo miko i-la i-wai moe ne.
Last night [an earthquake ‘took’ & shook this house] this house was shaken by an earthquake.

(4) give ‹s.th.›. Usually followed by ~mini* to introduce the recipient.

~lamini

U-la i-ka kiane!
[take it it comes quickly] Give it to me, quick!

Program kula idi li-la moli.
Some softwares are free [lit. people take/give them unconstrained].

Taluaito i-la ero ie menu apilaka.
The doctor gave medicine to the little child [lit. he took/gave the child's water].

(5) (fig) take ‹s.th. abstract›, keep.

Ni-la piene ono.
I'm recording [taking] your language.

(6) ⟨s.o.⟩  understand ‹s.o., s.th.›.

Ka ni-la awa eo.
[I took your mind] I understand what you mean.

Ai-la ene?
[did you take me?] Did you get my point?

(7) ⟨action⟩  require, take ‹amount of time›.

I-la wik iune!
It takes a whole week!

Li-bo kuo votobo pe i-la moro tete we teva.
Making a canoe can take up to 3 or 4 days.

(8) do, make. Combines with certain objects, to form semantically non-compositional phrases.

[ (?) POc *alap. ]

~la aele  -. lit. “take legs” : take a number of steps.

aele

I-la aele wa-tuo.
He took six steps.
~la aele  -. lit. “take legs” : take a number of steps.

~la

I-la aele wa-tuo.
He took six steps.
~la i-avo  -. lit. “take s.th. it hangs” : hang, hook ‹s.th.›. Morph.. The sequence ~la i-avo is sometimes contracted into a single verb ~laiavo* ‘hang, hook+’.

Le-la i-avo korone nara i-sabu.
We must hook (the bait) firmly for fear it might fall off.
~la ~lui  -. lit. “take carry-away” : take ‹s.th.› away.

~la

~lui

~la ~mini  -. lit. “take give” : give ‹s.th.› to s.o..

~la

~la ~mini

~la ngatene  -. lit. “take things” : work, do some work.

~la

~la ngatene

~la ~teli  -. lit. “take put-down” : put ‹s.th.› down.

~la

~la ~teli

~la ~teli  -. lit. “take & put” : put ‹s.th.› down. The combination ~la ~teli is often contracted as ~lateli*.

~teli

labaro  [laᵐbaro] -.
labiou   [laᵐbiou] phr. lasting a long time, long. Etym.. Prob. from ~la ‘take’ + biouro ‘long’.

Labiou metae.
It won't take long.
labiou   adv.

(1) (do) for a long time, for long.

I-vet' piene labiou.
He talked for ages.

(2) ⦗perfective context⦘ (have done) a long time ago.

Aeve ka i-vene labiou awoiu.
The sun had long risen in the sky.
labiou tae  -. lit. “it was not long” : just a moment later. Links events in a narrative.

Li-koie ne moe, ka labiou tae, dapa ka tabo li-ke li-ka.
They went inside, and just a moment later, again they came out.
labu  [laᵐbu] -.
lai  [lai] -.
~laiaini   [(i·)lajaini] intransitive verb. change clothes, get changed. changer.
~laiaini   voi.

(1) change ‹s.th.›, modify.

engaiote ‘different’

(2) translate.

(3) answer, reply.

Ni-le ne ngogoro n-i, ia ni-lengi ngele i-laiaini tae.
As I was walking in the forest, I called out, but I heard nobody reply.

(4) ⦗non-sg subject⦘ exchange ‹s.th.›, trade, swap.

Kia la-laiaini tapepa.
We're swapping presents.

Da la-laiaini piene.
They exchange information.
~laiaini piene  -. ⦗non-sg subject⦘ lit. “exchange words” : trade insults, argue.

~laiaini [B]

~via

~nate

laioi  [lajoi] -.
laiui  [lajui] -.
lakule  [lakule] -.
lale  [lale] -.
~lanasu  [(i·)lanasu] transitive verb. bewitch, kill ‹s.o.› using sorcery. ensorceler.

taluaito ‘sorcerer’

Noma li-lanasu idi ne ngatene engaenga: ebele nga namolo iaidi, viabasa idi, kula none aidi, viñe buioe aidi.
In the olden days, killing someone could be done using a variety of objects, such as, their clothes, their hair, the food they left, the nut they chewed…
langasuo  [laŋasuo] -.
langatene  [laŋatene] -.
langiro  [laŋiro] -.
Laperusi  [Laperusi] -.
laro  [laro] -.
lateli  [lateli] -.
lava  [lava] -.
lava abilo  -. lit. “sides of a snake” : name of a large liana whose shape is reminiscent of a large snake.

abilo

lava

lava abilo  [lava aᵐbilo] noun. <Bot> lit. “snake sides” : k.o. liana (unidentified), ‘Great bean vine’.

lavalu  [lavalu] -.
lavatunu  [lavatunu] -.
laviakome  [laviakome] noun. <Bot> lit. “handle of axe” : k.o. seashore tree, whose hard wood is used to carve artifacts, e.g. for axe handles. Scaevola taccada.

laviko  [laviko] -.
le  [le] -.
~le  [(i·)le] intransitive verb.

(1) go somewhere. aller.

(10) lit. “go to s.o.” : believe (s.o., s.th.: ne). Synt.. This construction consists of the verb ~le ‘go’ + the locative preposition ne or locative adverb ene.

Dapa li-le ne ene tae.
[They didn't go to me] They didn't believe me.

Ene ni-lengi ñe taña ene, ka ebele piene, ene ni-le ene.
I heard it with my own ears. It's the truth, I believe it.

[ (?) POc *lako. ]

~le iune  [(i·)le iune] intransitive verb.

(1) ⦗serialised; always 3sg⦘ lit. “go one” : (do) in the same way, (do) the same.

Damala li-kila i-le iune.
Westerners call it the same.

(2) (do) together. ensemble.

Kape le-vongo i-le iune.
We shall eat together.
~le moli  -. ⦗serialised after a verb⦘ lit. “go aimlessly” : be random; go with no specific rules; hence not matter, etc..

moli [B]

~lemoli

~le ne revo  -. (euph) lit. “go to the sea” : go relieve o.s. in the sea. Just like in other islands of the area, Vanikoro people use the sea as their toilets.

revo

lea  [lea] -.
lebie  [leᵐbie] -.
lebwogo  [leᵐbʷoᵑgo] noun. <Fish>

(1) Black Sweetlips. Plectorhinchus gibbosus.

(2) Harlequin Sweetlips. Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides.

ledi  [leⁿdi] -.
~ledi  [(i·)leⁿdi] intransitive verb. ⦗Subject = mata ‘eyes’⦘ be hungry. affamé.

Mata ene i-ledi.
[my eyes are hungry] I am hungry!
lege  [leᵑge] -.
leibo  [leiᵐbo] noun. <Fish> Topsail Drummer. Kyphosus cinerascens.

leka  [leka] noun, kinship. <Kin> 1s: lek' one ⦗symmetrical term⦘ cousin, cross-cousin, whether male or female (MBC, FZC). cousin. Anth. Any sort of contact between cross-cousins of opposite sex, whether eye- or body-contact, is strictly prohibited. If it ever occurs, then the two individuals must marry. As a consequence, cross-cousins – who can be potentially spouses – avoid each other strictly.

leka emele
female cousin

U-le pon etapu! Ña leka kape i-rom' eo!
Don't go there! Your cousin might see you!

Leka, kape u-labu ebele ini metae.
With your (opp.-sex) cross-cousin, you are not allowed any body contact.
lekele  [lekele] -.
leku  [leku] -.
lema  [lema] -.
~lemoli  [(i·)lemoli] ~ ~le moli  intransitive verb. contraction of ~le moli* ‘go randomly’.

(1) (literal) wander around aimlessly.

moli

Ni-le moli ne kulumoe.
I just wandered around in the village.

(2) (fig) be random, unruly; follow no particular rules.

(3) ⦗as predicate⦘ not matter.

Kape le-kae? – I-lemoli!
How will we procede? – It doesn't matter.

(4) unimportant; common, ordinary.

Moe iaidi i-lemoli.
This is just a house for ordinary people.
lengi  [leŋi] -.
lepu  [lepu] -.
leve  [leve] noun. <Bot> Polynesian Arrowroot, a starchy plant. Tacca. Tacca leontopetaloides.

levene  [levene] -.
leñe  [leɲe] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, unidentified.

li  [li] -.
li-kila idi  -. ⦗indefinite subject and object⦘ ⟨group of people⟩  lit. “someone joins someone” : celebrate a wedding. Phraseol.. This periphrase makes for the absence of a noun ‘wedding’.

tomwona pe li-kila idi
a special pudding for wedding [lit. for when s.o. marries s.o.]

Idi na dapa li-tau jebute peini po li-kila idi.
People have cooked taros for the wedding.
~loko  [(i·)loko] transitive verb.

(1) ⦗typic. first verb in serialisation⦘ take ‹several objects›, esp. before displacing them somewhere. rassembler.

~la

Le-loko ajekele le-iui ne revo.
They collect the rubbish and throw it into the sea.

(2) take ‹people› somewhere, lead.

Kape pe-loko dapa gete enone, da meliko viñevi, pe-lui ne moe re.
We'll take my boys and my girls, and lead them to that house over there.

Ka li-loko dapa li-koioi.
They led them inside.

Toñaki iote ka i-tabo i-ka! Kape i-loko idi!
⟨Blackbirding⟩ Here comes another ship again! They're going to kidnap people!

(3) (gen) introduces a plural object, animate or not, before a verb of motion or displacement.

Li-loko none i-le ne lema awene.
We put food into the stone oven.

Dapa li-loko mana vilo i-vio ne viabasa dapa.
People put flowers in their hair.
lokoie  [lokoie] -.
lokoudo  [lokouⁿdo] noun. <Bot> croton, a plant with coloured leaves (Euphorbiaceae). Codiaeum variegatum.

longe  [loŋe] -.
longo  [loŋo] noun. <Bot> Lesser yam. Dioscorea esculenta.

uo ‘Greater yam’

Uo moloe na, samame none ka longo.
Here is some Red yam, together with Potato yam and Lesser yam.
loro   [loro] noun. vomit.
loro   (~loro) intransitive verb. vomit, puke.

Basavono po mwaliko malaria i-vagasi, basa i-meli, mwaliko i-loro, panavono i-ke.
When someone has malaria, their head aches, they vomit, they sweat…
loro ie añawo  -. lit. “whale vomit” : amber.

añawo

loro ie añawo  -. lit. “whale vomit” : amber.
lotoko  [lotoko] noun. <Fish> Thumbprint Emperor. Lethrinus harak.

loubaido  [louᵐbaiⁿdo] -.
loubo  [louᵐbo] noun. <Zool> crab. crabe.

ba loubo
crab's claw

utedie loubo
[backside of crab] crab's shell

ma loubo
crab's hole

Loubo iote i-ke vidiviko ne ale ene.
I had one of my toes bitten by a crab!
loubo antebe  -. lit. “mud crab” : k.o. crab.

loubo

loubo kilo  [louᵐbo kilo] noun. <Sea> lit. “blind crab” : crayfish, crawfish, spiny lobster. homard. Palinuridae spp.

konge ‘prawn’

louboaido  [louᵐboaiⁿdo] ~ loubaido  noun. <Zool> coconut crab. Birgus latro.

buia loubaido
[testicles of c.c.] **greasy appendix** of a coconut crab

Li-labu louboaido
hunt for coconut crabs
~lovei  [(i·)lovei] intransitive verb. ⦗non-sing subject⦘ fall one after the other.

~sabu ‘fall once’

Luro i-(lo)lovei i-abu.
The coconuts keep falling.
lovia  [lovia] -.
lovia vono  [lovia fono] noun. lit. “section of the universe” : any one of different worlds or realms. The word marama, borrowed from Mota, is sometimes used with the same meaning.

lovia vono tete
[three parts of the world] the three different worlds

Basavono po li-bu, kape le-tomoe mina Lovia Vono na, le-le ne Lovia Vono iote.
When we die, we leave this World, and migrate to the Other World.
Lovono  [Lovono] locative. Vono* or Lovono: a village on the north coast of Banie, together with its area. Lovono. This village is also known, in the literature, under the names Vanou or Whanou (Dillon). Its local name, in the language Lovono, is Vana.

piene adapa Lovono
the language of Lovono
lu  [lu] -.
~lu1   [(i·)lu] transitive verb. scrape ‹tuber› or grate ‹coconut flesh›, with a bivalve shell (aero2) or grater. râper.

I-tau jebute awoiu ponu, i-lu.
Once the taro was done, he scraped (its skin).
~lu2   [(i·)lu] voi. fold ‹s.th.›, esp. in order to put it away. ranger.

Syn: ~bu [3]

Kape le-lu bete.
They are ready to fold their mats.
~lu bete  -. lit. “put away mats” : hold a funeral ceremony at the house of a dead person.

bete [A]

~lu

~lu bete  -. lit. “fold mats” : a funeral ritual taking place in the house of a recently dead person.

~lu [2]

~lubi   [(i·)luᵐbi] intransitive verb. ⟨wind+⟩  turn, turn around; change direction. tourner.

Ngiro ka i-lubi.
The wind has turned.
~lubi   transitive verb. ⟨wind+⟩  spin ‹s.th.›, make ‹s.th.› whirl around.

Vilisao i-lubi kuo ka i-apini idi.
The tornado spun the ship and killed everybody.
~lui  [(i·)lui] ~ ~luoi  transitive verb. causative of ~le ‘go’: make ‹s.o., s.th.› go somewhere, hence take away, carry. porter.

Ant: ~kamai ‘bring’

(1) take ‹s.th.› somewhere, carry.

Ni-bu bete ene me ne-lui.
I've rolled my mat to take it away.

Ini i-le i-la voko, i-lui i-la i-teli ne temaka iote.
He [went to] grab the stone, took it away and put it down elsewhere.

Toñaki iadapa i-ka i-ka i-sava webwe i-lui.
Their ships used to come here to buy troca shells and take them away.

Uña udo pe i-ako, li-lui i-avo ne tone.
The ripe bananas had been [taken] put to hang from the hook.

li-lui nuduro
carry the scareline, go fishing with the scareline (see nuduro)

(2) take ‹s.o.› somewhere or away.

Kupa pi-lui ini teve taluaito.
We took him to the doctor.

Vana uña toñaki i-ka i-loko dapa ne kulumoe na, dapa li-lui li-langatene ne Iura.
Ships used to come to this island to collect people, and then take them away to make them work somewhere in the south.

Ngiro i-aka i-lui dapa.
The wind blew and took them away.
~lui nuduro  -. <Techn> lit. “carry the scareline” : a fishing technique whereby a group of men surround the reef at low tide, holding a long ‘scareline’ (nuduro), and catch the fish kept prisoner within the line.

Mobo kape le-lui nuduro me l-abu namuko.
Tomorrow we'll carry the scareline to get some fish.
lukilo  [lukilo] noun. <Bot> a formative in various words referring to leaves.

uie ‘leaf’

lukilo vekai
heliconia leaf

tongolukilo
medicinal leaves

nga-lukilo
[lit. like-leaf] yellow
lukilo vekai  [lukilo fekai] noun. <Bot> heliconia leaf. Heliconia indica. ◈ Etym.. Takes its name from the habit of using this leaf to wrap vekai pudding.

lupo  [lupo] -.
luro  [luro] -.
lusa  [lusa] -.
ma1   [ma] noun, obligatorily possessed. arm; hand. main.

[ POc *lima. ]

ma2   [ma] noun, obligatorily possessed. place where ‹animal+› usually dwells: den, lair, burrow. antre.

ma loubo
a crab's hole
ma2   lnk.

(1) ⦗after moe ‘house’⦘ (lair) of ‹s.o.›.

mam

moe* ma tadoe
Devils' lair (ancestral temple)

Li-pinoe li-dai ra ra awoiu, li-tabo li-le ne bonge ma dapa.
⟨dancing Spirits⟩ They dance on and on, until they return to their cave home.

(2) (house) for ‹s.th.›.

moe ma longe
firewood house (where wood is stocked)
~ma3   [(i·)ma] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨liquid+⟩  shallow.

Ant: ~kopine

(2) revo ‘sea’⟩  be low tide.

Ant: ~koie

Revo ka i-koie, we ka i-ma?
Is it high tide or low tide?
mabere  [maᵐbere] noun. <Fish> Blue trevally. Carangoides ferdau.

mabui  [maᵐbui] -.
mabukaia  [maᵐbukaia] -. <Anat> anus. anus.

Syn: mwa tedele

I-u ñe mabukaia.
He wiped his anus.
mada uko  [maⁿda uko] -. egg of louse, nit. lente.

uko ‘louse’

mada uko  -. lit. “?? of louse” : nit.

uko

~madau  [(i·)maⁿdau] intransitive verb. be afraid, be scared (of, ñe). apeuré.

Pe-madau etapu, ponu menuko iaba.
Don't be scared, this is our friend.

Dapa li-madau ñe toñaki ponu.
They were afraid of that ship.

[ POc *matakut. ]

~made  [(i·)maⁿde] -. sharpen, carve ‹wood› so as to give it a sharp or pointy shape. aiguiser.

I-bo ebele kuo; awoiu, i-made basa, ka teviri.
After cutting out the canoe hull, he carved out its prow and its stern.
madele  [maⁿdele] noun. <Sea> giant clam. palourde. Tridacninae spp.

Madele i-betei.
The clam shut itself.
maga  [maᵑga] noun. ⟨liquid⟩  small quantity, drops. peu.

aña ‘bit (food+)’

maga ero
a bit of water

maga kerosin
a small quantity of kerozene
maga voko  -. lit. “drops of stone” : pebble stones.

maga

tekilikili

mai  [mai] -.
~maili1   [(i·)maili] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨animal, hum⟩  grow up, get older. croître.

Noma, po apali i-maili i-ven' i-ka, i-te tev' ai' iape me et' iape.
In the old days, when a child grew up, he would stay with his parents.

(2) ⟨plant+⟩  grow big.

Ngogoro ka i-maili.
The bush has grown there.

Pi-romo uie i-maili pine.
You can see how the leaves have grown big.

Avtebe adapa ka i-maili i-vene kata ka vitoko kape moso.
Their taros had grown up and were almost ripe.
~maili2   [(i·)maili] transitive verb. light ‹fire, iawo›. ~maili iawo is sometimes contracted as ~maliawo.

~su [1] ‘burn’

maiuko  [maiuko] noun. <Fish> Common Silver-biddy. Gerres oyena.

maiuko  [maiuko] -.
mak  [mak] -.
~mako  [(i·)mako] -.
makoe  [makoe] -.
makone  [makone] -.
makui  [makui] -.
makumoso  [makumoso] noun.

(1) first-born, elder (sibling, child). aîné.

moso ‘ripe, old’

(2) (esp) ⟨chief⟩  paramount, supreme.

Teliki Makumoso
supreme chief; Supreme God
malangune  [malaŋune] -.
mali  [mali] -.
maliawo  [maliawo] -.
maluo  [maluo] -.
mam  [mam] -.
mama1   [mama] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) ⟨s.o.⟩  voice. voix.

Mama ini pine.
He has a loud voice.

Ni-lengi mama Stanley ni-sai ñe mama Alex.
I heard Stanley's voice, I thought it was Alex.

(2) ⟨s.th.⟩  sound, esp. singing sound of an instrument (vs. aña ‘noise’).

Ni-lengi mama gita.
I can hear the sound of a guitar.

(3) (rare) message sent by ‹s.o.›.

(4) (esp) ⟨man⟩  marriage proposal sent (~teli*) to the family of a woman.

U-teli mama ene se.
⟨formula for official engagement⟩ Please send her ‘my voice’.
mama2   [mama] noun. k.o. traditional pudding, made of taros (jebute) and Canarium almonds (vongoro), and served in important social occasions. pudding. One cooks taros first, and then mash them, together with almonds, in a mortar (monone), until it becomes a tender dough.

Li-wete jebute li-wete vongoro awoiu pon, li-ejau mama.
We mash taros, we crush almonds, and make the pudding.

li-wete* mama
prepare the pudding
mamabe  [mamaᵐbe] -.
mamakoe  [mamakoe] -.
mamdeuko  [mamdeuko] noun. <Ornith> Cardinal Honeyeater. Myzomela cardinalis. ◈ Anth. Vanikoro people used to trade the red feathers of this little bird with other islands of the Santa Cruz archipelago. They were then transformed into customary money.

mame  [mame] -.
~mamei  [(i·)mamei] intransitive verb. ⟨s.o.⟩  feel cold, shiver with cold.

medigo ‘cold’

Ka i-mamei ponu ka i-maliawo ka i-wene teve.
As she was feeling cold, she lit a fire and lied down beside it.
mamote  [mamote] -.
mamuli  [mamuli] -.
mana  [mana] noun. ⟨plant⟩  flower. fleur.

mana voro
flower of hibiscus

Mana ka i-ke.
[its flowers have come out] It has given flowers.
mana luro  [mana luro] noun. <Mod>

(1) inflorescence of coconut.

(2) (periphr) ⦗due to analogy in shape⦘ rice.

aña mana luro
a bit of rice
mana vilo  -. lit. “flower of plant” : flower of indefinite species; generic term for flowers.

mana

Dapa li-loko mana vilo i-vio ne viabasa dapa.
People put flowers in their hair.
mane  [mane] -.
manoko  [manoko] -.
maro  [maro] -.
masa  [masa] -.
masabuko  [masaᵐbuko] noun. <Fish> Humpnose big-eye bream. Monotaxis grandoculis.

mata1   [mata] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) ⟨man, animal⟩  eyes. œil.

Mata ene tevie i-meli.
[lit. My eyes on one side hurt] One of my eyes is painful.

Ene ni-mede kaipa tae, ene ni-romo ñe mata ene!
I'm not lying to you, I saw it with my own eyes!

Mata ene i-mokoiu.
[my eyes are asleep] I'm feeling sleepy.

Mata ini kilo.
She's blind.

(2) ⦗foll. by motion or directional verb⦘ look, direction of the eyes as they look.

Mata da i-koie ne moe ponu la-romo.
[their eyes went into the house] They looked into the house and then saw it.

Mata i-katau tetawene na!
Observe carefully [lit. let your eyes follow] these drawings!

(3) face.

Syn: tanoma

(4) grammatical subject of ~ledi ‘be hungry’.

Mata ene i-ledi.
I feel hungry!

(5) ⟨s.th.⟩  opening, passage.

moboe ‘hole’

mata pele
net mesh

mata* ruene
opening of doorway, doorway

(6) cover for an opening, hence lid+.

(7) area in front of ‹house›, forecourt.

ne mata moe 'none
in my forecourt

[ POc *mata. ]

mata2   [mata] ~ mataña  noun.

(1) ⟨plant⟩  sprout, seedling, shoot, offshoot. pousse.

jie ‘sucker’

mata bale
sprout of breadfruit tree

mata luro
germinated coconut

La-tabe mata ka la-lui la-do i-katau ngogoro.
⟨kaori tree⟩ They collected shoots, and began to plant them around the island.

mata bule
taro shoot

I-iumu, pi-teli mataña (jebute).
First of all, we plant the offshoot (of taro).

(2) ⟨object⟩  tip, point.

~mata3   [(i·)mata] transitive verb. rock ‹baby›. bercer.

Keba ba-bwatui ba-ko ba-mata ini, ia metae.
We tried to rock him (asleep), but no way!
mata bute  [mata ᵐbute] noun. <Bot> lit. “taro sprout” : k.o. plant with red leaves (Euphorbiaceae). Homalanthus spp. ◈ Used for medicinal purposes (tongolukilo).

mata diro  -. lit. “point of arrow” : tip of arrow.

vebe mata-diro
⟨analogy of shape⟩ [lit. arrow-tip vebe] a kind of Barringtonia fruit
mata i-katau  -. ⟨s.o.⟩  lit. “eyes follow” : observe carefully ‹s.th.›.

~katau

U-ka u-te u-romo. Mata i-katau tetawene na!
Come sit here and look. Observe carefully [lit. let your eyes follow] these drawings!
mata luro  [mata luro] noun. <Bot> germinated coconut. Cocos nucifera.

luro

mata piene  [mata piene] noun. way of life.

maluo ‘life’

Mata piene pon, i-wene moli teve dapa.
That way of life was easy to them.
matagese  [mataᵑgese] noun. <Fish> Barred Spinefoot. Siganus doliatus.

mataiko  [mataiko] -.
matamulue  [matamulue] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, perhaps:. Semecarpus spp. ◈ Used for medicinal purposes (tongolukilo).

matamulue vao  -. lit. “wild matamulue” : variety of the former, found in the bush.
matarone  [matarone] -.
mataña  [mataɲa] -.
mate  [mate] -.
matiki  [matiki] noun. first element in the name of certain stars.

kanimoro ‘star’

Matiki Bwogo  -. lit. “Night Star” : the Evening Star.

matiki

Matiki Moro  -. lit. “Daylight Star” : the Morning Star, Venus.

matiki

mave  [mave] noun. <Bot> cockscomb plant (Amaranthaceae). Amaranthus tricolor.

mawene  [mawene] -.
mañoka  [maɲoka] noun. <Bot> manioc, cassava. Manihot esculenta. ◈ Plant introduced recently.

me  [me] -.
mebeli  [meᵐbeli] noun. <Ins> butterfly. Lepidoptera spp.

[ POc *ᵐbeᵐbe. ]

~mede   [(i·)meⁿde] transitive verb.

(1) lead ‹s.o.›, whether in motion or in action. mener.

Buro pe li-mede idi ñei.
It's a song for leading (the dancers).

(2) (esp) mislead, deceive, lie to ‹s.o.›.

U-mede kupa etapu!
Don't deceive us!

Ene ni-mede kaipa tae, ene ni-romo ñe mata ene!
I'm not lying to you, I saw it with my own eyes!
~mede   vti. lure (s.o./s.th., ñe) with a bait.

Kape le-la none me le-mede ñe namuko.
We'll take some food and use it to lure the fish.
medigo  [meⁿdiᵑgo] -.
mediro  [meⁿdiro] noun. <Bot> Victory leaf (Agavaceae). Cordyline terminalis.

megilo  [meᵑgilo] noun. lightning in the sky.

iolulu ‘thunder’

melevele  [melevele] noun. <Bot>

(1) climatic disaster leading to famine; hence famine, massive and unexpected food shortage in a population.

apono ‘cyclone’

(2) (meton) a shrub (Verbenaceae) whose food was traditionally consumed in case of famine. Vitex trifolia.

~meli  [(i·)meli] intransitive verb. ⟨body part⟩  hurt, be painful. souffrir.

Basa ene i-meli.
I have a headache.

Die ini i-meli.
[Her back hurts.] She's having labour contractions.

Nara sa i-meli!
Make sure you don't get tummy ache ~ don't end up heartbroken!
melia  [melia] noun. pain.

Nganae kape li-lengi melia dapa ñe tae.
⟨Paradise⟩ Nothing can cause them any pain.
meliko  [meliko] -.
memia1   [memia] noun. <Anat> tongue.
memia2   [memia] adjective. ⦗Sbj = ije ‘teeth’⦘ feel a bitter taste.

Ije ene memia.
I feel a bitter taste.

Dapa pe li-anu kava, li-e vebe ñe ponu, me kape ije dapa memia etapu.
Kava drinkers eat cutnut right after it, to take away the bitter taste. [lit. for fear their teeth might taste-bitter]
memia peini iawo  -. lit. “tongues of fire” : flames.
men' ie anuele  -. <Ornith> lit. “baby turtle” : a bird's name: Ruddy Turnstone. Arenaria interpres.

anuele

men' ie anuele  [men' ie anuele] noun. <Ornith> lit. “baby turtle” : Ruddy Turnstone. Arenaria interpres.

~mene  [(i·)mene] intransitive verb.

(1) dislike, not want s.th..

Awa eo i-viane? – Tae, ni-mene!
Do you want it? – No, I don't (want it).

(2) reject, refuse; say no.

“U-ka me la-le na!” Emele pon i-mene.
“Come, let's go!” But the woman refused.

(3) be tired of, fed up with ‹s.th.›.

A-mene pe u-e none ponu?
Aren't you tired of eating that food?
menu  [menu] -.
menuko  [menuko] -.
mere  [mere] -.
metae  [metae] -.
~mete  [(i·)mete] vrfl. lit. “shy of oneself” : be shy, timid; shy away (from, ne). timide.

U-met' eo ñe ene etapu!
Don't shy away from me!

Emel' enone i-mete ini pe i-rom dokta.
My wife is too shy to see the doctor.
metei  [metei] -.
metele  [metele] -.
meteliko  [meteliko] -.
~metelu  [(i·)metelu] intransitive verb. ⟨ship+⟩  sink. couler.

U-bei i-metelu i-wene ne mataiko ponu!
⟨invocation to a god⟩ Squash (this ship) and let it sink in this very gulf!

Temotu tilu ponu i-metelu.
The two islets were engulfed (in the disaster).
metene  [metene] -.
mevele  [mevele] noun. front yard: private, open-air area in front of a house.

Ni-bo ajekele mina mevele 'none.
I have collected rubbish from my front yard.
meviko  [meviko] noun. <Fish> moray eel. Muraenidae spp.
meviko lekele  -. <Fish> lit. “eel flying-fox” : Giant moray. Gymnothorax javanicus.

meviko

meñeviro  [meɲeviro] -.
miabolo  [miaᵐbolo] -.
mibile  [miᵐbile] noun. <Bot> cycad. cycas. Cycas spp.

mijaka  [miᶮɟaka] adv. a_little

amjaka

mikae  [mikae] -.
miko  [miko] noun. earthquake. séisme.

Nobwogo miko i-la i-wai moe ne.
Last night an earthquake shook the houses here.
mimione  [mimione] -.
mina  [mina] -.
minga  [miŋa] -.
mini  [mini] -.
~mini ngapiene  -. ⟨people⟩  lit. “give festival” : hold a festival.

Ka li-la ngatene peini me kape le-mini ngapiene.
They began the work so they could hold the festival.
miro  [miro] noun. <Fish> cuttlefish, squid. seiche. Sepia sp..

misilo  [misilo] -.
mjaka  [mᶮɟaka] adv. a_little

amjaka

mnate  [mnate] -.
mo  [mo] -.
~mo  [(i·)mo] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨animal⟩  make noise, call.

Vono i-sodo, ka menuko i-mo.
The dawn came, and birds began singing.

(2) ⟨human⟩  talk, utter words, considered as a general faculty (vs ~vete piene ‘say s.th.’). parler.

I-mui pe i-mo.
⟨disabled child⟩ He cannot speak.

Ka i-mo tae!
⟨accident+⟩ He cannot speak any more.
~mo korone  -. lit. “talk strong” : speak with a firm tone of voice, esp. in giving a lesson or firm advice; hence reprimand (s.o., se).

~mo

Da la-mo korone da ñepe.
They are arguing with each other.
~mo ~mabui  -. lit. “talk slow” : speak slowly; whisper.

~mo

~mo pine  -. lit. “talk big” : speak with a loud voice, e.g., when in anger.

~mo

~mo susuko  -. lit. “talk straight” : speak properly or appropriately.

~mo

Ini i-mo susuko.
He spoke properly ~ He made a fair speech.
mobo  [moᵐbo] -.
moboe  [moᵐboe] -.
moboro  [moᵐboro] noun. <Bot> k.o. lawyer-cane or rattan. rotin. Flagellaria spp..

woworo

viapwene

I-vio ka li-wabeiu ñe moboro teva, me blateno i-vio, susuko, ne to.
They used four rattan canes as props, so that the pole could stand firmly in the middle.
mobosigie  [moᵐbosiᵑgie] -.
moe  [moe] -.
moe ie ave  -. lit. “spider's house” : spider web.

ave

moe ma tadoe  [moe ma taⁿdoe] ~ mom tadoe  noun. lit. “Devils' lair” : place (typic. cave) haunted by spirits or deities; hence heathen temple. Ethn. Ancestral priests are represented as visiting this place to worship their gods and send imprecations.

Ka ponu li-la viko, li-lui li-lateli ne moe ma tadoe.
They took the shell-money, and put it down in the gods' lair.
moioe  [moioe] -.
mokavase  [mokavase] -.
moko  [moko] noun. coral reef. récif.

Basavono na toñaki ka moko.
Today the ship has turned into coral reef.

Moko ka i-ma.
[The reef is dried up] It's low tide.
moko  [moko] -.
moko taniboro  -. dry area on the reef, out of the sea's reach.

moko

Dapa kula li-katei noma nuduro tilu ponu, li-koioi tetakoie, i-le i-vene ne moko taniboro.
Some people pull the two ends of the scareline towards the shore, to a dry zone.
mokoiu  [mokoiu] -.
mol  [mol] -.
moli   [moli] adjective.

(1) empty.

Syn: viñe

Moe enone moli.
My house is empty / is free.

(2) deprived of any binding rule: hence free, unconstrained, random.

Kava, pe li-anu moro moli tae.
Kava is not something you drink randomly [lt. just any day].

(3) ⟨s.o.⟩  foreigner, stranger.

emele moli
a foreign woman
moli   intransitive verb.

(1) in an unconstrained way: freely, easily.

(2) without expected effects: hence (do) in vain, for nothing; with no satisfying result.

Li-vo moe moli.
They built a house in vain. (it's useless)

Ni-sava none moli.
I bought food for nothing. (it was wasted)

(3) (hence) (do/buy) for free, with nothing in exchange.

Program kula idi li-la moli.
Some softwares are free [lit. people give them unconstrained].

Ini i-langatene moli.
He works for free.

(4) ⟨eat, drink+⟩  without expected ingredients: hence minimally, simply, in a sober or pure fashion.

Ni-anu moli.
⟨water⟩ I'm drinking it pure (=without adding sugar etc.).

Ni-vongo moli.
I'm eating ‘minimally’ (=only vegetables, but no meat).

(5) with no binding rules or ties: hence randomly, aimlessly, haphazardly.

(6) only, exclusively.

Syn: ñoko

Damala moli li-te ne lema.
Only Westerners can go inside.
moloe  [moloe] -.
moloe'  [moloe'] -.
molongo  [moloŋo] -.
mom  [mom] -.
moma  [moma] -.
momobo  [momoᵐbo] -.
momoso  [momoso] noun. <Kin>

(1) old woman: a respectful term.

Ant: amoso ‘old man’

(2) adult woman (opp. emele aplaka ‘young girl’).

emele ‘woman’

viñevi ‘women’

uña momoso me dameliko
women and children

Ini ka emele aplaka tae, ini ka momoso iote.
She's not a young girl any more, she has become a woman now.

(3) ⦗possessed⦘ wi a respectful term.

Momoso iono, ini bworobworo, we koro?
Your wife, is she black or white?

[ POc *matuqa. ]

monone  [monone] noun. <Mod> Poss: enaka

(1) a sturdy, round wooden mortar used in cooking, esp. to pound taros and Canarium almonds (vongoro) during the preparation of the pudding (mama2).

I-tau jebute moioe ponu, i-loko i-ka i-le ne monone ka i-wete. I-wete awoiu ka i-ejau mama ada.
Once the taro was cooked, she put it in a mortar and began to pound it. When she finished pounding it, she made the pudding.

(2) a sturdy box, typic. made of wood, where to stow things; chest, trunk.

Kupa pi-kamai monone apilaka ne pe-ko me pe-kamai i-wene tev' eo.
We have brought here this small chest, with the idea to leave it with you.
moro1   [moro] noun. day. jour.

moro abia
every day
moro2   [moro] noun. <Fish> k.o. fish, unidentified.
moro abia  -. lit. “day all” : every day, always.

abia

Moro abia pon, nga pon.
The same would happen every day.
moro peini pwa motono  -. <Fish> lit. “moro fish from the ocean” : Oriental Sweetlips. Plectorhynchus orientalis.

moso1   [moso] adjective.

(1) ⟨taro, fruit+⟩  ripe, well grown, ready to harvest.

Jebute ka moso.
The taros are ready to harvest.

Udo kata kape ka moso.
Bananas are almost ripe.

(2) (fig) compound element found in several (now opaque) words referring to old age and maturity: amoso, momoso, makumoso..

[ POc *matuqa. ]

moso2   [moso] noun. big?.
moso3   [moso] adjective. right hand, right hand side.

Ant: mouro

ma ene moso
my right hand

[ POc *mataqu. ]

mote  [mote] -.
motoe  [motoe] -.
motomoro  [motomoro] -.
motono  [motono] -.
motoro  [motoro] adjective.

(1) heavy. lourd.

Ant: mimione

Pe li-anu kava, ebele idi motoro.
When you drink kava, you feel your body is heavy.

(2) (fig) important, major, significant.

Ne-ko ne-viñ' eo ñe piene motoro.
I'd like to tell you about an important issue.

(3) ⟨behaviour⟩  respectful; considerate, esp. towards elders and institutions.

Awa ene motoro ñe piene pe a-viñ' ene.
[my mind is heavy…] I give a lot of consideration to your words.

U-labu idi motoro!
[Take people ‘heavily’] Be respectful to people!

(4) ⟨speech⟩  formal, carefully worded; sounding nice, idiomatic.

Dapa wopine na li-vete piene ne “ebele ini!” tamwase, pe li-ko motoro. Ia piene “wako” pon, mimione.
The elders very often use this expression “it's wonderful”: they find it a nice [lit. heavy] word. Whereas a word like “alright” is a bit too common. [it's light]
mou  [mou] -.
mouro1   [mouro] noun. left hand; left side. gauche.

Ant: moso

mouro2   [mouro] noun, obligatorily possessed. bunch, group, cluster, set. groupe.

(1) ⟨animal⟩  shoal, swarm, gaggle, flock+.

mouro paiuko
a shoal of paiuko fish

(2) ⟨bananas⟩  bunch.

Syn: taña

mouro udo
a bunch of bananas
moworo  [moworo] adv. in the air.

I-avo moworo.
It's hanging in the air.
mubo  [muᵐbo] -.
mubule  [muᵐbule] -.
~mui  [(i·)mui] transitive verb.

(1) (comm) ⦗static reading⦘ not know, be ignorant of ‹s.th.›; have no idea (if, ~ko2). ignorer.

Ant: ~ovei

Ia ni-mui, nga u-ium' u-viñ' ene!
I didn't know, you should have told me!

Ene ni-mui ni-ko kape n-ajau nganae kape wako.
I don't know what to do.

(2) be unable (to do, pe+Clause).

I-mui pe i-mo.
He cannot speak.

(3) ⦗dynamic reading⦘ forget, be unable to remember ‹s.th.›.

Dapa pie aipa ka vitoko kape le-mui piene aipa.
Our grandchildren will soon forget our language.

(4) forget (to do, pe+Clause).

Ka ni-mui pe ni-vete.
I forgot to say it.

(5) (rare) forget ‹object›, leave behind.

Ni-mui temamene 'none i-wene ne moe.
I left behind my bag in the house!
mukae  [mukae] -.
muko  [muko] -.
mule  [mule] noun, kinship. <Kin> 1s: mul' one affine of same generation (vs. uku).

(1) ⟨ego male or female⟩  sibling-in-law, whether male or female: spouse of o.'s sibling (ZH, BW), or sibling of o.'s spouse (WB, WZ, HB, HZ). affin.

tieli ‘sibling’

mul' one mwalkote
my brother-in-law

mul' one emele
my sister-in-law

(2) spouse of o.'s cross-cousin, cousin by marriage (MBDH, MBSW; FZDH, FZSW; HFZC, WFZC…).

leka ‘cross-cousin’

~mumu  [(i·)mumu] transitive verb.

(1) covet, desire ‹s.th.›. convoiter.

Ni-mumu none ono.
I wish I had your food.

Li-mumu viko.
They are greedy [lit. they desire money]

(2) (esp) feel sexual desire for ‹s.o.›.

mumule  [mumule] -.
mwa  [mʷa] -.
mwadoe  [mʷaⁿdoe] noun. <Fish> Orangespine Unicornfish. Naso lituratus.

mwaele   [mʷaele] noun. <Bot> ginger. gingembre. Zingiber officinale.

miakaia mwaele
the smell of ginger
mwaele   noun. yellow.
~mwagali  [(i·)mʷaᵑgali] intransitive verb. be disgusted (by s.th., ne), get sick.

Ni-mwagali ne none ponu.
That food is disgusting!

Dapa ne kulumoe ponu li-e ngatene pe ene ni-mwagali ene.
People in that country eat stuff that I just find disgusting.
mwagete  [mʷaᵑgete] -.
mwaliko  [mʷaliko] -.
mwalikote  [mʷalikote] -.
mwasu  [mʷasu] -.
mwatagete  [mʷataᵑgete] noun. young unmarried boy. jeune.homme. Anth. Traditionally, male teenagers used to receive education in a Club house called Toplau Mwagete.

gete

Mwatagete iote ka i-teli mama ini se.
She's already been promised to a boy.
mwoe  [mʷoe] -.
na  [na] -.
na1   [na] ~ ne  dx.

(1) here. ceci.

(2) now.

na2   [na] noun, obligatorily possessed. place of ‹s.o., s.th.›. endroit. Often implies that the event is only virtually present in the location — whether it has ceased to take place, or has not begun yet.

(1) ⟨s.th.⟩  location of ‹s.th.›.

na moe 'none
the location of my house (past or future)

(2) ⟨house+⟩  remains, ruins.

Dapa li-romo na kulumoe iadapa Mouro.
They saw the remains of the Elves' village.

(2) ⟨s.o.⟩  place associated with ‹s.o.›, whether in a temporary or permanent way.

na ene pe ni-lebie
the place where I (usually) bathe

na ini pe i-te i-vongo
the place where he eats

(3) itinerary taken by ‹s.o.› in a past or future journey.

na3   [na] conj. shorter variant of nara* ‘Apprehensional’.
nabe  [naᵐbe] -.
nadikete  [naⁿdikete] -.
naka ruene  [naka ruene] noun. lit. “?? of door” : door latch, tradit. made of wood. verrou.

ruene

namolo  [namolo] -.
namuko  [namuko] -.
nanana  [nanana] -.
nara  [nara] -.
nate  [nate] -.
nati  [nati] -.
nava  [nava] noun, obligatorily possessed. what relation to ‹s.o.›? Question word standing for kin term.

Ini nava eo?
What is she to you? (e.g. your sister? cousin?)

[ POc *sapan. ]

ne  [ne] -.
nebe1   [neᵐbe] noun. <Fish> Lemon sole. sole limande. Microstomus kitt.
nebe2   [neᵐbe] noun. <Bot> New Guinea Rosewood. Sang-dragon, Bois-de-Rose. Pterocarpus indicus.

Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.
To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle.
nedemo  [neⁿdemo] -.
neido  [neiⁿdo] -.
neido kulevelu  -. lit. “child of fowl” : chick.
nene  [nene] -.
~nene1   [(i·)nene] intransitive verb. shine. briller.

Viko i-nene.
The treasure was shining.
~nene2   [(i·)nene] transitive verb. (vulg) suck. sucer.

U-ka u-nene ise ene!
nengele  [neŋele] noun. partsélément.

(1) components, pieces, parts of a bigger whole.

nengele moe
the components (timbers) of a house

nengele kuo
the elements of a canoe

Kape le-toe langasuo peini, ka nengele wamitaka.
⟨canoe⟩ You cut out the big rail, and then the smaller pieces.

(2) ⟨body⟩  parts, limbs.

Ne-labu ebel' ini pe nengele i-meli.
I'll massage her body because some spots (on her body) are painful.

(3) accessories for ‹s.th.›.

nengele makone
[accessories of dance] the accessories necessary to carry out traditional dances (instruments, jumping boards+)
netebe  [neteᵐbe] ~ antebe  noun.

(1) marsh, swamp.

Vivilo li-teli ne netebe.
Swamp taros are planted in swamps.

(2) mud, muddy place.

Netebe pon, nara u-viane!
This is mud here, make sure you don't stumble!

loubo* antebe
[mud crab] k.o. crab
nga  [ŋa] -.
ngabe  [ŋaᵐbe] -.
ngago  [ŋaᵑgo] -.
ngaiñe  [ŋaiɲe] -.
ngaliko  [ŋaliko] -.
Ngama  [ŋama] -.
ngamuli  [ŋamuli] noun. ocean, open sea.

revo

Toñaki pine pe kape le-ke le-lui ne ngamuli tae.
It was not the kind of large ships that can go out into the ocean.
nganae  [ŋanae] -.
ngapiaga  [ŋapiaᵑga] -.
ngapiene  [ŋapiˈene] noun. <Ethn> dance festival. People feast for several days, and dance by stomping on boards (tepapa), laid out on the ground in a circle around a ritual pole (blateno). festival. These dance festivals occur seldom nowadays; but they are central to many traditional stories.

li-vete ngapiene
announce the festival

Ngapiene ka i-sali pon ta — bwogo tili.
Then the festival comes to an end, after five days.
ngapwae  [ŋapʷae] -.
ngasune  [ŋasune] -.
ngaten' ae  -. lit. “what thing” : what?. Often contracted as nganae*.

ae [1]

Li-le pe ngaten' ae?
Why did they go? [lit. they went for what thing?]
ngatene  [ŋatene] noun. Poss: enaka thing. chose.

(1) (concr) thing, object.

Uña ngaten' na, kape i-vio tev' eo.
All those things will be yours.

(2) (esp) s.o.'s belongings; luggage.

namolo

Uña ngaten' enaka i-wene tev' iu re.
My stuff (bags+) is up over there.

(3) (euph) piece of food.

none

Le-le le-labu* ngatene?
Shall we go grab something? (=food)

(4) (rare) animal; non-human creature.

Ngatene ponu, li-romo nga mwaliko, ia mwaliko tae.
⟨Spirits⟩ Those creatures look like they're human, but they are not.

Ka kaipa mwaliko na, ia kupa na ngatene nga na.
You people are human; but we are just non-human creatures [lit. just things] like this.

Dapa na ngatene nga tevie mwaliko, tevie nga li-romo nga tadoe.
These are special creatures, half man, half spirit.

(5) (abstr) thing; topic, issue, idea, meaning.

awa

Ngatene pon etapu tamwase.
This is a taboo issue.

Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.
⟨polysemy⟩ It is the same word, but with two distinct meanings. [lit. it says two things]

(6) effort, work. The combination of the verb ~la ‘take’ and ngatene ‘things’ results in the meaning ‘to work’.

~langatene

Awis pine peini ngatene pe a-la ponu.
Thank you for your efforts. [lit. for the things you took]

Ni-ovei ni-ko ngatene abia teve eo.
I know you have a lot of work. [lit. many things are with you]
ngatene abia  -. lit. “thing all” : everything.

abia

~nge  [(i·)ŋe] transitive verb. chew ‹sugarcane+› so as to suck out its juice while avoiding to eat the fibres. mâcher.

Dameliko li-nge to.
The kids are chewing some sugarcane.

Lekele i-nge ua vede.
Flying-foxes chew fruits of pandanus.
ngele  [ŋele] -.
ngilo  [ŋilo] noun. <Fish> river eel. Anguilliformes spp.
ngiro  [ŋiro] -.
ngogoro  [ŋoᵑgoro] -.
ni  [ni] -.
nidilo  [niⁿdilo] -.
nieti  [nieti] -.
Niteni  [Niteni] -.
no  [no] -.
nom'le  [nom'le] -.
noma   [noma] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat>

(1) face.

tanoma ‘face, forehead’

viabasa ini ka noma ini ka mata ini
her hair, her face, her eyes

ni-aka noma
I'm washing my face.

(2) (gen) front part of ‹s.th.›.

noma toñaki
the prow of the ship

noma nuduro
the (front) ends of the fishing-scareline

(3) ⟨time period⟩  end of ‹s.th.›.

ne noma metele
at the end of the month
noma   noun. promontory, cape. Most cape names begin with the syllable Nom', from noma.

Li-da noma re li-ka.
They crossed the cape over there and came here.

Nomlemlesu noma pine.
Nomlemlesu is a major promontory.
noma   noun.

(1) ⦗spatial meaning⦘ in front.

(2) ⦗temporal meaning⦘ before this, previously.

Noma, viabas' ene i-ako.
My hair used to be blond.

(3) (esp) a long time ago, in the old days.

Noma li-katau ñe metele.
⟨calendar⟩ In the old days, people would just refer themselves to [lit. follow] the moon.
noma  [noma] -.
nomapu  [nomapu] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree. Securinega flexuosa.

[ POc *mapuqan. ]

nomianu  [nomianu] -.
nomlemlesu  [nomlemlesu] -.
nomo  [nomo] -.
nomole  [nomole] -.
nom’ ole  [nom’ ole] noun. lit. “front of sand” : sand beach.

ole

Laperusi vana i-moloe ne nom' ole take ne.
Lapérouse used to stroll around along that sand beach over there.
none1   [none] noun. <Bot> Potato yam. Dioscorea bulbifera.

uo ‘Greater yam’

Uo moloe na, samame none ka longo.
Here is some Red yam, together with Potato yam and Lesser yam.
none2   [none] noun. (gen) food. Etym.. Semantic extension of none1.
nubuko  [nuᵐbuko] -.
nubule  [nuᵐbule] noun. <Bot> whitewood (Euphorbiaceae). Endospermum medullosum.

nuduro1   [nuⁿduro] noun. <Zool> centipede. Chilopoda spp.
nuduro2   [nuⁿduro] voi. by analogy of shape with the centipede (nuduro1), designates various artefacts characterised by their length.

(1) long rope made of rattan stems (woworo) tied together, used as a scareline for fishing; “fishing rope”, “scareline”. Contrary to what is observed in other parts of the Pacific, this scareline does not include coconut palms or leaves.

Li-ngago woworo awoiu ka li-kila li-ko nuduro.
We tie together rattan stems, and call it a nuduro (scareline).

(2) palm of coconut or palmtree, displayed in some specific location to mark it as private or taboo; hence taboo, ban, prohibition to enter a place.

li-vi nuduro
set a taboo leaf

Gi' one i-la nuduro i-vio ne sekele / moe / moko… (ñe uie luro).
My uncle put up a taboo in his garden / in his house / on the reef… (using a coconut palm).

Dapa li-woi nuduro ne touro, me i-botongo temaka.
They put up taboo signs on the seashore, to protect the area (from poachers).

Mwalik' iote i-ka i-vokoiu nuduro.
Someone came and tore out the taboo (leaf).

(3) (fig) proscription, taboo, whether legal or moral.

i-sube ñe nuduro
[make a mistake on a taboo] infringe a moral taboo; do wrong, intentionally or not

i-bei nuduro
[trample on a taboo] deliberately infringe a proscription
n’ adie   [naⁿdie] ~ ne adie  -. ⦗spatial⦘ lit. “in the back of” : beyond, on the other side of ‹a place›.

n' adie kulumoe
on the other side of the village

n' adie ngamuli
beyond the ocean

ne Adie Vono
⟨placename⟩ on the rear side of the island
n’ adie   adv. ⦗temporal⦘ afterwards, then. Synt.. Typically expressed as a sentential topic.

Syn: awoiu

Nga mwaliko i-bu, dapa le-le le-iu ebele ini. N' adie, dapa abia ne kulumoe kape le-bei bete.
When somebody dies, people bury their body. Afterwards, everyone in the village will hold a funeral ceremony.
n’ adie   conj. ⦗foll. by clause⦘ after, once (an event takes place).

Ne adie le-lebie awoiu, kape ne-re pele.
Once we've had a swim, I'll go netfishing.
o  [o] -.
oburo  [oᵐburo] -.
odo  [oⁿdo] -.
oe  [oe] -.
oi  [oi] -.
oie  [oie] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) ⟨tree⟩  central part, trunk. tronc.

utele ‘base’

oie bale
the trunk of a breadfruit tree

(2) ⟨s.o.⟩  size of body, stoutness.

~karau ‘grow stout’

Oie ini aplaka.
[her stoutness is small] She is slim.

Oie ini tae.
[she has no stoutness] She is skinny.

Oie ini ka wako.
[her size is good now] She has put on weight now.
oko  [oko] noun. bamboo. Shorter variant of okoro, used in some compound forms.

[ POc *qauR. ]

oko mwaliko  -. <Bot> lit. “male bamboo” : k.o. bamboo. Bambusa spp.

oko

oko woko  -. <Bot> k.o. bamboo. Bambusa spp.

oko

okoro  [okoro] noun. <Bot> Poss: enaka

(1) bamboo. Bambusa spp.

mulusa okoro
bamboo knot

(2) name of certain artefacts made of bamboo.

Syn: jokoro

Li-panade okoro awoiu li-si tele-mwoe peini mwoe.
We split the bamboos, to make the wallings of a house.

(3) a heavy bamboo, used as a stamping tube. Singers of buro bula okoro ‘bamboo songs’ stamp (~woi) the bamboo on the ground, thereby producing a deep sound as they sing along.

~woi

buro bula okoro
⟨song genre⟩ Songs for Bamboos

Le-woi okoro awoiu l-oburo i-katau.
They pound bamboos, and then they sing along.

(4) (esp) a traditional knife made of bamboo; hence (modern) knife; bushknife, machete.

Ni-aka okoro ne ero.
I washed the knife in the river.

[ POc *qauR. ]

okoro aplaka  -. lit. “small knife” : metal knife, esp. used for cooking, peeling, etc.. It is called ‘small knife’ by comparison with the ordinary bushknife or machete.

okoro

I-ta balawe ñe okoro aplaka.
He's peeling a pineapple with a small knife.
okoro moli  -. <Bot> lit. “empty (?) bamboo” : variety of bamboo. Bambusa spp.

okoro

okoro mulusa pine  -. <Bot> lit. “large-internode bamboo” : variety of bamboo, larger and stronger. Bambusa spp.

okoro

olawo  [olawo] noun. <Sea> coral. Acroporidae spp.

ole  [ole] noun.

(1) sand. sable.

tanoe

Nara ole i-somoli!
Make sure it's not damaged by the sand.

(2) area covered by sand; esp. sand beach.

Syn: nom' ole ‘beach’

pwama ole
along the beach

Ini i-le i-katau ole.
He was walking along the beach.

[ POc *qone. ]

ole  [ole] -.
~oma  [(i·)oma] intransitive verb. (gen) fish or forage for seafood. pêcher.

Le-le tetake ne touro l-oma!
Let's walk to the shore and find some (sea) food.
on  [on] -.
on menuko  [on menuko] noun. <Fish>

(1) (gen) lit. “friendly fish” : kingfish, trevally. Carangidae spp.

mabere

(2) (esp) Bluefin trevally. Caranx melampygus.

one  [one] -.
ono  [ono] -.
onole  [onole] noun. <Fish> Bluespot Mullet. Valamugil seheli.

[ POc *kanase. ]

onoro  [onoro] noun. <Fish> Barracuda. barracuda. Sphyraena genie.

onoro woro  -. smaller variety of barracuda.

onoro

opogo  [opoᵑgo] -.
opola  [opola] -.
otovo  [otovo] noun. <Bot>

(1) sago tree (Arecaceae). M. salomonense.

(2) (meton) sago leaves, esp. used for roofing houses.

Syn: uie otovo ‘sago leaves’

li-wete otovo
[lit. pin sago] put together a set of sago leaves, in preparing the roofing (see wete*)

(3) (meton) thatch, roof of a house, typic. made of sago leaves.

Syn: ote

Otovo iupa ka tamwaliko, pi-tabo pi-wete kula motoe.
Our roofing has been damaged, we are making [lt. pinning] a new one.

Okoro 'naka i-vio ne otovo iu tae?
Can you see my knife, hanging from the roof?

[ POc *qatop. ]

otovo kangilo  -. <Bot> variety of sago tree, characterised by a smaller trunk and smooth leaf sheaths. Metroxylon warburgii.

otovo

otovo kotekote  -. <Bot> lit. “spiny sago” : variety of sago tree, characterised by a larger trunk and spiny leaf sheaths. Metroxylon rumphii.

otovo

Otovo kotekote, utele pine.
Spiny sago trees have large trunks.
ou  [ou] -.
~ou  [(i·)ou] intransitive verb. ⟨dog⟩  bark. aboyer.

~mo

Kuli i-ou pe bogo.
The dog is barking because it's night.
ov  [ov] -.
ova  [ova] -.
ovei  [ovei] -.
ovene  [ovene] noun. <Ornith> Reef Heron. Ardea sacra.

ovene boro  -. lit. “black heron” : Reef Heron, dark variety or phase.

ovene

ovene koro  -. lit. “white heron” : Reef Heron, white variety or phase.

ovene

pa  [pa] -.
pakare  [pakare] -.
palapu  [palapu] -.
pana   [pana] noun.

(1) ⟨s.th.⟩  hot, burning.

Ant: medigo

Aeve pana!
The sun's hot!

(2) ⟨body⟩  feel hot.

Ant: ~mamei

Ebele ene pana.
[my body is hot] I feel hot.
pana   noun. heat.

Pana iawo i-abu mijaka.
The heat of the fire goes down a little.

pana vono
[heat of weather] sweat

[ POc *panas. ]

pana  [pana] -.
panade  [panaⁿde] -.
panavono  [panavono] noun. lit. “heat of weather” : sweat. sueur.

Po mwaliko malaria i-vagasi, basa i-meli, ebele i-ekilikili, panavono i-ke.
When somebody has malaria, they have a headache, they tremble, they sweat. [lit. sweat comes out]
~papa  [(i·)papa] transitive verb. carry ‹child+› on o.'s back (vs. ~tabe ‘carry on o.'s chest’).

~lui*

Ini i-papa men' iap' pon la-ke.
She took her baby on her back and out they went.

[ POc *papa. ]

~pape  [(i·)pape] intransitive verb. whistle, esp. to call out to s.o.. siffler.

~i

pati  [pati] -.
pe  [pe] -.
pe i-kae?  -. ⦗impersonal construction, always 3sg⦘ lit. “because it's how?” : why? for what reason?.

~kae

Syn: ~ve [1]

A-kai lusa ene na pe i-kae?
Why did you tear my shirt?
pe li-womanga  -. ⟨animal⟩  lit. “(one) which is fed” : tame, domestic.

~womanga

Ant: vao

Vao, we pe li-womanga?
Is (this animal) wild, or tame?
pe noma  -. lit. “of the past” : ancient, old; historic; traditional.

kulumoe pe noma
a historic village

iepiene pe noma
traditional legends

Piene adapa Teanu, ia vesepiene pe noma.
This is Teanu language, but with some archaic words.
pei  [pei] -.
~pei1   [(i·)pei] vrfl. rejoice ‹o.s.›: be happy, merry, satisfied. content.

Ni-lengi ni-p' ene tamwase.
I was very happy to hear (the news).

Kiapa ka li-pei kiapa, pe menuko iakapa dapa Frans.
We are all delighted, because the French are our friends.
~pei2   [(i·)pei] vti. be jealous, envious (of s.o., ñe); sulk. jaloux.

U-pei ñe ene etapu!
Don't sulk at me!
peini  [peini] -.
peko  [peko] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree with unedible, small round fruit clustered together; probably:. Ficus aspera.

pele  [pele] -.
penok  [penok] -.
penuo  [penuo] -.
pepane  [pepane] -.
pi  [pi] -.
pie  [pie] noun, kinship. <Kin>

Syn: epu

(1) grandparent; anybody from the grandparent generation, whether male or female (FF, FM, MF, MM, MMZ, MMB…).

pi' iape
his/her grandfather

(2) grandchild; anybody from the grandchild generation, whether male or female (SC, DC+).

piene  [piene] -.
piene adapa Tetawo  -. lit. “the language of Tetawo people” : Tanema language, formerly spoken in the south of Banie island. The language of Tanema only had a single speaker in 2012.

Tetawo

piene akapa  -. lit. “our language” : the Teanu language.

Uña damiliko li-mui pe li-wo ñe piene akapa.
Children don't know how to count in Teanu.
piliki  [piliki] noun. <Ornith> Grey Fantail. Rhipidura fuliginosa.

pine  [pine] -.
pinoe  [pinoe] -.
piote  [piote] -.
po  [po] -.
poi  [poi] -.
pon  [pon] -.
pongo  [poŋo] noun, obligatorily possessed. upper part of ‹s.th.›: top, tip.

U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka, u-vagasi pongo gilita.
Follow the path upwards a little bit, and you'll reach the top of the hill.

Tepuke ponu, moe aplaka pon, ne pongo kuo pon.
The 'tepuke' ship has a small cabin, on top of the ship.
~pono   [(i·)pono] intransitive verb. sour, bitter, unpleasant to taste.

Ant: aña wako

~pono   transitive verb.

(1) taste bitter or unpleasant to ‹s.o.›.

(2) (esp) ⟨fish⟩  poison ‹s.o.›, make ‹s.o.› sick.

Nga namuko i-pono eo, kape sa eo i-meli.
If fish poisons you, your stomach will ache.
ponu  [ponu] ~ pon ~ po  -.
~pu1   [(i·)pu] intransitive verb. ⟨liquid⟩  flow, run. couler.

Ero i-pu i-abu i-vagasi revo.
The river flows down to the sea.

Tengiro i-pu i-abu.
His tears were running down.
~pu2   [(i·)pu] intransitive verb.

(1) burst, blow up, explode. exploser.

Bomb i-pu ne kulumoe.
A bomb exploded in the city.

(2) (fig) ⟨meeting, celebration⟩  break up, come to an end.

~sali

I-leng' i-ko mobo ngapiene kape ka i-pu i-sali.
She heard that the next morning, the festival would break up and finish.
pua  [pua] -.
puie  [puie] -.
puluko  [puluko] -.
puma  [puma] -.
punuo  [punuo] -.
~punuo   [(i·)punuo] vti.

(1) steal, snap (s.th., ñe). voler.

unuo ‘thief’

Eo a-punuo ñe okor' 'naka?
Did you steal my knife?

(2) kidnap (s.o., ñe). Hist.. Term used especially when referring to the time of Blackbirding, involving the forceful recruiting of manpower from Vanikoro and other islands.

Noma vana uña toñaki van li-ka li-punuo ñe idi li-lui.
In the olden days, ships used to come and kidnap people to carry them away.
~punuo   intransitive verb. ⦗esp. serialised to a verb V1⦘ (do) stealthily, illegally.

Dapa Tukupie li-ka li-punuo.
The Tikopians have come (and colonised) here illegally.

[ POc *panako. ]

puo  [puo] -.
puro  [puro] -.
pusi  [pusi] -.
pwa  [pʷa] -.
pwalau  [pʷalau] -.
pwama  [pʷama] -.
pwelele  [pʷelele] -.
ra  [ra] -.
re1   [re] dx. Distal demonstrative: there, over there. là-bas.
~re2   [(i·)re] phr. let go of, leave. laisser.

(1) let go of ‹s.th.›, release, drop.

U-re mevia* eo.
[Release your breath!] Have a rest!

Menu ka i-re tengiro.
The baby was shedding tears.

U-re bavede!
Release the sail!

(2) leave ‹s.th.› somewhere; put ‹s.th.› down, lay, set.

Voko iote pon li-re ne elene Lege ponu.
They took stones and laid them down in the clearing of Lengge.

(3) (esp) set ‹trap›; cast ‹net›.

Kape la-re tetaki me la-labu neido konge ne ero.
We will set a trap to catch small shrimps in the river.

Ne-le ne-re pele.
I'm going net-fishing.

(4) spend ‹money, viko›, pay ‹fine›.

Ka a-romo leka! Kape u-re viko!
You had eye contact with your cousin! You will have to pay a fine!

(5) let go of, release ‹s.o.›; leave ‹s.o.› alone.

U-re ene!
Leave me alone!

(6) allow ‹s.o.› to do s.th..

(7) leave ‹s.o.›; drop ‹s.o.› somewhere, walk ‹s.o.› back.

Awa ene i-su pe ni-re kaipa damiliko iono.
I am sad to have left you and your family.

A-re Bakap vele?
Where did you drop Bakap?

(8) divorce ‹s.o.›.

Ka i-re emele iape.
[he has released his wife] He is divorced.
~re i-wene  -. lit. “leave-it it-lies” : leave ‹s.th.› somewhere. Sometimes contracted to ~rewene*.

~re [2]

U-re i-wene!
Leave it there!
rema  [rema] -.
revo  [revo] intransitive verb. <Sea>

(1) sea, esp. marine zone surrounding the island and accessible on a daily basis (vs. ngamuli ‘ocean’).

abilo peini revo
seasnake

Ero i-pu i-abu i-vagasi revo.
The river flows down to the sea.

Dapa kula li-abu revo, me le-labu namuko.
The others slap the (sea) water, in order to catch the fish.

Kape le-loko ajekele le-iui ne revo.
They're going to gather rubbish and throw it in the sea.

(2) tide.

Revo i-koie.
[the sea is coming in] The tide is rising.

Revo i-kopine.
[the sea is deep] It's high tide.

Revo i-ma.
[the sea is dry] It's low tide.

(3) salt water, sea water.

Ni-wowo revo i-ke mina lema kuo.
I'm bailing out the (sea) water from inside the canoe.

Emel' iote i-le i-wowo revo i-ka i-sabisi se awene.
A woman went to draw saltwater, and brought it back to pour it above the oven.
ro  [ro] -.
roe tebene  [roe teᵐbene] noun. <Bot> lit. “roe turned yellow” : k.o. tree, unidentified.

rom  [rom] -.
romo  [romo] -.
ro’2   transitive verb. short form of ~romo ‘see’.
ruene  [ruene] -.
sa  [sa] -.
saba  [saᵐba] noun. <Ornith> Least Frigatebird. frégate. Fregata ariel.

~sabisi  [(i·)saᵐbisi] ~ ~saisi  transitive verb. pour ‹liquid+›, typic. into a container.

~wabe ‘fill up’

Emel' iote i-le i-wowo revo i-ka i-sabisi se awene.
A woman went to draw saltwater, and brought it back to pour it above the oven.

Li-bi vongoro li-kamai, li-loko i-vene ne belemele li-sabisi li-maliawo boso.
They picked almonds and brought them home, poured them all up on the almond shelf; then they lit a fire underneath.
sabu  [saᵐbu] -.
sadie  [saⁿdie] -.
~sai1   [(i·)sai] transitive verb. land ‹canoe› on a beach.

Dapa li-ka li-wokobe da po la-sai kuo.
People welcomed them as they landed their canoe (on the beach).
~sai1   intransitive verb. ⟨canoe, s.o.⟩  land, dock on the beach.

Kuo i-le i-sai.
The canoe landed (on the beach).

La-ka la-koie la-sai.
They approached the island and landed.
~sai2   [(i·)sai] transitive verb.

(1) liken ‹s.o., s.th.› to (ñe) s.th. else; confuse with s.th. else.

Ni-rom anive iote pine ni-sai ñe kuo 'none ne.
I saw a large dugong, I thought it was (as big as) my canoe.

Ni-lengi mama Stanley ni-sai ñe mama Alex.
I heard Stanley's voice, I thought it was Alex.

(2) ⦗never alone; always serialised after ~ekeke ‘laugh’⦘ lit. “laugh compare s.o.?” : (laugh) at, (make fun) of ‹s.o.›.

~wablei ‘make fun’

U-ekeke u-sai ene etapu!
Stop making fun of me!
~sai ñe  [(i·)sai ɲe] vti. eat out the taste of ‹kava› with refreshing food.

U-le u-bi avie, me u-kamai, me le-sai ñe kava.
Go pick some Malay apples, and bring them so we can eat out the taste of kava.
sakoro  [sakoro] noun. <Ornith> lit. “white belly” : k.o. small bird with unclear identification. Myiagra Vanikorensis.

~sali   [(i·)sali] transitive verb.

(1) release ‹s.th. which was blocked or tense›, let go of.

Syn: ~re [2]

U-botongo ero etapu, u-sali!
Stop blocking the water (with your hands), let it go!

(2) untie, release ‹s.th.›.

~ioi ‘throw’

U-le u-vene u-sali luro i-abu.
Go up and release a few coconuts down.

(3) shoot ‹gun, tekipa› by releasing the trigger.

~ago

Ni-sali tekipa li-kovi.
I shot at them but they dodged it.
~sali   intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨ground+⟩  sink, collapse. s'effondrer.

Tanoe i-sali i-abu.
⟨landslide⟩ The ground collapsed down.

Ni-sali ne ma loubo.
I sank into a crab's hole.

(2) (fig) ⟨meeting, celebration+⟩  lit. “be released?” : break up; come to an end, finish.

Syn: ~sabu

Syn: ~pu [2]

Syn: awoiu

Makone ka i-sali.
The dances are over.

Ngapiene ka i-sali pon ta — bwogo tili.
Then the festival (ngapiene) comes to an end, after five days.
samame  [samame] -.
same  [same] -.
samuko  [samuko] -.
samuko bonoro  [samuko ᵐbonoro] noun. <Fish> Lagoon Triggerfish. Rhinecanthus aculeatus.

samwaele  [samʷaele] noun. <Ornith> lit. “yellow belly” : Golden Whistler. Pachycephala pectoralis.

sakoro

sava  [sava] -.
se  [se] -.
sebei  [seᵐbei] -.
sekele  [sekele] -.
semame  [semame] -.
si  [si] -.
sibenge  [siᵐbeŋe] noun. <Bot> Puzzle tree (Sterculiaceae). Kleinhovia hospita.

sibowa  [siᵐbowa] -.
sikoke  [sikoke] -.
silva  [silfa] -.
sipule  [sipule] noun. <Ornith> Rufous-brown Pheasant Dove. Macropygia mackinlayi.

sivene  [sivene] -.
sodo  [soⁿdo] -.
somoli  [somoli] -.
somu  [somu] -.
~songai  [(i·)soŋai] transitive verb. repair, fix ‹s.th.›. réparer.

Pi-wete otovo pi-ko pe-songai moe.
We are making the roofing to repair our house.
sopu  [sopu] -.
soso  [soso] -.
sowi  [sowi] -.
su  [su] -.
~su1   [(i·)su] transitive verb.

(1) set fire to, burn ‹s.th.› to get rid of it. allumer.

~maili ‘light (fire)’

~vongo ‘burn’

Ajekele pon, kape le-su.
This is rubbish, we're about to burn it.

Li-su moe enone.
They burnt my house.

(2) light ‹torch, buluko›.

Li-su buluko ka li-koioi dapa li-vagasi ta-koie.
(The islanders) lit torchlights and led them inland.

(3) set fire to ‹cultivated land, sekele› in order to make it ready for cultivation; practise slash-and-burn cultivation.

Nanana kape le-su sekele.
Today we're burning the land.
~su2   [(i·)su] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨opening⟩  obstructed, clogged up, blocked by s.th.. bouché.

Visingele dapa i-su.
They have a blocked nose.

(2) ⟨ears⟩  deaf.

Taña ini i-su.
[his ears are blocked] He's deaf.

(3) awa ‘neck’⟩  be sad, feel sorry.

Awa ene i-su.
[my neck is blocked] I am sorry.
~sube  [(i·)suᵐbe] intransitive verb.

(1) make a mistake (in talking, in writing+).

(2) make a faux pas; do wrong, by accident rather than deliberately; infringe (s.th., ñe).

A-sube ñe nuduro.
You have infringed the rules.
subuko  [suᵐbuko] noun. <Bot> Spider lily, a beach shrub (Amaryllidaceae). Crinum asiaticum.

sukuro  [sukuro] -.
suli  [suli] noun. <Ornith> Purple Swamphen. Porphyrio porphyrio.

sune  [sune] -.
susuko   [susuko] adjective.

(1) ⦗static reading⦘ straight, rectilinear. droit.

Ant: ~velei

(2) ⦗dynamic reading⦘ go straight (towards s.o., s.th.).

Ka kuo iada ka susuko se.
The boat went straight towards (the islet).

(3) accurate, true, exact.

Syn: ebele

Kape ne-vete susuko metae.
I'd be unable to tell the exact story.

(4) ⟨words+⟩  proper, correct, flawless.

Dapa li-ejau ngatene susuko tae.
They didn't do (the ritual) correctly.

(5) morally right, good.

Syn: wako

susuko   adv.

(1) straight, directly.

Vilisao tilu pon lai-abu susuko ñe toñaki pon.
The two tornados went straight down to the ships.

(2) ⦗+location⦘ exactly, precisely.

N' adie Laperus dapa li-ka Ngama susuko.
Then Lapérouse and his men arrived precisely where Ngama is.

(3) correctly, properly, with no mistake.

Ini i-mo susuko.
He spoke properly (with no mistake).

(3) morally well, rightfully, appropriately.

Ini i-mo susuko.
He gave a fair speech.
susuko   intj. fine! alright!.

Syn: wako

Kape ne-le ne-mokoiu. – Susuko!
I'm going to bed. – Alright!
susuko  [susuko] -.
ta1   [ta] ptc. ⦗clause-final, following demonstrative⦘ focus marker.
~ta2   [(i·)ta] transitive verb.

(1) peel ‹fruit, tuber+›. peler.

Daviñevi li-ta bele mina.
The women are peeling out the skin (of yams).

I-ta balawe ñe okoro aplaka.
He's peeling a pineapple with a small knife.

(2) split ‹nut› in two.

~panade ‘split’

li-ta vebe
split a ‘cutnut’
~ta3   [(i·)ta] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨plant+⟩  grow spontaneously. émerger.

~karau ‘grow’

None pon, ini ñepe pe i-ta, pe li-wowo tae.
This kind of tuber grows spontaneously [by itself], it is not planted.

(2) ⦗with adv. ñeiemerge, appear, come to light.

Basavono po kulumoe i-ta ñei, Teliki Makumoso li-ko Banie.
⟨myth of origin⟩ When our country emerged, our Ancestral God was called Banie.
tabau  [taᵐbau] -.
tabe  [taᵐbe] -.
~tabe  [(i·)taᵐbe] transitive verb. carry ‹s.o., s.th.› above o.'s belt, i.e. in o.'s arms or on o.'s shoulders. tenir.

~valangia ‘carry on stick’

Ini i-aiu i-ka i-le i-koie i-tabe pi' iape.
She came into the room and took (the baby) in her arms.

La-tabe voko la-lui.
They picked up some stones and carried them away (in their arms).

Dapa kula ka li-le li-toe longe ne ngogoro ka li-tabe li-kamai ne moe.
Some men went to cut firewood in the forest and brought it back home (on their shoulders).
~tabo   [(i·)taᵐbo] intransitive verb.

(1) repeat. répéter.

I-kae? Mou, u-tabo!
What? Come again!

I-tabo!
⟨when transcribing⟩ [let it repeat!] Play it again!

(2) (comm) ⦗auxiliary-like; foll. by verb V2, with same subject⦘ repeat doing s.th., do again.

Le-tabo le-le.
[we repeat we go] Let's go there again.

Ni-tabo ni-mui.
I've forgotten again.

Menu emele ie teliki i-tabo sa-pine.
⟨non-verbal predicate⟩ The chief's daughter is pregnant again.

(3) ⦗idem⦘ do back; do an action that compensates or reacts to a previous action.

Ka li-ko ruene, ka li-tabo li-bono.
They open the door, and then shut it back.

Otovo iupa ka tamwaliko, pi-tabo pi-wete kula motoe.
Our roofing has been damaged, we're making a new one again.
~tabo   ptc. (rare) ⦗precedes verb⦘ again. Morph.. The particle occurs at the same place as the auxiliary-like verb form ~tabo, except that it does not take verbal prefixes.

Labiou tae, dapa ka tabo li-ke li-ka.
After a moment, again they came out.
~tabulu  [(i·)taᵐbulu] transitive verb. decorate ‹building+› in preparation for a celebration.

Pi-tabulu mwoe.
We've decorated the house.
tadoe  [taⁿdoe] -.
tae  [tae] -.
tai  [tai] -.
takalamu  [takalamu] noun. <Bot> k.o. edible plant, similar to avocado.

take  [take] -.
tako  [tako] -.
takoie  [takoie] -.
takole  [takole] -.
takulalevioe  [takulalevioe] -.
takuo  [takuo] noun. <Fish> Dogtooth tuna. Gymnosarda unicolor.

dere

taluaito  [taluaito] noun. <Ethn>

(1) traditional healer – both a seer and a sorcerer.

tongolukilo ‘medicinal leaves’

(2) medical doctor.

Syn: dokita

Taluaito i-la tongolukilo i-mini men' one.
The doctor gave some medicine to my child.

[ Vaeak.-Taum. taulaituseer, prophet, shaman’. ]

tamate  [tamate] noun.

[ Mota tamatedead person; soul, spirit; ghost; secret society; headdress’. PNVanuatu *qata-matedead person’. ]

tamava  [tamava] -.
tamwaleko  [tamʷaleko] -.
tamwaliko  [tamʷaliko] -.
tamwalikose  [tamʷalikose] -.
tamwase  [tamʷase] -.
tangake  [taŋake] -.
tangalo  [taŋalo] -.
tangavisi  [taŋavisi] -.
tangteala  [taŋteala] -.
tanlavaki  [tanlavaki] -.
tano  [tano] -.
tanoe  [tanoe] noun. Poss: enaka

(1) ground, soil. terre.

Li-ae tanoe
dig the ground

Tanoe i-wai.
⟨earthquake⟩ The ground shook.

(2) (esp) land, insofar as it belongs to s.o..

temaka ‘place’

Da la-via ñe tanoe.
They're arguing about land.

Na tanoe aidi abia.
This land belongs to everyone.

[ POc *tanoq. ]

tanoma  [tanoma] -.
tatawoe  [tatawoe] -.
tate  [tate] -.
tau  [tau] -.
taugo  [tauᵑgo] noun. <Fish> goatfish. Mulloidichthys flavolineatus.

tavake  [tavake] noun. <Ornith> Black-naped Tern. Sterna sumatrana.

[ Tik. tavakePhaethon lepturus’. ]

tavali  [tavali] -.
tavea  [tavea] -.
tawo1   [tawo] noun. <Bot> Chinese hibiscus. hibiscus. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

voro ‘Hibiscus tiliaceus’

mana tawo
flower of hibiscus
tawora  [tawora] -.
taña  [taɲa] -.
te1   [te] -. shorter variant of teve* ‘with, at’.
te2   [te] ptc. ⦗foll. by negation⦘ (not)… at all, (not)… the least.
~te3   [(i·)te] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨s.o.⟩  sit, be sitting. assis.

U-abu u-te u-ka!
Come sit down here!

Bara ba-te ba-botongo okoro ponu.
I'm afraid you may be sitting on my knife.

(2) (gen) ⟨s.o.⟩  be located somewhere, whether sitting or not. Inanimate subjects would take ~wene.

Dapa gete li-te ne Toplau.
The boys are in the Men's House.

(3) ⟨s.o.⟩  remain, stay.

Ka u-te!
⟨greeting⟩ Good bye! [lit. you're staying!]

Nga i-te kape li-abu.
If he had remained (in the island) he would have been killed.

(4) wait.

Li-te li-te li-ko “Mamote!”
They waited, waited…, and said “No, not yet!”

(5) dwell, live.

dapa pe li-te ne kulumoe na
the people living in this village

Ini i-te Franis, ia ebele kulumoe iape Japan.
She lives in France, but she is actually from [lit. her genuine country is] Japan.

(6) ⦗foll. by predicate or other modifier⦘ ⟨s.o.⟩  be: be in such and such a condition, whether temporarily or permanently.

A-te moli?
Are you free?

Pi-te wako?
Are you okay?

Ini i-te mumule ñe eo!
He's crazy about you!

daviñevi pe li-te ne manoko
women who're having their periods

(7) ⦗foll. by verb V2⦘ ⟨s.o.⟩  be doing s.th. Encodes progressive aspect.

Menu i-te i-etengi.
The baby was crying.

[ POc *toka. ]

-te4   [(i·)te] num. radical of tete* ‘three’.

kwa-te
[ten-three] thirty

[ POc *tolu. ]

~te moli  -. ⟨s.o.⟩  lit. “sit/live unconstrained” : be free (opp. be busy, or married, etc..).

A-te moli?
Are you free?
~te teve  [(i·)te teve] vti.

(1) (literal) ⟨s.o.⟩  lit. “be with” : live with ‹s.th., s.o.›.

Noma, po apali i-maili i-ven' i-ka, i-te tev' ai' iape me et' iape.
In the old days, when a child grew up, he would stay with his parents.

(2) (esp) be married with ‹s.o.›; have ‹s.o.› as partner or spouse.

Ka i-te te' mwaliko, we mamote?
[is she living with a man] Has she got a man in her life, or not yet?
tealongo  [tealoŋo] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree (Urticaceae). Pipturus argenteus.

Teanu  [Teanu] -.
tebekuma  [teᵐbekuma] noun. <Artf> k.o. round basket, coarsely woven with coconut leaves, and used to carry food.

tebelia  [teᵐbelia] -.
tebene  [teᵐbene] adjective. ⟨plant⟩  of a pale or yellowed colour.

kie* tebene
variety of Pandanus with yellow leaves

kava* tebene
variety of kava of a pale colour
teblebe  [teᵐbleᵐbe] -.
tebo1   [teᵐbo] noun. rain. pluie.
tebo2   [teᵐbo] noun. <Bot> Island cabbage (Malvaceae). chou. Abelmoschus manihot.
tedele  [teⁿdele] -.
teiene  [teiene] -.
teili  [teili] noun.

(1) fan, tradit. woven with coconut leaves. éventail. Fans are traditionally woven with coconut leaves. They are diamond-shaped, and have a handle at one end.

~bi [2]

U-la teili u-bi ñ' eo.
Just take a fan and fan yourself.

(2) the Fan: name of a constellation, whose stars seem to delineate a diamond-shaped fan with its handle.

teipu  [teipu] -.
teiu  [teiu] -.
tekate  [tekate] -.
tekilikili  [tekilikili] noun. coral stones on the reef. corail.

touro ‘reef flat’

tekipa  [tekipa] noun. fire gun. fusil.

Ni-sali tekipa li-kovi.
I shot at them but they dodged it.
tekume  [tekume] -.
tekumete1   [tekumete] noun. <Artf> large wooden bowl for serving food.

[ Polynesian kumetewooden bowl’. ]

tekumete2   [tekumete] noun. <Bot> k.o. seashore tree, whose hard wood is used for several artifacts, incl. tekumete2. Pemphis acidula.

tekupie  [tekupie] -.
telakia  [telakia] noun. <Ornith> White Tern. Gygis alba.

telango  [telaŋo] -.
telau  [telau] -.
tele1   [tele] noun. walls of a house, tradit. made of plaited bamboo. paroi.

Li-wete otovo awoiu pon li-ejau tele moe.
Once the thatch is finished, we make the house walls.
tele2   [tele] noun. oil, extracted from certain plants, and cooked. huile.

tele peini luro
coconut oil

tele peini vongoro
oil of Canarium almonds
telepakau  [telepakau] -.
~teli  [(i·)teli] voi.

(1) put ‹s.th.› down.

(2) plant ‹fruit, taro+›.

~do [1]

li-teli balawe
to plant pineapples

Li-tau sekele ponu awoiu, moro iote li-le li-teli avtebe.
After burning their garden, the next day they went to plant taros.

I-iumu, pi-teli mataña (jebute).
First of all, we planted the (taro) shoot.

Vivilo li-teli ne netebe.
Cyrtosperma taros are planted in swamps.

(3) ⟨plant⟩  grow ‹leaves+›.

Jebute i-teli uie.
The taros have grown leaves.

(4) send ‹message›.

~teli mama  -. ⟨man⟩  lit. “put/send o.'s voice” : require official engagement (to a woman, ñe/se) from her family.

~teli

Kape ne-teli mama ene ñ' eo.
I will ask to be engaged to you [lit. I shall put my voice for you].

U-teli mama ene se.
Please arrange my engagement with her [lit. you send my voice for her].
~teli utele  -. lit. “plant a base” : begin, start (to do, me + Irr.). ~teli utele is often contracted as ~tetele*, with the same meaning.

~teli

~tetele

teliki  [teliki] -.
telini  [telini] -.
telupe  [telupe] noun. <Ornith>

(1) (gen) pigeon. pigeon. Columbidae spp.

(2) (esp) White-throated Pigeon. Columba vitiensis.

telupe bale  -. <Ornith> lit. “breadfruit pigeon” : Pacific Imperial Pigeon. Ducula pacifica.

telupe

temaka  [temaka] -.
temamene  [temamene] -.
temotu  [temotu] -.
temounu  [temounu] -.
temuo  [temuo] -.
teno  [teno] noun. <Bot> Island lychee (Sapindaceae). Pometia pinnata.

[ POc *tawan. ]

tenuro  [tenuro] noun. <Techn>

(1) thick fibres composing the husk of a coconut.

(2) rope, traditionally made by braiding together coconut fibres.

Dama noma vana li-apilo tenuro.
People in the past used to make coconut-string ropes.

Kape li-odo tenuro me le-vo ñe nengele kuo korone.
We'll look for a rope so we can attach firmly the elements of the canoe.
ten’gale  [tenᵑgale] noun. (gen) mushroom.
tepakare  [tepakare] -.
tepakola  [tepakola] -.
tepao  [tepao] -.
tepapa  [tepapa] noun. <Ethn>

(1) (gen) wooden board, plank.

(2) (esp) stomping boards. During ngapiene festivals, a blateno pole is erected in the middle of the village area (mane). Laid out in circle (~dai, ~dadai) around it, are a number of wooden boards half buried (~iu2) in the ground, on which dancers leap and stomp (~viaene, ~wate) during the celebrations, in a loud and joyful dance..

Li-ae kie tepapa i-dadai awoiu ponu, li-iu. Li-iu tepapa i-dai awoiu, blateno ka li-toe li-kamai.
First they dug up the holes for the boards in a circle, then they buried the stomping boards. Finally, they cut a wooden pole and brought it.

Li-wate tepapa, li-viane tepapa ponu; ka li-pinoe pon ta ka li-mako.
They were hitting the boards, stomping on the boards: such was their dance.

[ Polynesian te papaplank’. ]

tepuke  [tepuke] noun. large sailing canoe used by the Polynesians for ocean travel, characterised by its decking and cabin. pirogue.

kuo ‘canoe’

Tepuke ponu, kuo pine; moe aplaka pon, ne pongo kuo pon.
The ‘tepuke’ ship is a large canoe; it has a small cabin, on top of the ship.

Ei! Dapa! Na toñaki ae na? Na toñaki we tepuke?
Hey, people! What sort of ship is that? Is it a European ship, or a Polynesian sailing canoe?

[ Vaeak.-Taum. te pukebig traditional canoe for long sea voyages’. PPn *pukebow and stern decking of a canoe’. ]

tero  [tero] -.
teta  [teta] -.
tetake  [tetake] -.
tetaki  [tetaki] noun. <Techn> small wicker basket used as a bottle trap, plunged (~re2) in a river to catch prawns or shrimps (konge). nasse.

Kape la-re tetaki me la-labu neido konge ne ero.
Let's plunge some traps and catch some small river shrimps

[ Tik. t.akibag net, of small mesh+’. ]

tetaula  [tetaula] noun. anchor of a ship. ancre. The anchor is attached to a rope or chain (iula). The term iula can also refer, metonymically, to the anchor itself.

tetawene  [tetawene] -.
tetawene peini nuduro  -. geometrical pattern similar in shape to a centipede.
Tetawo  [tetawo] noun. ancient village located in the south of Banie, formerly the main village of the Tanema language community. Hist.. The area has now been taken over by Polynesian settlers from Tikopia.

Basavono ponu, mamote kulumoe Tetawo mate idi abia li-te ene.
At that time, the village of Tetawo was still inhabited.
tete  [tete] num. threetrois.

Viñe teupu tete we teva, bwara kape votobo eo.
Three of four cups, that may be enough for you.

E, dap' tete! Pi-ka vele?
Hey, you three! Where are you coming from?

[ POc *tolu. ]

~tetele  [(i·)tetele] intransitive verb. begin, start. Etym.. Contraction of ~teli utele, lit. ‘plant a base’.

Kata kape le-tetele kape le-pinoe pon ta.
They were about to start dancing.
~tetele  transitive verb. start ‹s.th.›.

I-tetele buro.
He started a song.
tetevo  [tetevo] -.
teuko  [teuko] voi. fishing line; generic name for the tools used in angling for fish.

iula teuko ‘fishing string’

kangele teuko ‘fishhook’

Le-la teuko ne jokoro me le-katei ñe namuko.
Let's take our bamboo fishing rod, and go angling for fish.
tev'  [tev'] -.
teva  [teva] -.
tevalvalo  [tevalfalo] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree (Verbenaceae). Premna spp.

bou

[ Polynesian te valovalo. ]

teve1   [teve] -. with, to......... auprès.
~teve2   [(i·)teve] intransitive verb. ⟨s.th.⟩  melt, decompose. fondre.

Kunini ka i-teve!
Your tablet is melting!
teveliko  [teveliko] noun. <Sea> triton

(1) triton. Charonia tritonis.

(2) (hence) conch shell, traditionally used as a trumpet, esp. when sending out public signals or calling out to people.

Ni-si teveliko.
I'm blowing in the conch.

Li-si teveliko ne kulumoe, me le-kila idi le-ka le-mako.
Someone in the village is blowing the conch, calling out to people to come and dance.

[ POc *tapuRiq. ]

tevie  [tevie] -.
teviri  [teviri] noun. ⟨boat⟩  stern. poupe. Morph.. From tev(ie) viri ‘rear side’.

Ant: basa

Ant: teviumu ‘prow’

teviumu  [teviumu] -.
tiame  [tiame] -.
tiave  [tiave] noun. <Fish> flying-fish. Exocoetus spp.
tiba  [tiᵐba] -.
tieli  [tieli] noun, kinship. <Kin> sibling: irregular form of tilio* for 3sg (‘his/her sibling’) and when followed by a noun (‘sibling of X’).

Tilio, we tieli?
Is he your brother, or her brother?

Gea ini tieli ete mwalkote.
Your uncle is your mother's brother [lit. her male sibling]

Da tieli.
They are siblings.
tili  [tili] -.
tilio  [tilio] noun, kinship. <Kin> 1s: tili' one 2s: tilio 3s: tieli* 3s: til' iape

(1) ⦗symmetrical term⦘ ⟨ego male or female⟩  sibling of either sex (Z, B).

(2) ⦗classificatory sibling⦘ parallel cousin of either sex (MZC, FBC). Anth. Parallel cousins cannot marry together, unlike cross-cousins (leka).

(3) ⦗symmetrical term⦘ great-grandparent or great-grandchild.

tilu  [tilu] -.
tilupo  [tilupo] -.
to  [to] -.
to1   [to] noun. <Bot> sugarcane. sucre. Saccharum edule.

li-nge to
chew sugarcane

Ne-bo to ne-min' eo.
I'm cutting some sugarcane for you.

[ POc *topu. ]

to2   [to] noun. middle. milieu.

(1) ⦗spatial⦘ middle; space between two spots.

ne to ñe na ka Tekupie
between here and Tikopia

Li-vo aero i-dai, me kape le-mako ne to.
They erected a fence around (the village area), for us to dance in the middle.

(2) ⦗temporal⦘ middle.

ne to ebieve
in the middle of the year
~to3   [(i·)to] vti. ⦗+oblique⦘ pole a boat on shallow sea. pousser.

I-to ñe kuo iape.
He's poling his boat.
to moro  -. lit. “middle day” : midday.

to [2]

tomoro

~tobo1   [(i·)toᵐbo] intransitive verb. poke out, break through, in the form of a longish object.

Dapa li-romo vilisao ka i-tobo i-ke – li-romo nga luro.
They suddenly saw a tornado break through the clouds – it was [long and thin] like a coconut tree.
~tobo1   transitive verb.

(1) press ‹s.th., s.o.› with finger or longish object (stick+); poke ‹s.th., s.o.›.

~wete ‘pound’

U-tobo ma ene etapu!
Stop poking my arm!

(2) pierce a hole in ‹s.th.›. percer.

I-tobo tanoe pon i-vene.
It made a hole from below the ground, and came out of it.

Ka li-tobo ñe tamate pe ka mata mwaliko i-ke me i-romo.
They've made holes in the Tamate masks, so that (the dancer) can see through.

(3) (esp) hook ‹bait› on fish hook.

Kape le-tobo ñe kangele teuko ono me le-mede ñe namuko.
We'll hook it on your hook, to attract fish.
~tobo2   [(i·)toᵐbo] intransitive verb. ⦗+adv. ñeirestrain o.s., remain in the limits of decency. se_retenir.

Dapa kula li-wablei piene, ia li-tobo ñe, pe dapa ie mwaliko po awa dapa i-su.
⟨funeral ceremonies⟩ Some people may make jokes, as long as they restrain themselves, with respect to the family who are in mourning.
toe1   [toe] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree. Excoecaria agallocha.

~toe2   [(i·)toe] transitive verb. <Techn> cutcouper.

(1) cut ‹wood+›, chop, with a knife or axe.

I-romo vilo iote wako, i-toe i-tabau.
When he sees a tree that fits, he chops it down.

Dapa kula ka li-le li-toe longe ne ngogoro.
Some men went to cut firewood in the bush.

Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.
To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it (~bo) in the shape of a semi-circle.

li-toe sela
cut the umbilical chord

(2) make ‹s.th.› out of wood.

I-toe kuo iape.
He cut himself a canoe.

Awoiu kape le-toe langasuo peini, ka nengele wamitaka.
Then you make the rail (for the canoe) as well as the smaller pegs.

[ POc *taRaq. ]

tololoa  [tololoa] noun. <Ornith> Australian White-eyed Duck. canard. Aythya australis.

tolotai  [tolotai] -.
toloto  [toloto] noun. lake, pool, lagoon. lagon.

[ Tik. te roto. ]

tomo  [tomo] -.
tomoe  [tomoe] -.
tomoli  [tomoli] -.
tomona  [tomona] -.
tomoro  [tomoro] -.
tomwoe  [tomʷoe] -.
tone  [tone] -.
tongobe  [toŋoᵐbe] -.
tongolukilo  [toŋolukilo] noun. <Mod>

(1) (gen) medicinal plants.

Jeboro ini tongolukilo iote.
Wild basil is (used as) a medicinal plant.

Tongolukilo ponu wako peini basa idi i-meli.
This medicinal plant is useful against headaches.

(2) (hence) medicine.

Taluaito i-la tongolukilo i-mini men' one.
The doctor gave some medicine to my child.
toplau  [toplau] -.
topola  [topola] -.
totokale   [totokale] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) picture, photo, representation of ‹s.o., s.th.›. Synt.. The possessor encoded with the direct (inalienable) pronoun is the person represented on the photo.

Ene totokale menu one.
This is a photo of my kid.

(2) (fig) likeness, resemblance to ‹s.o.›.

I-la totokale ai' iape.
[he's taken the likeness of his father] He looks like his father!
totokale   noun. photo, picture (considered as an object in itself); somet. video, TV. Synt.. The possessor encoded with the ordinary (alienable) marker enone is the owner of the photo, not its object.

Ene ni-rom ne totokale.
I saw it on a photo / on TV.

[ Mota totoɣalepicture’. ]

toulo  [toulo] -.
touro  [touro] noun. reef shore.

moko

Le-le ne touro li-odo aero?
Shall we go to the reef shore look for seashells?

Dapa li-woi nuduro ne touro.
They put up taboo signs (nuduro*) on the reef shore.
tove  [tove] noun. <Bot> panax (Araliaceae). Polyscias scutellaria.

tovokowo  [tovokowo] -.
toñaki  [toɲaki] -.
tren  [tren] -.
tu  [tu] -.
tuku  [tuku] -.
tuo  [tuo] -.
~u  [(i·)u] transitive verb. wipe ‹s.th.› dry or clean. essuyer.

U-u mwa eo!
Wipe your mouth!
ua  [ua] ~ wa  noun. ⟨plant⟩  fruit. fruit.

~wo [4] ‘bear fruit’

ua wido
fruit of Barringtonia

[ POc *puaq. ]

ua bale we Ginio  [ua ᵐbale we Ginio] noun. <Bot>

(1) lit. “Ginio's breadfruit” : Ankle rattle tree. Pangium edule. ◈ The fruit name refers to an unknown character Ginio.

(2) ankle rattles used in dancing.

Ua bale we Ginio, pi-pinoe ñei.
We use ankle rattles to perform our dances.
ua vilo  -. (gen) lit. “fruit of tree” : fruit of indefinite or generic species.

ua

Li-bi ua vilo nga pon, nganae nga bale, vewo, iliro, teno… li-kamai.
They went to pick various fruits, such as breadfruit, chestnuts, lychees…, and they brought them.
ubi  [uᵐbi] -.
udo  [uⁿdo] noun. <Bot> banana. banane. Musa spp.

li-vo udo
plant a banana tree

mouro udo / taña udo
banana bundle

bele udo
skin of banana fruit

Udo ono pe a-vo ka i-wo.
The banana trees which you planted have already borne their fruits.

Udo kata kape ka moso.
The bananas are almost ripe.

[ POc *pudi. ]

udo pe i-ako  -. lit. “ripe bananas” : k.o. banana, characterised by a sweeter taste.

udo

Uña udo pe i-ako, li-lui i-avo ne tone.
The ripe bananas had been put to hang from the hook.
udo pe li-vo  -. lit. “planted bananas” : k.o. banana.

udo

udo vaiene  -. k.o. banana.

udo

udo vakaero  -. k.o. banana.

udo

Udo, enga tilu: udo vaiene, ka udo vakaero.
They had two types of bananas: vaiene, and vakaero.
udo we tadoe  -. lit. “Spirits' banana” : unidentified plant from the bush, unedible.

udo

~udu  [(i·)uⁿdu] intransitive verb. ⟨liquid⟩  drip, fall by drops. goutter.

~pu [1] ‘flow’

Tengiro i-udu.
His tears were dripping.

Abo peini ma i-udu.
His blood was dripping from his hand.
ui  [ui] -.
uie  [uie] -.
uie baliñoe  [uie ᵐbaliɲoe] noun. <Bot> unidentified tree variety, similar to Areca catechu (see buioe), yet unsuitable for human consumption.

uko  [uko] noun. <Zool> louse. pou.

Et' aidi li-odo uko ñe basa damiliko iadapa.
The mums are looking for lice on their children's heads.

[ POc *kutu. ]

uku1   [uku] noun, kinship. 1s: uk' one affine of different generation (vs. mule). affin.

(1) father-in-law (WF, HF), mother-in-law (WM, HM), and their siblings.

(2) son-in-law (DH), daughter-in-law (SW), and their siblings.

(3) ⟨ego male⟩  nephew's wife (ZSW, MBDSW).

~uku2   [(i·)uku] intransitive verb. cough. tousser.

Menu one i-ekili ka i-uku.
My baby trembles and coughs.
ule  [ule] noun. (gen) creeping vine. Hyperonym for a number of creeping plants.

kasule

[ POc *puRebeach creeper, prototypically Ipomoea pes-caprae’. ]

ule uie wopine  -. <Bot> lit. “big-leafed ule” : Goat's Foot vine. Ipomoea pes-caprae. ◈ Sometimes shortened to ule.

ule

uluko  [uluko] -.
uo1   [uo] noun. <Bot> yam, esp. Greater yam. igname. Dioscorea alata.

none ‘Potato yam’

li-wowo uo
plant yams

li-vai uo
bake yams

uo moloe
red yam

Na uo kula kupa ka pi-ae.
These are a few yams we just dug out.

[ POc *qupi. ]

uo2   [uo] noun. cairn of stones. cairn.

Li-iu dapa li-bei dapa ñe voko li-ko nga uo.
They would bury them and cover them with stones, it was like a cairn.
upa  [upa] -.
urene  [urene] -.
utaugo  [utauᵑgo] noun. <Fish> Yellowfin Goatfish. Mulloidichthys vanikolensis.

utedie  [uteⁿdie] -.
utele  [utele] -.
uvilo  [uvilo] -.
uña  [uɲa] -.
uñe  [uɲe] -.
va  [fa] -.
vabasa  [faᵐbasa] -.
~vagasi  [(i·)vaᵑgasi] transitive verb. reachatteindre.

(1) ⦗+location⦘ go as far as ‹specific location›, reach.

U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka, u-vagasi pongo gilita.
Just follow the road a little further up, and you'll reach the top of the hill.

(2) ⦗serialised after motion vb⦘ go and reach ‹somewhere›; hence all the way to ‹a place›.

Li-koioi li-su buluko ka li-koie li-vagasi ta-koie.
They lit torchlights and led them in, until they reached (the village) inland.

Ero i-pu i-abu i-vagasi revo.
The river flows down to [lit. reaches] the sea.

(3) ⦗+time⦘ (do) until ‹specific moment›. Synt.. Impersonal construction, always with 3s prefix i-.

Syn: ra

Ba-mako ra i-vagasi vono i-sodo.
You danced together until dawn!

Voko i-te ponu ra ka i-vagasi nanana.
The stone has been there until this day.

(4) reach, come to meet ‹s.o.›; meet.

Keba kape ba-vagas' eo Ostrelia.
We will come to (visit) you in Australia.

Mamote ni-vagasi Ezzy tae.
I haven't met Ezzy yet.

(5) ⟨sickness+⟩  affect ‹s.o.›.

Emel' enone malaria i-vagasi.
My wife has malaria. [lit. malaria has caught her]
~vai  [(i·)vai] transitive verb. bake ‹food›, cook in the stone oven (awene). cuire.

Li-vai uo
bake yams
vaiene  [faiene] -.
vakaboro1   [fakaᵐboro] noun. <Ornith> White-rumped Swiftlet. Aerodramus spodiopygius.

vakaboro2   [fakaᵐboro] noun. <Bot> k.o. creeper, unidentified.

vakaero  [fakaero] -.
~valangia  [(i·)valaŋia] transitive verb. carry ‹burden› on o.'s shoulder using a stick. transporter.

~tabe

Pi-valangia nganae aipa ponu?
What are you guys carrying (on your sticks)?
vana  [fana] -.
vangana  [faŋana] -.
Vanikoro  [Vanikoro] -.
Vanuatu  [Vanuatu] -.
pe i-ve  -. ⦗clause-final⦘ lit. “because it's why?” : why?.

~ve [1]

Eo a-mokoiu ai-ovili pe i-ve?
Why are you sleeping so late?
vao   [fao] adjective.

(1) ⟨animal⟩  wild (opp. tame). sauvage.

Vao, we pe li-womanga?
Is it wild, or tame?

(2) ⟨plant⟩  wild, growing in the bush (opp. cultivated).

matamulue vao
wild variety of matamulue plant
vao   noun.

(1) wild pig.

(2) (gen) pig.

Syn: poi

vao  [fao] -.
vasango  [fasaŋo] -.
ve  [fe] -.
~ve1   [(i·)ve] int. interrogative verb enquiring about a whole situation. être_comment. Contrary to ~mikae* ‘do what’ and ~kae* ‘do how’ which both take a personal subject, ~ve always takes a (semantically impersonal) 3sg subject i-. The surface form is therefore always ive (for i-ve).

(1) ⦗main predicate⦘ what happens? what's up? how's things?.

Eo pon, i-ve?
[lit. as for you, how's things?] What's up with you?

I-ve? Ba-romo kupa wako we tamwaliko?
Now what? Do you like us or not?

Aia kape i-ka ne! – Ka i-ve?
Your father's coming! – So what?!

(2) ⦗in hesitation⦘ what? Used when the speaker looks for his words to describe a whole event.

Li-ka ponu, li-ko (ive?) li-wokobe da.
So they all came in order to… (to do what again?) …to welcome them.

(3) ⦗foll. another verb⦘ be why?.

Syn: pe i-kae

A-kai lusa ene na (pe) i-ve?
But why did you tear my shirt?
~ve2   [(i·)ve] intransitive verb. give birth. engendrer.

Ka i-ve?
Has she given birth already?
~ve2   transitive verb.

(1) ⟨female animal, woman⟩  lay ‹egg›, give birth to ‹offspring›.

Kulevelu ponu i-ovei pe i-ve waluluo ini moro abia na.
This hen is able to lay eggs every day.

Ne metele tilu-tae kape i-ve menu.
She will give birth in August.

(2) ⟨man, woman⟩  beget, be parent of ‹s.o.›.

Da ka lai-ve menu?
Do they already have a child?
vebe  [feᵐbe] noun. <Bot> cutnut, bush nut (Lecythidaceae). Barringtonia edulis.

li-ta vebe
split a ‘cutnut’

Dapa pe li-anu kava, li-e vebe ñe ponu, me kape ije dapa memia etapu.
Kava drinkers eat cutnut right after it, to take away the bitter taste.
vebe mata diro  -. lit. “arrow-tip vebe” : k.o. cutnut, whose elongated fruit reminds of an arrow tip.

vebe

vede  [feⁿde] noun. <Bot> k.o. pandanus, the leaves of which cannot be woven (vs kie ~ woubo). pandanus. Pandanus spp.

Lekele i-nge ua vede.
Flying-foxes chew fruits of pandanus.

[ POc *padran. ]

~vei  [(i·)vei] transitive verb. weave. tresser.

li-vei bete
weave a mat

Li-vei (uie) kie / (uie) woubo.
weave pandanus leaves

Dapa noma, li-ovei pe li-loko uie woubo pe le-vei bavede peini.
People before used to weave sails out of pandanus leaves.
veiebe  [feieᵐbe] noun. <Bot> k.o. creeper. Merremia peltata.

veiko  [feiko] -.
vekai  [fekai] noun. k.o. pudding made of taros (jebute) and almonds (vongoro), always presented in a long shape, and served on long Heliconia leaves (lukilo vekai) during public celebrations.

mama

Li-apilo vekai wamtaka, biouro iape nga ne!
They made small puddings, but still they were as long as this!
vele  [fele] -.
velei  [felei] -.
velesebe  [feleseᵐbe] -.
velia  [felia] -.
veluko  [feluko] -.
ven  [fen] -.
vene  [fene] -.
vengela  [feŋela] -.
vese  [fese] noun. bit, element of.

aña

vese ma  -. <Anat> lit. “element of arm” : elbow.

vese

vese ngele  -. <Anat> nose, snout.

vese

vesengele pwoi
pig's snout
vese piene  -. lit. “bits of speech” : word.

vese

vesepiene

vesengele  [feseŋele] -.
vesepiene  [fesepiene] noun. lit. “bits of speech” : word. mot.

piene ‘speech’

Piene adapa Teanu, ia vesepiene pe noma.
This is Teanu language, but with some archaic words.

Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.
⟨polysemy⟩ It is the same word, but with two distinct meanings.
~vesu   [(i·)vesu] voi. Causative counterpart of ~vene ‘go up’, hence raise, put up ‹s.th.›. élever.

(1) erect, put up, stand up ‹s.th.› vertically.

~vo [2]

~woi

Li-vesu wolowolo
erect a cross

Li-vesu blateno i-vio.
They erected the ritual pole.

Li-vesu moe.
erect a house

Li-nabe na ini wako, li-vesu iuro.
Once we've marked the site (of the house), we stand up the pillars.

(2) perform (?) ‹dances+›.

I-ko kape le-vesu makone, ngapiene.
He wanted people to perform dances, to hold a dancing festival.
~vesu   intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨s.th.⟩  rise, go up.

Basa i-abu i-ka mijaka, i-ka i-vesu.
The hill goes down a little bit, and then rises again.

(2) ⟨s.o.⟩  sail.

Nga ne tomoro nga le-romo ngiro wako, le-vesu i-katau.
If they found the wind to be fine, they would sail along.
~vesu bavede  -. lit. “hoist the sail” : sail, go sailing, travel on sailing boat.

~vesu [A]

~pwalau

Dapa noma, li-ovei pe li-vesu bavede.
Our ancestors used to sail. [lit. to hoist the sail]

Basavono na ka tae, ka li-vesu bavede ñe kuo nga noma tae.
Nowadays it's over: people don't sail any more like they used to.
vete  [fete] -.
~vete  [(i·)vete] transitive verb. saydire.

(1) ⦗+object NP or direct speech⦘ tell, say, declare ‹s.th.›.

Pi' one i-vete tae.
My grandfather never told me.

Pon i-vete (i-ko) “Wako!”
So he said “That's fine!”

(2) mention ‹s.o., s.th.›, talk about.

Na tepakola pe li-vete na?
Is this the giant whom people keep talking about?

Iote pe eo a-vete ponu, i-wene ne moe 'none.
The one you were mentioning is in my home.

Ka ni-mui pe ni-vete temotu aplaka.
I forgot to mention the small islet.

(3) ⟨word+⟩  mean ‹s.th.›.

Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.
⟨polysemy⟩ It is the same word, but with two distinct meanings. [lit. it says two things]

(4) give away ‹s.o.›, denounce publicly.

U-vet' ene etapu!
Don't give me away!

(5) ⟨chief⟩  call, convene ‹event, meeting+›.

Teliki iadapa i-vete ngapiene.
The chief proclaimed the opening of the Festival.
~vete piene  [(i·)vete piene] voi.

(1) lit. “say words” : talk, speak, communicate.

Syn: ~mo

Li-vet' piene ñe ma dapa.
They talk with their hands.

Ini i-vete piene wako se idi abia.
She talks easily to everybody.

(2) talk about (s.th., ñe), mention.

Ngatene pon etapu tamwase pe li-vet' pien' ñi.
This topic is very delicate to talk about.

(3) speak (a language, ñe).

Ini i-ovei pe i-vete piene ñe piene adapa Teanu.
He can speak Teanu.

Li-vete piene ñi i-aiae, ia li-lengi wako.
They speak (that language) with difficulty, but they understand it well.
veve  [feve] noun. <Bot> k.o. plant whose leaves are traditionally used for wrapping food.

vewo  [fewo] noun. <Bot> Polynesian chestnut. Châtaignier de Tahiti. Inocarpus fagifer.

utele vewo pine ponu
at the base of that big chestnut tree over there
vi  [fi] -.
~vi1   [(i·)vi] transitive verb. <Mus> blowsouffler.

(1) ⟨wind, s.o.⟩  blow gently onto ‹s.th., s.o.›.

~aka ‘blow strongly’

Ngiro i-vi idi.
The wind is blowing gently on us (like a breeze).

(2) (esp) blow into ‹wind instrument+› to play music.

Li-vi jokoro.
They're playing [bamboo] panpipes.

jokoro pe li-vi
flute, panpipe
~vi2   [(i·)vi] transitive verb.

i-vi nuduro
(engagement to a girl...)
~vi nuduro  -. lit. “attach a taboo-leaf” : reserve (s.th., s.o.: se) for oneself; hence get engaged to (s.o.).

Mwatagete iote ka i-vi nuduro se.
She's already engaged to someone. [lit. A boy has already put up a taboo on her]
via  [fia] -.
viabasa  [fiaᵐbasa] -.
~viaene  [(i·)viaene] ~ ~viane  transitive verb.

(1) ⟨s.o.⟩  trample, hit ‹s.th.› noisily or violently with o.'s feet.

Li-viane tepapa me aña ini.
They jump on the (dancing) boards for the sound it makes.

(2) ⟨s.o.⟩  stumble upon ‹s.th.› with o.'s feet; hence slip, fall.

Syn: ~tabau

Netebe pon, nara u-viane!
This is mud here, make sure you don't stumble!

(3) ⟨s.th.⟩  trip ‹s.o.› up.

Vilo i-viane ale ene.
[a plant hit my foot] I banged my foot on a tree.

(4) (fig) ⟨food plants⟩  be so plentiful as to trip ‹their owner› up in their garden. Proverbial saying referring to s.o.'s economic prosperity. The grammatical subject, usually utele ‘root, plant’, is sometimes omitted.

Utele i-vian' eo?
⟨prov⟩ Are you so prosperous? [lit. do roots trip you up?]

A-viñi dapa a-ko le-ka pe i-vian' eo?
⟨elliptical⟩ You invited them (for a meal): is it because you are rich? [lit. because it trips you up]

(5) ⟨s.th.⟩  hit ‹s.o.›, touch, esp. with some physical impact.

(6) (fig) ⟨event+⟩  reach ‹a certain moment›; last ‹a certain time›.

I-viane bwogo tili.
(the festival) reached the fifth day.

(7) ⟨event+⟩  become suddenly known to ‹s.o.›, with some emotional impact; hence affect, disturb, move, catch by surprise.

Buro i-viane dapa ka li-le.
[a song hit them as they went] As they walked, they were suddenly moved by a (beautiful) song.

(8) (comm) awa* ‘neck > will’⟩  lit. “my desire hits s.th.” : like ‹s.o., s.th.›; want, desire ‹s.o., s.th.›.

Awa ene i-viaene imaluo iape.
I like her character.

Awa ene i-viane tamwase!
I absolutely love it!

(9) ⦗foll. by ~ko3awa* ‘neck > will’⟩  want to do s.th.; want that.

Awa kupa i-viane pi-ko u-le u-romo tadoe akapa.
[our neck/will hits that you go see…] We'd like you to go and meet our god.

(10) (rare) ⟨s.o.⟩  want, desire..

mwaliko pe i-viane da-viñevi tamwase
a man who loves woman too much
viane  [fiane] -.
viapwene  [fiapʷene] noun. <Bot> k.o. reed. Miscanthus floridulus. ◈ Etym.. ‘large feathers’ (?)

vidi  [fiⁿdi] -.
vidiko  [fiⁿdiko] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat> ⟨hum⟩  finger.
viji  [fiᶮɟi] -.
viko  [fiko] -.
vili1   [fili] noun. <Ornith> lorikeetperruche.

(1) Palm Lorikeet. Charmosyna palmarum.

(2) Rainbow Lorikeet. Trichoglossus haematodus.

~vili2   [(i·)vili] transitive verb. squeeze, press ‹s.th.›. presser.

U-la manave awoiu u-vili.
⟨kava⟩ You take a piece of coconut fibre, and squeeze (the kava).
vilimoe  [filimoe] -.
vilisao  [filisao] ~ vilsao  np. tornado. tornade.

apono ‘hurricane’

Vilisao tilu: iote bworo, iote koro.
Suddenly there were two tornados: one was dark, one was white.
Vilisao  -. Filisao: the god of hurricanes and tornados.

vilisao

vilisi  [filisi] -.
vilitoe  [filitoe] -.
vilo  [filo] -.
vilo peini melevele  -. lit. “plant for disaster” : ‘famine food’: plant which is not ordinarily used as a staple, yet which is known to be edible enough to be consumed in case of crop shortage or disaster.
vilsao  [filsao] -.
~vilu  [(i·)vilu] intransitive verb. wander
vinoe  [finoe] noun. <Bot> k.o. tree, unidentified.

vio  [fio] -.
vioe  [fioe] noun. <Bot> giant taro, elephant-ear taro. taro. Alocasia macrorrhiza.

Pe na vioe tae, jebute.
This is not Alocasia, this is Colocasia taro.

[ POc *piRaq. ]

vioe die  [fioe ⁿdie] ~ die vioe  noun. <Bot> lit. “sucker of giant-taro” : Hong-Kong taro, bush taro, hill taro. taro. Xanthosoma sagittifolium.
vioe peini revo  [fioe peini revo] noun. lit. “taro of the sea” : sea foam. écume.

vilisa revo ‘sea spray’

viri  [firi] -.
viro  [firo] noun. <Bot> fan palm. Licuala spp.

[ POc *piRu. ]

visiboko  [fisiᵐboko] noun. stones used in the traditional oven (awene) for cooking and baking food.

voko ‘stone’

Li-avi visiboko ñe aviro.
You remove the oven stones with the tongs.
visone  [fisone] -.
vitoko  [fitoko] -.
vivilo  [fivilo] noun. <Bot> swamp taro. Cyrtosperma chamissonis.

Vivilo li-teli ne netebe.
Swamp taros are planted in swamps.
viñ'  [fiɲ'] -.
viñe   [fiɲe] noun, obligatorily possessed.

(1) hard shell of ‹animal+›.

viñe anuele
turtle shell

(2) hard shell used as a container; hence container.

viñe teipu
a coconut shell (used as a container, e.g. to drink kava)
viñe   adjective. empty.

Ant: ~lipu

viñe anuele  -. turtle shell, often cut into various ornaments.
viñe basa  -. <Anat> ⟨man+⟩  lit. “head shell” : skull, cranium.
viñevi  [fiɲevi] -.
viñi  [fiɲi] -.
vo  [fo] -.
~vo1   [(i·)vo] transitive verb.

(1) pound, beat* ‹s.th.›, esp. with long and heavy stick. piler.

~wete

(2) (esp) grind, crush ‹nuts+›.

li-vo vongoro
to crush canarium almonds
~vo2   [(i·)vo] voi.

(1) ‘hit’, reach the limits of ‹a place›; hence fill ‹a place›, take up ‹room›. From ~vo1 (?)

None ka i-vo sa eo?
Has your meal filled up your tummy? (i.e. are you full?)
~vo3   [(i·)vo] transitive verb.

(1) (rare) tie ‹s.th.›, fasten with rope. attacher.

Kape li-odo tenuro me le-vo ñe nengele kuo korone.
Then we find a rope and fasten tight the canoe's elements.

(2) put up, erect ‹s.th.›, with or without usage of rope. ériger.

Syn: ~vesu

Syn: ~woi

Li-vo aero i-dai.
They have erected a fence around it.

(3) (esp) build ‹house›.

I-waivo idi pe li-vo mwoe.
She taught people how to build houses.
~vo4   [(i·)vo] transitive verb. plant ‹banana›. planter.

~do [1]

udo pe li-vo
⟨type of banana⟩ planted bananas
~vo mwa tanoe  -. ⟨taro⟩  lit. “hit edge of pit›” : grow large enough to reach the edge of the taro pit (mwa tanoe) in the garden; hence grow big.

~vo [2]

vodo  [foⁿdo] -.
voko  [foko] -.
voko mwaele  -. lit. “yellow stone” : yellow stone (sulphur ?) used as dye.

vokoiu  [fokoiu] -.
vongo  [foŋo] -.
~vongo  [(i·)voŋo] intransitive verb.

(1) ⟨s.o.⟩  eat, have a meal. manger.

~e ‘eat s.th.’

Li-anu kava awoiu, ka li-vongo viri.
They first drank kava, and then had their meal.

Li-atevo iepiene pe noma, li-oburo, li-vongo ka li-mokoiu.
We tell old stories, we sing, we eat and then we go to sleep.

(2) ⟨s.th.⟩  be burning, burn; perish in fire.

~su [1] ‘burn s.th.’

Moe enone i-vongo ne iawo.
My house perished in the fire.

Kuo enone i-vongo.
My canoe was burnt!

[ POc *paŋan. ]

vongoro  [foŋoro] noun. <Bot> canarium tree, canarium almond. Canarium indicum.

li-bi vongoro
collect canarium almonds

li-vo vongoro
to crush canarium almonds

iunubo vongoro
basketful of almonds

Li-wete jebute li-wete vongoro awoiu pon, li-ejau mama.
We mash taros, we crush almonds, and make the mama pudding.

[ POc *[ka]ŋaRi. ]

vonila  [fonila] -.
Vono2   [fono] locative. Vono or Lovono*: a village on the north coast of Banie, together with its area. Lovono. This village is also known, in the literature, under the names Vanou or Whanou (Dillon). Its local name, in the language Lovono, is Vana.

Syn: Lovono

Kula ka i-ka se vono Lale, Ngama, Vono.
Some people (from Paiu) had moved to the areas of Lale, Ngama and Vono.
vono1   [fono] noun. a generic term referring to space.

temaka ‘place’

(1) ⦗subject of impersonal predicates⦘ the universe, atmosphere, insofar as it is subject to the diurnal cycle. The phrase von' i-la ‘it is dusk’ has been contracted into vonila ‘evening’.

vono i-sodo
it is dawn

vono ka-ila
it is dusk

(2) (rare) the world, universe. Neither vono or lovia vono are used as the normal word to designate the present world.

marama

ne lovia* vono iote
in the Other World

(3) ⦗+placename⦘ district, limited area around a certain village.

kulumoe ‘village’

aero ‘district’

Kula ka i-ka se vono Lale, Ngama, Vono.
Some people (from Paiu) had moved to the areas of Lale, Ngama and Vono.

[ POc *panua. ]

voro1   [foro] noun. <Bot> Sea Hibiscus. hibiscus. Hibiscus tiliaceus.

tawo ‘Hibiscus rosa-sinensis’

mana voro
hibiscus flower
voro2   [foro] noun. <Fish> (gen) ray, stingray. Rajiformes spp.
voro beve  -. lit. “white sea-hibiscus” : variety with flowers of a light yellow colour.
voro menuko  -. <Fish> lit. “bird-like ray” : Devil ray. Mobula sp..
voro moloe  -. lit. “red sea-hibiscus” : variety with reddish flowers.
votei  [fotei] -.
votobo  [fotoᵐbo] -.
votoko  [fotoko] -.
vovo  [fovo] noun. <Bot> Twin apple, a tree (Apocynaceae). Neisosperma oppositifolium.

[ See PROc *vaRo. ]

vovoie  [fovoie] noun. <Fish> Manta ray. Manta birostris.

voro [2] ‘stingray’

wa  [wa] -.
~wabe  [(i·)waᵐbe] transitive verb. fill up. remplir.

~sabisi ‘pour’

Dapa gete le-wabe, le-lui tev' dapa li-anu.
The young men fill up (the cups) and give them to (the elders) for them to drink.
wabeiu  [waᵐbeiu] -.
wablei  [waᵐblei] -.
waga  [waᵑga] -.
wai  [wai] -.
~wai1   [(i·)wai] intransitive verb. paddle, row, go on a canoe. pagayer.

U-wai u-mabui!
Paddle slowly!
~wai2   [(i·)wai] intransitive verb. ⟨earth⟩  quake, shake.

~ekili ‘tremble’

Ni-lengi tanoe pe i-wai.
I felt the ground shake.
~wai2   transitive verb. ⟨s.o., s.th.⟩  shake ‹s.th.›.

U-wai ebele u-ka pon etapu!
Don't shake your body like that!

Li-wai elela vongoro pon.
We shake the branch of the almond tree (to knock the nuts down).

Nobwogo miko i-la i-wai moe ne.
Last night an earthquake shook the houses here.
waiero  [wajero] noun. <Sea> wave, surf of the sea.

revo ‘sea’

waiero peini vono  -. lit. “wave on land” : tidal wave.

waiero

waini  [waini] -.
waivo  [waivo] -.
waka  [waka] -.
wako  [wako] -.
wali  [wali] -.
waluko   [waluko] noun, obligatorily possessed. <Anat> side of ‹s.th.›.

(1) ⟨leg⟩  side of the waist, hip.

utele

waluko aele
hip

(2) ⟨river⟩  side, bank.

Li-le li-te teta-vene pon, ne waluko ero.
They went to stay uphill over there, along the river.
waluko